What is thiamine mononitrate used for in food?

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Vitamin B1 Thiamine Mononitrate

  • Posted on 26 May 2018
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What is Thiamine?

Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B₁. Vitamin B1 is found in many foods including yeast, cereal grains, beans, nuts, and meat. It is often used in combination with other B vitamins, and found in many vitamin B complex products. Vitamin B complexes generally include vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid.

Thiamine formula:C12H17N4OS+

Thiamine molecular weight: 265.35 g mol−1

Chemical structure:

Another name for thiamine: Vitamin B1

Thiamine solubility: Sparingly soluble in water, freely soluble in boiling water, slightly soluble in alcohol and in methanol.

Natural sources of thiamine

What does thiamine do?

Thiamine, also known as vitamin B-1, is one of the B vitamins. Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning it washes out of your body in urine, and isn’t stored in fat cells like some other vitamins. Thiamine can help your body convert carbohydrates to energy; and Thiamine can help your stomach digest foods; Thiamine can also help regulate the flow of electrolytes in and out of the cells of your nerves and muscles.

Reference: https://www.livestrong.com/article/488736-what-does-thiamine-do-for-the-body/

Vitamin B1 thiamine deficiency

Vitamin B1, which is also referred to as thiamine, is a coenzyme used by the body to metabolize food for energy and to maintain proper heart and nerve function. Thiamine is used to digest and extract energy from the foods you eat by turning nutrients into useable energy in the form of “ATP”.

A thiamine deficiency can cause weakness, chronic fatigue, heart complications, psychosis, and nerve damage.

Reference: https://draxe.com/thiamine-deficiency/

How Vitamin B1 thiamine works in your body

Maintains health of mucous membranes
Keeps normal workings of nervous system, heart, and muscles
Helps treat herpes zoster and beriberi
Supports normal growth and development
Restores deficiencies caused by alcoholism, cirrhosis, overactive thyroid, infection, breastfeeding, absorption diseases, pregnancy, prolonged diarrhea, and burns
Reduction of depression, fatigue, and motion sickness
Potential improvement in appetite and mental alertness

What is Vitamin B1 Thiamine Mononitrate?

We are a experienced supplier of vitamin B1 (Thiamine mononitrate) – which helps fight against various health problems, including heart damage. Vitamin B1 is one of the eight water-soluble B vitamins. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine mononitrate), which a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement, it is used to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it, including beriberi, Korsakoff’s syndrome, and Korsakoff’s psychosis. Other uses include maple syrup urine disease and Leigh’s disease. It is taken by mouth or by injection. It is also widely used in feed industry as a supplement.

CAS NO.: 532-43-4

MOLECULAR FORMULA: C12H17N5O4S

MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 327.36

Thiamine Mononitrate Properties

Appearance: White or almost white crystals or crystalline powder

Melting point: 198℃

Solubility: Little soluble in water. Slightly soluble in alcohol and chloroform.

Vitamin B1 Thiamine mononitrate Function and benefits

Thiamine mononitrate can benefit following people:

Alcohol or other substance abusers by accelerating metabolism
Those with poor nutritional dietary intake
Age greater than 55 years old
Women who are breastfeeding or pregnant
Recent surgery patients
Those with liver disease, overactive thyroid, or prolonged diarrhea

Coenzyme function:
Thiamine is phosphorylated to phosphate in the cells, as a coenzyme participating in the Oxidative Decarboxylation of ketone acid and the transketolase of pentose phosphate pathway.

Other functions:
Especially useful for keeping the normal function of nerve, muscle and for the myocardium. Also maintain normal appetite, gastrointestinal peristalsis and the secretion of digestive juice.

Some illnesses may be caused by the lack of B1, like beriberi, edema, neurities, neuralgia, dyspepsia, anorexia, slow growth etc.

Difference between Thiamine mononitrate and Thiamine hydrochloride

Thiamine mononitrate and thiamine hydrochloride are two forms of Vitamin B1 manufactured by adding different groups to thiamine. They have different molar weight, physical and chemical properties depending on their chemical structures. The main difference between thiamine mononitrate and thiamine hydrochloride is that thiamine mononitrate is non-hygroscopic whereas thiamine hydrochloride is hygroscopic.

Thiamine mononitrate is a synthetic stable nitrate salt form of vitamin B1.Thiamine mononitrate is a synthetic stable nitrate salt form of vitamin B1. Thiamine mononitrate is also known as vitamin B1 nitrate and has the molecular formula C12H17N5O4S. The molar weight is 327.36 g/mol.

