Where do chiggers bite?

How Chiggers Work

If chiggers thrive where you live, your family lore is probably full of rules for how to avoid the tiny, biting bugs. Be careful where you sit — stay off the ground, rock walls, decaying wood benches and fallen logs, especially if you’re wearing shorts. Also, be careful where you walk. Stay out of tall weeds and patches of brambles, and never pick wild berries without wearing long sleeves and gloves. You may have even heard warnings about specific hiking trails, parts of the yard or patches of vegetation. Venturing into them will leave you covered in chigger bites, but you’ll be unharmed if you steer clear.

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If you’ve been unlucky enough to experience chigger bites, you’ve probably heard a long list of home remedies for them. Friends and relatives might suggest everything from covering the bites in clear nail polish to slathering yourself in turpentine. Unfortunately, few of these remedies actually work, and some of them, like bathing in solvents, are dangerous.

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But all the worrying about avoiding chigger bites and the desperate attempts to cure them are understandable. Chigger bites itch intensely, and they can take weeks to go away. Since chiggers go for the thinnest skin on our bodies, the bites tend to cluster in places that are already delicate and sensitive. On top of that, it’s rare to get just one chigger bite — chiggers seem to travel in groups.

The bites often have a red or white spot in the center. Along with the long-lasting discomfort, these spots often lead people to believe that chiggers are physically imbedded in their skin. This idea that chiggers burrow into people’s skin may be the most common misperception about them.

In this article, we’ll look at exactly what chiggers are, how they feed and why they cause so much aggravation and discomfort in their human victims. We’ll also explore how to find out if there are chiggers in your lawn and how to keep from being bitten.

Chiggers also known as red bugs, harvest mite, scrub mite or bête rouge are not insects, rather they are close relatives of the arachnids, which include spiders and ticks. They belong to a specific family of mites called Trombiculidae. Chigger mites can be found worldwide; however in the United States only 2 species are bothersome to humans. In North America Eutrombicula alfreddugèsi (also called Trombicula irritans) is the most problematic.

The larval form of the chigger mite is extremely small, with an average body diameter ranging between 1/150 to 1/120 inches. Their small size makes them nearly invisible with the naked eye. The larvae are yellow, orange, or light red in color and have six legs compared to the adult, which are bright red with eight legs. It is the larval forms that are the culprits of chigger bites. The adult form is not parasitic. Chigger mites are typically found outdoors on low lying plants near tall grassy wooded areas or around water. They attach to clothing and migrate on the skin to look for an optimal feeding site. Contrary to most belief, chiggers do not burrow into the skin.

Chigger bites typically occur at sites on the body where clothing is worn tighter or in areas of skin folds. Some common sites are on the lower legs, ankles, behind the knees, waistline, groin, and axillae. Bites may go unnoticed until 1-3 hours later, after the mite secretes a digestive enzyme into the skin which kills skin cells. These dead skin cells form a tube called a stylostome which the larva uses to withdraw digested tissue. It is the presence of this enzyme that is responsible for intense itching. The itching is most intense in the first 24-48 hours then gradually subsides. Chigger dermatitis can present as a red flat or raised lesion. A vesicle or pustule may also be present. Resolution of chigger dermatitis can take up to two weeks to completely resolve.

Prevention of chigger dermatitis starts with wearing protective clothing. Long sleeve shirts, pants, thick socks, boots and/or high ankle shoes are most appropriate when spending time outdoors. Pants should be tucked into boots whenever possible. Mosquito repellants such as DEET can be sprayed onto skin and clothing, which also helps prevent infestation. Chigger mites are temperature sensitive and do not bit at the extremes of temperature. They do not bite if it’s colder than 60 F (15.5C) or hotter than 99 F (37.2C).

Treatment is aimed at controlling the intense itching associated with the bites. Topical lotions or creams applied to the affected areas, such as calamine lotion or corticosteroid creams aid in symptomatic relief. Oral Benadryl and other antihistamines are also of some benefit. Home remedies to “suffocate” the mite such as, applying clear nail polish, rubbing alcohol, or bleach are of no benefit since the mites do not burrow into the skin. Chigarid is a non-FDA approved topical treatment sold at many local pharmacies. It is a combination of camphor, phenol, and menthol.