Thiamine mononitrate can be manufactured from thiamine hydrochloride. It is produced by removing chloride ion and mixing with nitric acid. Then, a nitrate ion combines with the thiamine molecule. Thiamine mononitrate is more stable than Thiamine hydrochloride.

Thiamine mononitrate can be used in multivitamin formulations and as a food and feed additive.

Chemical structure:

Vitamin B1 Thiamine Hydrochloride

Thiamine hydrochloride is another form of Vitamin B1 which has the chemical formula HC12H17ON4SCl2. The molar weight is about 337.263 g/mol.

Thiamine hydrochloride is the hydrochloride form of thiamine. It is a salt composed of a cation and an anion. Anion is the chloride ion. This compound is available as crystals and has a slight odor. It is soluble in water and forms a clear colorless aqueous solution. It can be used in multivitamin formulations and as a food and feed additive.

Chemical structure:

Vitamin B1 Thiamine Mononitrate Use

Is Vitamin B1 Thiamine mononitrate vegan?

Thiamine mononitrate is used as an additive to in foods such as enriched wheat or white flour. It is considered vegan as thiamine is naturally occurring in foods as a vitamin and mixed with nitric acid to become an additive.

What is Vitamin B1 Thiamine mononitrate used for?

It used to fortify foods as a supplement in food and feed. Two of the synthetic forms are known as thiamine mononitrate and thiamine hydrochloride.

Thiamine recommended daily intake

Men: 1.2 mg
Women: 1.1 mg
Pregnancy: 1.4 mg
Lactation: 1.5 mg

Vitamin B1 Thiamine mononitrate use in food

Thiamine mononitrate is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally found in grains, yeast, and animal organ meat. It can be used in food as a vitamin B1 source supplement.

Vitamin B1 Thiamine mononitrate use in feed

Thiamine mononitrate plays a key role in helping your dog metabolize energy.

Vitamin B1 Thiamine Mononitrate Side effects

Is Thiamine mononitrate good for you?

As a safe food and feed additive, thiamine mononitrate is generally recognized as a safe Vitamin and good for people and poultry, but there maybe some side effects:

  • blue colored lips;
  • chest pain, feeling short of breath;
  • black, bloody, or tarry stools; or
  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

Vitamin B1 Thiamine Mononitrate Market

Thiamine mononitrate manufacturers and price

The world’s major manufacturers and suppliers of vitamin B1 (Thiamine mononitrate and Thiamine hydrochloride) include Tianxin, Huazhong, Brother and DSM, which account for 97% of globalvitamin B1 production capacity. In 2016, the global output of vitamin B1 (Thiamine mononitrate and Thiamine hydrochloride) was about 7,530 tons, and the production of China was 6,530 tons, which occupies an absolutely dominant position.

Among these manufacturers, the production capacity of the Brother was 3,200 tons, and the output is about 1400 tons, which accounts for 21% of the total China production. In 2016, the export volume of China’s vitamin B1 was about 5510 tons, and its export share had not changed much over the years. The main players in China are Tianxin, Huazhong and Brother.

In 2007, there were around 10 manufacturers of vitamin B1 (Thiamine mononitrate and Thiamine hydrochloride) in China. In the past five years, the market was stable. The only three major manufacturers in China market, Tianxin, Huazhong and Brother, accounted for 87% of the global market share.

Vitamin B1 is widely used as feed additives (37%), cosmetics (51%) and food (12%). Vitamin B1 is necessary feed, food, and pharmaceutical health products. However, it accounts for a very low proportion of production costs. Because of the increase in raw material prices, downstream manufacturers also pass through the price increase to the cost, so the downstream can tolerate its continuous price increase.

Vitamin B1 wastewater contains many thiamine compounds. Because of its high nitrogen content, it has the characteristics of high organic concentration, deep color, high turbidity, poor biodegradability, large fluctuations in water quantity and water quality, so it is a kind of industrial wastewater that is difficult to biodegrade. If a large number of discharges are not treated, it is easy to make the water black, change the odor, and there are phenomena such as water and vivid plant malformation and mutagenesis.

Environmental inspectors have pushed up environmental protection equipment and maintenance costs. As the government conducts regular inspections throughout the country, major production companies are facing the pressure of long-term sewage discharge. The three oligarchic companies generally adopt measures to limit production and reduce emissions, and prices have increased in 2017. At the end of July 2017, the price rose from 380 yuan/kg to 595 yuan/kg in recent days. The average international export price increased from 20.01 USD/kg to 26.59 USD/kg, and the export volume and export value of China manufacturers and suppliers also increased steadily.

China is the big Thiamine mononitrate manufacturers and export country in the world.