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The medical information provided in this site is for educational purposes only and is the property of the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. It is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice and shall not create a physician – patient relationship. If you have a specific question or concern about a skin lesion or disease, please consult a dermatologist. Any use, re-creation, dissemination, forwarding or copying of this information is strictly prohibited unless expressed written permission is given by the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology.

Take the itch out of chigger bites

Camping, picnics and spending time outdoors: These activities make summer enjoyable.

Not so enjoyable are the itchy red welts that appear after having been attacked by chiggers. These tiny mites are almost invisible to the unaided eye, but the discomfort they cause makes them seem 10 times their size. Here are the facts about chiggers and some suggestions for taking the itch out of their bite.

Adult chiggers are a bright red mite that crawl on the ground. Don’t confuse them with red clover mites, which crawl over patios and other outdoor furnishings. The adult female is 1/20th of an inch long, but the larvae – which are a mere 1/150th of an inch long – are what cause exasperation.

Two common misconceptions are that chiggers burrow into the skin and that they suck blood. They do neither. Rather, they attach their mouths to the skin around a hair follicle or a pore. They secrete saliva that digests the skin cells and then consume this slurry of skin.

Much of the itching associated with chigger bites is caused by histamines released from dissolved skin cells. The body’s allergic reaction to chigger saliva causes the formation of a hardened tube called a stylosome in the skin, through which the chigger feeds.

Bites may occur anywhere on the body, but they are most commonly found where clothing fits tightly: ankles, back of knee, waist, belt line, wrists and armpits.

Ending chigger attacks begins with personal protection. Avoid areas of tall grass or weeds and areas heavily shaded by trees. These moist sights harbor the most chiggers. Repellents applied to shoes, stockings and pant cuffs deter both chiggers and ticks. The best chigger repellents contain either DEET or permethrin. Make sure you read and follow all label directions when using these products. Don’t wear pet flea collars on your ankles or cattle ear tags on your shoes to ward off chiggers. Wearing these can result in chemical skin burns and other toxic effects.

To reduce chigger populations around the home, keep lawns and weedy areas mowed. Chiggers don’t like to hide where the sun dries the soil. Insecticides containing acaricide, sevin and cyfluthrin may help lower chigger mite populations.

Once bitten, the only way to stop the itching is to seal off the wound from air. Use products such as Vaseline, cold cream or baby oil. Or use products containing antihistamines, such as Caladryl, Cortizone and Benadryl. If possible, try to avoid scratching the bite because that can lead to secondary infection.

Scientists have found chiggers on snakes, turtles, birds and a wide variety of animals, but people aren’t their preferred hosts. Many of the animals chiggers feed on don’t react to their bites, so there’s no risk of being brushed or scratched off before its meal is over. This is important because a chigger that doesn’t finish a meal doesn’t usually start another one. Instead, it dies before molting, which is usually what happens when a chigger bites a person. People usually start to itch within a few hours and often scratch the feeding chiggers away. A hot shower with plenty of soap will also kill chiggers, so hygiene practices in most of the world are likely to remove and kill chiggers before they finish eating.

Like ticks, fleas and mosquitoes, chiggers have specialized mouthparts that help them retrieve food from their hosts. A chigger uses two specialized mouthparts called chelicerae to make a hole in its host’s skin. It then injects some of its saliva into the wound. The saliva contains digestive enzymes that break down cell walls. The partially digested cells and their contents become a slurry that the chigger ingests.

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Unlike many other parasitic bugs, chiggers don’t have needlelike, piercing mouthparts. Instead, they use an interesting accomplice — the host’s own skin. The same salivary secretions that break down cells also cause the surrounding tissue to harden. This creates a strawlike tube called a stylostome. The longer the chigger feeds, the longer the stylostome becomes, and the deeper it penetrates into the skin.

The intense itching that chigger bites cause comes from two sources. One is an allergic reaction to the chiggers’ saliva. In some people, this reaction is extreme, leading to large sores or hives. In most, it simply causes a small, red, itchy bump. The other source of itching is the stylostome itself. It causes irritation and discomfort until the body’s immune and lymphatic systems dissolve it and carry it away. If the chigger fed for a long time and the stylostome extends deep into the skin, this process can take quite a while.