There are several Thiamine mononitrate manufacturers in China and abroad, as you know, the price of China suppliers can be better than abroad manufacturers. We have worked with China top manufacturer for years, we would like to recommend our selected Thiamine mononitrate manufacturers to you if you would like to save your purchasing cost with the same quality compared with abroad manufacturers. Thiamine mononitrate Samples are available if you need it for further test.

Today’s Thiamine mononitrate price

Updated on 2018/05/26: Now the price is around RMB280/kg, the price in January was around RMB510/kg, it decreased around 45%.

Where to buy Thiamine mononitrate?

You can buy Thiamine mononitrate from us. We’re committed to the quality and safety of our ingredients. We know that our customers expect us to use only the highest quality food additives & ingredients with better price, and we do everything we can to satisfy those expectations.

Usage: Used for feed additive, food additive and pharmaceutical material.

Quality Standards: Complies with USP/BP/EP/CP

STORAGE: Stored in tight, light-resistant containers. The shelf life is 36 months with the primary package.

PACKAGE: 25KG/carton or drum

If you have any other questions, please email us through: [email protected]

Generic Name: thiamine (vitamin B1) (THIGH a min)
Brand Name: Vitamin B1

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com on Nov 25, 2019 – Written by Cerner Multum

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What is thiamine?

Thiamine is vitamin B1. Thiamine is found in foods such as cereals, whole grains, meat, nuts, beans, and peas. Thiamine is important in the breakdown of carbohydrates from foods into products needed by the body.

Thiamine is used to treat or prevent vitamin B1 deficiency. Thiamine injection is used to treat beriberi, a serious condition caused by prolonged lack of vitamin B1.

Thiamine taken by mouth (oral) is available without a prescription. Injectable thiamine must be given by a healthcare professional.

Thiamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Important Information

You should not use thiamine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist before taking thiamine if you have any medical conditions, if you take other medications or herbal products, or if you are allergic to any drugs or foods.

Before you receive injectable thiamine, tell your doctor if you have kidney disease.

Thiamine is only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include a special diet. It is very important to follow the diet plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor. You should become very familiar with the list of foods you should eat or avoid to help control your condition.

Before taking this medicine

You should not use thiamine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to take thiamine if:

  • you have any other medical conditions;

  • you take other medications or herbal products; or

  • you are allergic to any drugs or foods.

To make sure you can safely receive injectable thiamine, tell your doctor if you have kidney disease.

Thiamine is not expected to harm an unborn baby. Your thiamine dose needs may be different during pregnancy. Do not take thiamine without medical advice if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant.

It is not known whether thiamine passes into breast milk. Your dose needs may be different while you are nursing. Do not take thiamine without medical advice if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take thiamine?

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Injectable thiamine is injected into a muscle. You may be shown how to use injections at home. Do not self-inject this medicine if you do not fully understand how to give the injection and properly dispose of used needles and syringes.

Do not use the injectable medication if it has changed colors or has particles in it. Call your doctor for a new prescription.

The recommended dietary allowance of thiamine increases with age. Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions. You may also consult the National Academy of Sciences “Dietary Reference Intake” or the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s “Dietary Reference Intake” (formerly “Recommended Daily Allowances” or RDA) listings for more information.

Thiamine is only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include a special diet. It is very important to follow the diet plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor. You should become very familiar with the list of foods you should eat or avoid to help control your condition.

Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Use the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not use extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What should I avoid while taking thiamine?

Follow your doctor’s instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

Thiamine side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • blue colored lips;

  • chest pain, feeling short of breath;

  • black, bloody, or tarry stools; or

  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • nausea, tight feeling in your throat;

  • sweating, feeling warm;

  • mild rash or itching;

  • feeling restless; or

  • tenderness or a hard lump where a thiamine injection was given.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Thiamine dosing information

Usual Adult Dose for Beriberi:

10 to 20 mg IM three times daily for up to 2 weeks. Thereafter, use an oral therapeutic multivitamin preparation containing 5 to 10 mg thiamine daily for one month. A complete and balanced diet should follow.
Neuritis of pregnancy:
If vomiting severe to preclude oral therapy, give 5 to 10 mg IM daily.
‘Wet’ with myocardial failure:
Treat as an emergency cardiac condition. Thiamine is administered slowly by the IV route.

Usual Adult Dose for Thiamine Deficiency:

If dextrose administered: to patients with marginal thiamine status, give 100 mg in each of the first few liters of IV fluid to avoid precipitating heart failure.