Many home remedies for chigger bites, like painting the bite with nail polish, involve the idea of smothering an embedded chigger. But by the time you notice the bite, you’ve often brushed or scratched away the chigger already. The reason nail polish makes some people’s bites feel better is that it seals the bite from air. Over-the-counter creams that relieve itching often do a better job of making the bites feel better. It’s also a good idea to apply an antiseptic, especially if you’ve scratched the bite extensively — too much scratching can lead to a secondary infection. If you’re bitten, don’t be tempted to try home remedies involving toxic substances, and don’t try to remove the stylostome — either could cause secondary infections or other injuries.

In a lot of ways, preventing chigger bites is easier than treating them. We’ll look at how to keep chiggers off your skin in the next section.

Got Chiggers? It Figures!

How many have suffered from chiggers? Probably nearly everyone in Missouri, at one time or another. That’s because chiggers are ubiquitous in the state. That means they are everywhere, from north to south, east to west, corner to corner. They inhabit woodlots, lawns, fields, golf courses and parks. They hang out in wet areas and in dry pastures. You’ll find them in berry patches, on stream banks and in flower gardens; and if you linger too long in a clump of them, they’ll inhabit you, too, from toenail to cowlick or ponytail.

Chigger mites are bright red members of the genus Eutrombicula. We have at least two species – Eutrombicula alfreddugesi and Eutrombicula splendens-and possibly four different species of chiggers in Missouri. However, all are closely related, and the species have similar life cycles.

In the adult stage, chiggers are sometimes called red bugs or harvest mites. Adult chigger mites have eight legs and are a little larger than the period at the end of this sentence. You can sometimes spot them in the soil, but they are harmless to us. They feed on insects and their eggs -even mosquito eggs-as well as on smaller mites.

Chigger adults bear problem children, however. At least their children are a problem for humans. For most of the period from spring through fall, adult female chiggers lay eggs almost daily. Tiny larvae-orange-yellow to light-red and about 1/5th the size of a period-hatch out about a week later. The six-legged larvae, too small for most people to see with the naked eye, create distress all out of proportion to their size.

To mature, chigger larvae must feed on animal tissue. This is the only stage in the chigger mite’s life cycle in which it is parasitic.

Larvae improve their chances of encountering an animal host to parasitize by climbing to the tops of grass blades, twigs and other objects in their environment and waiting. They are sensitive to movement and, some say, to the carbon dioxide animals exhale. Whenever a potential host comes within reach, they nimbly hitch a ride.

Once aboard, chiggers roam around, seeking possible attachment sites. They move relatively slowly and, at least on humans, their travel can be impeded by folds of flesh or barriers, such as elastic leg holes or waistbands of shorts, watchbands, backpack straps and sock tops. These sites tend to accumulate chiggers like fence lines attract cattle.

Places where clothing fits snugly also offer chigger larvae the advantage of something to press against to attach themselves. Imagine a little chigger pushing its back or legs against the elastic of your shorts to help it pierce your skin. Imagine also how many points of leverage might be provided for hungry larvae by a single pair of support hose.

Chigger larvae also push against opposing flesh, which helps explain why bites tend to occur more frequently in the underarms, between the thighs, at the backs of knees and in elbow crooks. Chiggers also find it easier to attach where skin is thinner, not leathered by exposure. Some of these sensitive areas are difficult to scratch in public.

Most chigger larvae feed at the site of a hair follicle or pore. Chiggers don’t sting like bees or suck blood like mosquitos or ticks, rather they scrape or puncture the skin with bladelike mouthparts, called chelicerae. Once a chigger has an opening, it injects saliva, which contains proteolytic enzymes, to liquify the tissue so it can ingest it.

Our immune system walls off the area where the chigger has injected its saliva, forming a narrow, hardened tube, called a stylostome, through which the chigger feeds, as if through a straw. If nothing interrupts its meal, it will feed for three to four days before dropping off.

Chiggers don’t burrow into the skin. Some swelling may slightly envelop a chigger, but the chigger remains on the outside, and all it takes is a slight scratching to remove it. A scratched off chigger will not bite again.

Because most of us respond to chigger saliva with itching and scratching, we do not make good hosts for the larvae. They more successfully feed on reptiles, including lizards, snakes and turtles, or birds or small mammals. But, too hungry or opportunistic or not schooled enough to be fastidious, chigger larvae will attempt to nourish themselves on human flesh.