Usual Adult Dose for Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation:

50 to 100 mg orally once a day

Usual Adult Dose for Wernicke’s Encephalopathy:

100 mg IV as an initial dose followed by 50 to 100 mg/day IM or IV until the patient is on a regular, balanced, diet.

Usual Pediatric Dose for Beriberi:

10 to 25 mg IM or IV daily (if critically ill), or 10 to 50 mg orally every day for 2 weeks, then 5 to 10 mg orally daily for 1 month. If collapse occurs: 25 mg IV. Administer with caution.

Usual Pediatric Dose for Thiamine Deficiency:

If dextrose administered: to patients with marginal thiamine status, give 100 mg in each of the first few liters of IV fluid to avoid precipitating heart failure.

Usual Pediatric Dose for Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation:

Infants: 0.3 to 0.5 mg orally once a day; children: 0.5 to 1 mg orally once a day.

What other drugs will affect thiamine?

There may be other drugs that can interact with thiamine. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Further information

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Copyright 1996-2018 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 3.02.

Medical Disclaimer

More about thiamine

  • Side Effects
  • During Pregnancy
  • Dosage Information
  • Compare Alternatives
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  • En Español
  • 1 Review
  • Drug class: vitamins

Consumer resources

  • Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Capsules and Tablets
  • Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Injection
  • Thiamine Oral, Injection (Advanced Reading)

Other brands: Vitamin B1

Professional resources

  • Thiamine Hydrochloride (AHFS Monograph)
  • … +2 more

Related treatment guides

  • Vitamin B1 Deficiency
  • Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation and Deficiency
  • Beriberi
  • Wernicke’s Encephalopathy

thiamine (vitamin B1) (Vitamin B1)

Brand Names: Vitamin B1

Generic Name: thiamine (vitamin B1)

  • What is thiamine (Vitamin B1)?
  • What are the possible side effects of thiamine (Vitamin B1)?
  • What is the most important information I should know about thiamine (Vitamin B1)?
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking thiamine (Vitamin B1)?
  • How should I take thiamine (Vitamin B1)?
  • What happens if I miss a dose (Vitamin B1)?
  • What happens if I overdose (Vitamin B1)?
  • What should I avoid while taking thiamine (Vitamin B1)?
  • What other drugs will affect thiamine (Vitamin B1)?
  • Where can I get more information (Vitamin B1)?

What is thiamine (Vitamin B1)?

Thiamine is vitamin B1. Thiamine is found in foods such as cereals, whole grains, meat, nuts, beans, and peas. Thiamine is important in the breakdown of carbohydrates from foods into products needed by the body.

Thiamine is used to treat or prevent vitamin B1 deficiency. Thiamine injection is used to treat beriberi, a serious condition caused by prolonged lack of vitamin B1.

Thiamine taken by mouth (oral) is available without a prescription. Injectable thiamine must be given by a healthcare professional.

Thiamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What are the possible side effects of thiamine (Vitamin B1)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • blue colored lips;
  • chest pain, feeling short of breath;
  • black, bloody, or tarry stools; or
  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • nausea, tight feeling in your throat;
  • sweating, feeling warm;
  • mild rash or itching;
  • feeling restless; or
  • tenderness or a hard lump where a thiamine injection was given.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What is the most important information I should know about thiamine (Vitamin B1)?

You should not use thiamine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist before taking thiamine if you have any medical conditions, if you take other medications or herbal products, or if you are allergic to any drugs or foods.

Before you receive injectable thiamine, tell your doctor if you have kidney disease.

Thiamine is only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include a special diet. It is very important to follow the diet plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor. You should become very familiar with the list of foods you should eat or avoid to help control your condition.

Thiamine, or Vitamin B1, is an essential nutrient required by the body. It has many health benefits, from protecting the brain and heart to boosting the immune system.

What is Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)?

Thiamine, also known as Vitamin B1, is essential for every tissue in the body. It is a cofactor for enzymatic reactions in the skeletal muscles, heart, liver, kidney, and brain .

Ingested Vitamin B1 from food and dietary supplements is absorbed by the small intestine through active transport at nutritional doses and by passive diffusion at pharmacological doses .

Most dietary Vitamin B1 is in phosphorylated forms, and intestinal phosphatases hydrolyze them to free thiamine before the vitamin is absorbed. Humans store thiamine primarily in the liver, but in very small amounts .

Snapshot

  • Vital for metabolism
  • Boosts the Immune system
  • Supports brain function
  • Helps digestion
  • Protects the heart

Functions & Benefits of Thiamine

1) Metabolism

The body needs Vitamin B1 to make ATP, the body’s main energy-carrying molecule.

Thiamine helps in the conversion of carbohydrates into glucose, which is the preferred source of energy that the body runs off of to keep your metabolism running smoothly. It also helps break down proteins and fats .

Thiamine is specifically needed for a system of enzyme reactions called pyruvate dehydrogenase, which works to metabolize sugars that we eat .

Sugar Metabolism

Thiamine (as thiamine diphosphate, the main active form of the vitamin) is essential to glucose metabolism .

The proportion of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who have low thiamine ranges from 17% to 79%. Studies have found that increasing Vitamin B1 intake decreases the severity of symptoms associated with early-stage diabetes .

2) Immunity

Like other B-complex vitamins, Vitamin B1 is sometimes called an “anti-stress” vitamin because it may strengthen the immune system and improve the body’s ability to withstand stressful conditions .

Giving rats a Vitamin B1 blocker caused a significant decrease in immune system function .

3) Brain

Previous studies have reported low levels of thiamine and pyruvate dehydrogenase dysfunction in patients with ataxia, a condition that causes loss of movement. Long-term treatment showed significant improvements .

Vitamin B1 appears to help with the development of the myelin sheath, a coat that wraps around nerves to protect them from damage and death .

In the brain, it is required both by the nerve cells and by other supporting cells in the nervous system .

Autopsy studies have shown that thiamine-dependent enzymes have decreased activity in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease .

Supplemental Thiamine & the Brain

High-dose thiamine improved fatigue in patients after stroke .

Some researchers suspect that vitamin B1 therapy might have a favorable impact on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s disease .

Further research needs to be done before any conclusions can be made about whether it can help people with neurodegenerative conditions.

4) Cardiovascular Health

Thiamine is vital to the function of the cardiovascular system, and thiamine deficiency can cause congestive heart failure .

Supplemental Thiamine & the Heart

In a review of 20 clinical studies, supplementation with thiamine improved cardiac function in people with heart failure .

Compared against placebo, thiamine supplementation in 2 randomized, double-blind trials resulted in a significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction .

5) Cataracts

Recent studies suggest that thiamin may lower the risk of developing cataracts. These studies show that people who ingest plenty of protein along with vitamins A, B1, B2, and B3 (or niacin) in their diet are less likely to develop cataracts. Getting enough vitamins C, E, and B-complex vitamins further protect the lens of the eye (16).

6) Digestion

Thiamine is also necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive system. Vitamin B1 helps to regulate the production of hydrochloric acid, which is needed for maintaining proper digestive function .

Thiamine Deficiency

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

Thiamine deficiency is the established cause of Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), an alcohol-linked neurological disorder. Alcohol consumption can damage the brain through numerous mechanisms; one of these mechanisms involves the reduced availability of Vitamin B1 to the brain as a consequence of continued alcohol consumption .

Beriberi

Thiamine deficiency causes beriberi. Some of the symptoms include swelling, tingling, or burning in the hands and feet as well as trouble breathing because of fluid in the lungs .

People in developed countries do not usually get beriberi because staple foods such as cereals and bread are fortified with vitamin B1 .

Sources of Thiamine

Dosage (RDA)

Heating foods can reduce their thiamine content. For example, pasteurization reduces thiamine content by 20% in milk .

Thiamine Side Effects

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Nov 3, 2018.

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For the Consumer

Applies to thiamine: solution, tablet

Along with its needed effects, thiamine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking thiamine:

Rare

– Soon after receiving injection only

  • Coughing
  • difficulty in swallowing
  • hives
  • itching of skin
  • swelling of face, lips, or eyelids
  • wheezing or difficulty in breathing

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to thiamine: compounding powder, injectable solution, oral tablet

Local

Local side effects have included tenderness and induration at the injection site following intramuscular use.

Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity side effects have included a feeling of warmth, pruritus, urticaria, weakness, sweating, nausea, restlessness, tightness of the throat, angioneurotic edema, cyanosis, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhage into the gastrointestinal tract. Anaphylaxis has been reported, especially after repeated injection. Collapse and death have also been reported.

1. “Product Information. Vitamin B1 (thiamine).” Dixon-Shane Inc, Philadelphia, PA.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.

Medical Disclaimer

  • During Pregnancy
  • Dosage Information
  • Compare Alternatives
  • Pricing & Coupons
  • En Español
  • 1 Review
  • Drug class: vitamins
  • Thiamine
  • Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Capsules and Tablets
  • Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Injection
  • Thiamine Oral, Injection (Advanced Reading)

Other brands: Vitamin B1

  • Thiamine Hydrochloride (AHFS Monograph)
  • … +2 more
  • Vitamin B1 Deficiency
  • Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation and Deficiency
  • Beriberi
  • Wernicke’s Encephalopathy

DRUG INTERACTIONS: The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.To help your doctor and pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor’s approval.This vitamin may interfere with certain laboratory tests (including uric acid levels, urobilinogen urine test), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this vitamin.Keep a list of all the products you use. Share the list with your doctor and pharmacist to reduce your risk for serious medication problems.