After tromping around outdoors, you may be able to feel chiggers crawling over your skin or attempting to attach themselves. That’s a subtle warning to take action to remove them. Many more chiggers roam over us than ever bite. Chiggers usually come in droves, so it’s possible to have dozens, hundreds or even thousands on our bodies at one time.

Our normal movements and hygiene, along with the difficulty the larvae have gaining a mouthhold on us, keep most chiggers from successfully attaching, but people have reported hundreds of bites resulting from a relatively short exposure to chiggers.

Unlike ticks, to which they are related, chiggers are fragile. A shower or bath following exposure to chiggers will remove most of them. If a bath isn’t available, a brisk toweling down should dislodge or crush most of them. And you better change your bedding, if you’ve suddenly ran to the shower after feeling infested during the night.

Avoiding chiggers is difficult because you can’t see them. In Missouri, chiggers bustle about from April to October. During the summer, peak activity times are around dawn and dusk and during mid-morning, as the temperature rises into the high 70s and low 80s-their apparent preferred range-and before the sun has had a chance to burn off the evening dew.

Chiggers need both moisture and shade. They tend to be more abundant during rainy spells. During the heat of the afternoon or during long dry spells, they may retreat into the soil. Overcast or humid days seem to draw them out en masse.

The worst places for chiggers are where grass or weeds grow tall enough or thick enough to shade sunlight from the soil. Lake shorelines, river banks and wood edges are notorious chigger haunts.

Chigger larvae tend to occur in clumps, what you might call “mite islands.” One spot in a field may be full of chiggers, but a similar spot nearby may not have any. Do you feel lucky?

Any contact with vegetation has the potential to allow chiggers to climb onto you. When you sit or recline on the grass, you make it easier for chiggers by letting them climb aboard at several body terminals. Brushing against trailside branches or weeds or leaning into brush to pick berries invites a chigger infestation.

You can identify chigger hotspots on your lawn by placing a 6-inch square of black cardboard on edge in the grass. Return a bit later and examine the upper edge with a hand lens. If chiggers are present, they will crawl to the top of the piece, where their minute reddish or orangish bodies will be visible against the black edge. Observers also have reported spotting chigger larvae against the background of their polished black shoes.

Chiggers can infiltrate the weave of most fabrics, but you can reduce the numbers that reach your skin by wearing long-sleeve shirts and long pants with the cuffs tucked into your socks. Those extremely sensitive to chigger bites should pretreat their clothes with a commercial aerosol containing the pesticide permethrin.

Ridding Your Yard of Chiggers

Can I burn them away?

Over the eons, chiggers have become well-adapted to Missouri’s frequent fires. They survive a burn by burrowing into the soil.

Can I kill them with chemicals?

Chiggers represent only a small number of the myriad tiny creatures that inhabit your lawn or yard. The majority of these insects and animals do no harm to us and some of them are beneficial. Broad-based insecticides, such as Sevin (TM), may create a sterile environment if reapplied often. However, any chemical treatment poses some risk to children, pets and other animals, such as deer and birds.

What can I do?

Chiggers need shade and moisture. Close cropped lawns are, at best, a marginal habitat for them. They much prefer brush and long grass or weeds. If you care for your yard diligently, over time you will have fewer and fewer chiggers in your lawn

If you are sensitive to chiggers, apply a permethrin-based aerosol insecticide to clothes that you wear outdoors.

Insect repellent containing DEET also works. If you don’t like to put insect repellent on your skin, spray it on your clothes and shoes, instead. Before these chemicals became available, people relied on dusting sulfur, kerosene or oil of citronella to ward off chiggers.

Chiggers don’t carry any diseases that affect us. However, bites can itch so much that we face the threat of secondary infection when we scratch them with a dirty fingernail. When the itching becomes intense, we may be tempted to use a rusty wire brush, if one happens to be within reach.

Scratching, however, is a no-no; in addition to increasing the chance of infection, it keeps a bite open and prevents it from healing. In some people, chigger bites may cause a more general, hivelike reaction that may require treatment by a physician.

A chigger bite usually shows up as just a small, pimplelike reddened bump. By the time you are aware of this welt or bump and feel the itching, which tends to intensify for a day or more, it is too late to do much about it. In fact, it’s likely you’ve already scratched off the chigger that bit you.