OVERDOSE: If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

NOTES: Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments.Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as thiamine levels) may be performed to monitor your progress. Consult your doctor for more details.This product is not a substitute for a proper diet. It is best to get your vitamins from healthy foods. Thiamine is commonly found in cereal grains, bread, pork, and beans, among others. Consult your doctor, pharmacist, or nutritionist for more details.

MISSED DOSE: If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

STORAGE: Different brands of this vitamin have different storage needs. Check the product package for instructions on how to store your brand, or ask your pharmacist. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised March 2013. Copyright(c) 2013 First Databank, Inc.

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Overview

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Also listed as:

Table of Contents > Supplements > Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Overview Dietary Sources Available Forms How to Take It Precautions Possible Interactions Supporting Research

Vitamin B1, also called thiamine or thiamin, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which the body uses to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B-complex vitamins, also help the body metabolize fats and protein. B-complex vitamins are needed for a healthy liver, skin, hair, and eyes. They also help the nervous system function properly and are needed for good brain function.

All B vitamins are water soluble, meaning that the body does not store them.

Like other B-complex vitamins, thiamine is sometimes called an “anti-stress” vitamin because it may strengthen the immune system and improve the body’s ability to withstand stressful conditions. It is named B1 because it was the first B vitamin discovered.

Thiamine is found in both plants and animals and plays a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions. Your body needs it to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the body uses for energy.

It is rare to be deficient in thiamine, although alcoholics, people with Crohn disease, anorexia, and those undergoing kidney dialysis may be deficient. Symptoms of thiamine deficiency are:

  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Depression
  • Abdominal discomfort

People with thiamine deficiency also have trouble digesting carbohydrates. This allows a substance called pyruvic acid to build up in the bloodstream, causing a loss of mental alertness, difficulty breathing, and heart damage, a disease known as beriberi.

Beriberi

The most important use of thiamine is to treat beriberi, which is caused by not getting enough thiamine in your diet. Symptoms include:

  • Swelling, tingling, or burning sensation in the hands and feet
  • Confusion
  • Trouble breathing because of fluid in the lungs
  • Uncontrolled eye movements (nystagmus)

People in the developed world usually do not get beriberi because foods such as cereals and breads are fortified with vitamin B1.

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a brain disorder caused by thiamine deficiency. Wernicke-Korsakoff is actually two disorders. Wernicke disease involves damage to nerves in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is often caused by malnutrition due to alcoholism. Korsakoff syndrome is characterized by memory problems and nerve damage. High doses of thiamine can improve muscle coordination and confusion, but rarely improves memory loss.

Cataracts

Preliminary evidence suggests that thiamine, along with other nutrients, may lower the risk of developing cataracts. People with plenty of protein and vitamins A, B1, B2, and B3 (or niacin) in their diet are less likely to develop cataracts. Getting enough vitamins C, E, and B complex vitamins, particularly B1, B2, B9 (folic acid), and B12, may further protect the lens of your eyes from developing cataracts. More research is needed.

Alzheimer disease

Lack of thiamine can cause dementia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. So researchers have speculated that thiamine might help Alzheimer disease. Oral thiamine has been shown to improve cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer. However, absorption of thiamine is poor in elderly individuals. More research is needed before thiamine can be proposed as a treatment for Alzheimer disease.

Heart failure

Thiamine may be related to heart failure because many people with heart failure take diuretics (water pills), which help rid the body of excess fluid. But diuretics may also cause the body to get rid of too much thiamine. A few small studies suggest that taking thiamine supplements may help. Taking a daily multivitamin should provide enough thiamine.

Depression

Low levels of thiamine are associated with depression. In one study of elderly Chinese adults, poor thiamine levels were associated with a higher risk of depression.

Dietary Sources

Most foods contain small amounts of thiamine. Large amounts can be found in:

  • Pork
  • Beef
  • Poultry
  • Organ meats

Other good dietary sources of thiamine include:

  • Whole-grain or enriched cereals and rice
  • Legumes
  • Wheat germ
  • Bran
  • Brewer’s yeast
  • Nuts
  • Blackstrap molasses

Available Forms

Vitamin B1 can be found in multivitamins (including children’s chewable and liquid drops), B complex vitamins, or it can be sold individually. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, soft gels, and lozenges. It may also be labeled as thiamine hydrochloride or thiamine mononitrate. In cases of severe deficiency, thiamine can be administered intravenously.

How to Take It

As with all medications and supplements, check with your health care provider before giving vitamin B1 supplements to a child.

Daily recommendations for dietary vitamin B1, according to the National Academy of Sciences, are as follows:

Pediatric

Adult

  • Men, 19 years and older: 1.2 mg (RDA)
  • Women, 19 years and older: 1.1 mg (RDA)
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women: 1.4 mg (RDA)

Doctors determine the appropriate doses for conditions like beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Doctors give thiamine intravenously for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

A daily dose of 50 to 100 mg is often taken as a supplement. Thiamine appears safe in these doses. But you should talk to your doctor before taking a large amount.

Precautions

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

Thiamine is generally safe. Very high doses may cause stomach upset.

Taking any one of the B vitamins for a long period of time can result in an imbalance of other important B vitamins. For this reason, you may want to take a B-complex vitamin, which includes all the B vitamins.

Possible Interactions

If you are currently taking any of the following medications, you should not use vitamin B1 without first talking to your doctor.

Digoxin: Laboratory studies suggest that digoxin, a medication used to treat heart conditions, may reduce the ability of heart cells to absorb and use vitamin B1. This may be particularly true when digoxin is combined with furosemide (Lasix, a loop diuretic).

Diuretics (water pills): Diuretics, particularly furosemide (Lasix), which belongs to a class called loop diuretics, may reduce levels of vitamin B1 in the body. It is possible that other diuretics may have the same effect. If you take a diuretic, ask your doctor if you need a thiamine supplement.

Phenytoin (Dilantin): Preliminary evidence suggests that some people taking phenytoin have lower levels of thiamine in their blood, which may contribute to the side effects of the drug. However, this is not true of all people who take phenytoin. If you take phenytoin, ask your doctor if you need a thiamine supplement.

Supporting Research

Bruno EJ Jr, Ziegenfuss TN. Water-soluble vitamins: research update. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005 Aug;4(4):207-13. Review.

Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.Ophthalmology. 2000;107(3):450-56.

Daroff. Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012.

Gibson GE, Blass JP. Thiamine-dependent processes and treatment strategies in neurodegeneration. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Aug 8; .

Kliegman: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 46.

Lonsdale D. A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar;3(1):49-59.

Lu’o’ng K, Nguyen LT. Role of thiamine in Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2011;26(8):588-98.

McPherson & Pincus: Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007.

Moonen M, Lancellotti P, Betz R, Lambermont B, Pierard L. Beriberi. Rev Med Liege. 2007;62(7-8):523-30.

National Academy of Sciences. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins. Accessed June 1, 2011.

Raschke M, et al. Vitamin B1 biosynthesis in plants requires the essential iron sulfur cluster protein, THIC. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA. 2007;104(49):19637-42.

Roman-Campos D, Cruz JS. Current aspects of thiamine deficiency on heart function. Life Sci. 2014;98(1):1-5.

Sarma S, Gheorghiade M. Nutritional assessment and support of the patient with acute heart failure. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2010 Oct;16(5):413-18. Review.

Sica DA. Loop diuretic therapy, thiamine balance, and heart failure. Congest Heart Fail. 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):244-47.

Thomson AD, Marshall EJ. The treatment of patients at risk of developing Wernicke’s encephalopathy in the community. Alcohol. 2006 Mar-Apr;41(2):159-67. Epub 2005 Dec 29.

Thompson J. Vitamins, minerals and supplements: part two. Community Pract. 2005 Oct;78(10):366-8. Review.

Witte KK, Clark AL, Cleland JG. Chronic heart failure and micronutrients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;37(7):1765-74.

Review Date: 8/6/2015
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Thiamine Mononitrate & Soy Allergy

If you are allergic to soy, you have probably discovered the hard way that foods containing thiamine mononitrate can cause some pretty severe allergic reactions. To someone who becomes frighteningly ill each time one of these foods is ingested, it’s frustrating that much of the allergy information out there is insisting that thiamine mononitrate is now synthetically produced and that soy exposure from thiamine mononitrate is no longer an issue.

For several months recently the soy allergic people in our family suffered some very unsettling reactions even though we only eat foods that are supposedly completely soy free. Obviously we were eating something on a regular basis that was causing these reactions. I could think of only two possibilities… the flour I was baking with or the whole grain brown rice.