A rule of thumb is that the poignancy and duration of the itch is directly proportional to the amount of time a chigger remains attached to you. Remove the chigger right away, and you likely will experience minimal discomfort. If, on the other hand, you sleep with chiggers and they have all night to feed before you wake up scratching, you may itch for another two weeks.

As a chigger bite heals, the top of the hardened tube, or stylostome, is usually visible. If you scratch off its dried cap, liquid oozes out.

Most remedies for chigger bites attempt to remedy the intense itching, which seems to get worse before it gets better. Over-the-counter medications often contain antihistamines, such as hydrocortisone. Others contain analgesics and anesthetics.

An important property of any remedy is to seal the wound from air. That’s why some home treatments involve applying nail polish or roll-on deodorant. One reader said he used an anti-hemorrhoidal cream; another suggested meat tenderizer. Calamine, Vaseline, cold cream and baby oil also keep air from the site and may be effective.

Much more complicated home remedies have been developed to ease the itch of chigger bites and hurry the healing process. Most of these contain benzocaine, alcohol, salicylic acid, methyl salicylate and water. Purchasing some of these ingredients may require a doctor’s prescription.

Time is probably the best healer for chigger bites. Of course you’ll pass that time in a miserable state, fussing, gritting your teeth, tossing your bedclothes and moaning feebly to family, friends and inanimate objects.

On the positive side . . .

OK, let’s not get silly. We can probably all agree that when it comes to chiggers there is no positive side

Chigger Bites

What Are Chiggers?

Chiggers (also called harvest mites or red bugs) are tiny red, biting mites. Their bites aren’t painful, but do cause intense itching.

Chiggers are members of the arachnid family (the same family that includes spiders and ticks). They are smaller than a period at the end of a sentence. Most can only be seen with a magnifying glass.

Chiggers are found all over the outdoors, including in grassy fields, along lakes and streams, and in forests. It’s the baby chiggers that bite people and animals.

How Do Chigger Bites Happen?

After hatching, baby chiggers wait on plants for people or animals to pass by. When they do, the chigger attaches to them using tiny claws. Once attached, it pierces their skin and injects its saliva (spit). The spit contains digestive juices that dissolve skin cells. The chigger then eats the dissolved cells, which provide the protein it needs to grow into an adult. After a couple of days the chigger falls off, leaving a red bump on the skin.

What Are the Signs of Chigger Bites?

Chigger bites are itchy red bumps that can look like pimples, blisters, or small hives. They are usually found around the waist, ankles, or in warm skin folds. They get bigger and itchier over several days, and often appear in groups.

Chigger bites start to itch within hours of the chigger attaching to the skin. The itch stops after a few days, and the red bumps heal over 1–2 weeks.

If chigger bites happen on the penis, they can cause swelling, itching, and painful peeing. This is known as “summer penile syndrome.”

How Are Chigger Bites Diagnosed?

Doctors can diagnose chigger bites by looking at them and asking about a person’s recent outdoor activities.

How Are Chigger Bites Treated?

Unlike mosquitoes and ticks, chiggers don’t carry disease. So they are not harmful, only annoying. You can usually treat chigger bites at home:

  • Scrub chigger bites well with soap and water to help remove any chiggers that are still attached to the skin.
  • Holding a cool washcloth over the bites can be soothing.
  • Calamine lotion or anti-itch creams can help with the itching.
  • Antihistamines (allergy medicine) taken by mouth can sometimes help with itching, especially if your child has trouble sleeping at night.

Discourage kids from scratching at the bites because this can lead to:

  • impetigo, a bacterial infection of the skin, with pus and crusts around the bites
  • a larger area of increasing redness, swelling, pain, and warmth, called cellulitis

Keeping fingernails short can help prevent skin damage from scratching. Antibiotics may be needed if a skin infection does happen.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

Call your doctor’s office if:

  • Over-the-counter creams or lotions don’t help the itching.
  • A bite looks infected (watch for warmth, redness, swelling, tenderness, or pus).
  • Your son has symptoms of “summer penile syndrome.”

Can Chigger Bites Be Prevented?

To help prevent chigger bites when enjoying the great outdoors:

  • Apply an insect repellent with 10%–30% DEET.
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants tucked into shoes, especially during hiking. This also can help protect kids from other biting critters like ticks and mosquitoes.
  • Take a hot shower after you get back inside, and wash your clothes in hot water. Clothes also can be treated with a specific insecticide to help prevent bites.

Chigger bites aren’t contagious, so kids can’t catch them from someone or give them to somebody else. They can still play sports and do all normal activities unless the itching makes them too uncomfortable.

Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: October 2019

Chiggers and Trombiculosis

By Allen Smith, Texas A&M Forest Service

Trombiculosis is a rash or infestation caused by trombiculid mites, more commonly known as chiggers. We all have suffered from this malady at some time. Be informed and aware of how you can avoid future bouts of trombiculosis.

Chiggers are not insects but mites, and thus arachnids. They are distributed worldwide and found most often in temperate woodlands, fields and low lying moist places, though they can also occur in drier places like lawns or golf courses. Early summer is prime time for chiggers as vegetation is heaviest. They are also present and active during summer and early fall. Ground temperatures need to range from 77 to 86 degrees for the insects to be active while temperatures colder than 42 degrees result in chigger mortality.

They undergo a 4-stage life cycle: egg, larva, nymph and adult. The adults have eight legs and feed on plants, presenting no problems to humans. It is the larvae that foresters are so familiar with. The tiny red larvae are nearly microscopic. The largest ones go nearly 1/60 of an inch! Larvae are six-legged and feed on skin cells. Mammals, toads, ground-dwelling birds, box turtles and even some insects suffer from the scourge of chiggers.

The larvae attach themselves to the clothes of people as they come into contact with infested vegetation then crawl onto a patch of exposed skin. Chiggers don’t actually bite their victims; they use their sharp claws to make a tiny hole in the skin, then they inject their saliva into the opening. The digestive enzymes in the saliva dissolve skin cells which the chigger consumes.

Skin surrounding the feeding hole hardens and forms a feeding tube called a stylosome that is actually beneath the skin surface. This is the part that itches so much and makes one want to

“dig” the chiggers out of their skin. This contributes to the misunderstanding that chiggers reside beneath the skin. They do not. Left untreated, chiggers will feed on liquefied skin cells for days or weeks.

The initial “bite” is not noticed but symptoms, characterized by intense itching start 1-3 hours after feeding begins. The area of the “bite” may form a reddened pustule or blister. Intense itching usually occurs for 1-2 days following the “bite” and may last for up to 2 weeks.

Scratching of the wound can lead to infection which will extend the pain and sadness associated with chiggers “bites”. Chiggers in North America are NOT vectors of disease but a species that occurs in East Asia and the South Pacific carries the bacterium that causes scrub typhus. Men who get “bitten” in the groin area are at risk of contracting a condition known as “summer penile syndrome”. This may last for few days or up to a few weeks and is characterized by swelling, itching and trouble urinating. A physician should be consulted if this happens to you.

Chigger problems can be reduced by the liberal application of DEET insecticide or the impregnation of permethrin into the clothing. Treating the lower legs and ankle areas is crucial. Long pants and long-sleeved shirts are recommended to minimize the possibility of being “bitten”. Tucking pant legs into tall socks or boots will eliminate the exposed skin that the larvae seek. A common myth is that chiggers seek out areas of the skin where clothing is tightest (ankles, waists, under bras, etc.), this is not true. Rather, the chiggers will seek thin exposed skin, crawling until the hit a restriction such as a belt or bras. Most “bites” occur around the ankles, crotch, groin, armpits and behind the knees.

Treatment for exposure to chiggers includes taking a warm, soapy shower as soon as possible after being in chigger country. The skin should be scrubbed vigorously. Clothing should be washed in hot soapy water and boots, including the insides should be wiped as clean as possible. Over the counter treatments like calamine lotion or corticosteroid creams will alleviate itching. Antihistamines like Benadryl can be taken orally to relive symptoms. Other itch-relief treatments that might work include cool showers, cool compresses or using bath products that have colloidal oatmeal as an ingredient.

Treatment of chigger problems using many home remedies like soaking in a bleach bath or applying fingernail polish to suffocate the chigger DO NOT WORK as the chigger is not attached to the victim. The itching comes from the stylosome.

Submitted by:
Allen Smith
Regional Forest Health Coordinator
1203 W. Loop 281 Ste. B102
Longview, TX 75604
903-297-5094

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