Over the last few weeks I have spent some considerable time on the telephone with representatives from various companies, trying to get some definitive information about thiamine mononitrate… is it made from soy (or corn) or is it now produced synthetically? It was difficult to get any real information because most of the people I talked to just did not have the answers.

Only one company actually made an effort to find out the source of the thiamine mononitrate in their products. This was King Arthur Flour. We have been buying their organic all purpose flour for over a year now because “normal” all purpose flour is always enriched with thiamine mononitrate. We buy the organic flour in fifty-pound bags, and one of the local stores special orders it for us. The price varies, and this flour is expensive, sometimes more than a dollar a pound, but it contains only organic wheat flour and organic malted barley flour… no added enrichments, no thiamine mononitrate.

I called the King Arthur customer service number and asked my questions about thiamine mononitrate… if I could be confident that the organic flour did not contain anything that wasn’t listed on the bag… and could I be confident that it was not cross contaminated by another product (like the regular all purpose flour and other flours) that did list thiamine mononitrate as an ingredient. The customer service person said she would post my questions on their private network so their chemists and other experts could provide accurate information. She said she would call me back with the answers in about a week.

It turns out that the organic flour contains no unlisted ingredients. It is also processed and packaged separately on a dedicated production line, so there is absolutely no possibility of cross contamination.

The chemists said that some thiamine mononitrate IS being produced synthetically, but much of it is still being produced naturally from soy and corn. They said that King Arthur, like other flour companies, has different mills across the country, and each mill has its own sources for the thiamine mononitrate they add to the product. This makes it impossible for any company to know which thiamine mononitrate is in which bags of flour… so the same type of flour might or might not contain thiamine mononitrate that was derived from soy. The chemists strongly urged that anyone with a severe soy allergy should choose only organic flours, because those were the only flours that could be guaranteed not to contain soy in any form.

It was a relief to know for sure about the flour, but that still left the brown rice. We’ve been buying Carolina whole grain brown rice for about the same amount of time we have had unexplained periodic bouts of severe soy reactions. The label lists only brown rice as an ingredient… with no mention of thiamine mononitrate or any added enrichments… but once we had eliminated the flour as a possible source of soy, the only other possibility was the rice. So I made another phone call.

This time I was only able to speak to a customer service representative who assured me that the Carolina whole grain brown rice was not enriched and did not contain any ingredients that were not listed on the label. I told him we were positive that this unenriched, thiamine mononitrate-free rice was the cause of consistent severe allergic reactions and asked if there was any possibility that the rice could be cross contaminated by one of their other products. I wasn’t surprised when the representative admitted that the rice that wasn’t enriched was processed and packaged with the same equipment that processed and packaged the rice that did have the thiamine mononitrate added. He said the thiamine mononitrate came from several sources, so it would not be possible to know if it came from soy. I suggested that if there was even a possibility of an allergen like soy being present in a product, it might be a good idea to list that possible cross contamination on the package. The representative agreed that it “might be something they should think about.”

Our mystery seems to have been solved. If I don’t feed my family the brown rice, no one gets the allergic reactions. I have tried rinsing the rice extra thoroughly before I cook it, but this only seems to help sporadically. Whole grain brown rice has become another problem food.

So… if you are experiencing unexplained soy allergic reactions, consider that the problem might still be thiamine mononitrate. Call the manufacturers… don’t just accept general information that may not apply to your specific situation.

Written by Shirley Filed Under: Living with a Soy Allergy

Vitamin B1, also called thiamine, is a B complex vitamin. It is found in many foods and is vitally important to keeping a body operating properly.

“Thiamine is involved in many body functions including the nervous system, heart and muscles,” said Dr. Sherry Ross, gynecologist and Women’s Health Expert at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California. “It is also important in the flow of electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells, enzymatic processes and carbohydrate metabolism.”

According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMM), thiamine was named B1 because it was the first B complex vitamin to be discovered. According to the Mayo Clinic, it was also one of the first vitamins of any kind ever be classified.

B1 sources

There are many natural ways to add thiamine-rich foods to an everyday diet. Food sources of thiamine include beef, liver, dried milk, nuts, oats, oranges, pork, eggs, seeds, legumes, peas and yeast. Foods are also fortified with thiamine. Some foods that are often fortified with B1 are rice, pasta, breads, cereals and flour.

Health benefits of thiamine

Thiamine is used to treat people who have heart disease, metabolic disorders, aging, canker sores, cataracts, glaucoma and motion sickness. There are many studies that seem to back up some of these uses. For example, research published by the Vietnamese American Medical Research Foundation found thiamine might improve the cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. This vitamin is important for a wide range of brain functions and ailments in others, as well.

According to the UMM, thiamine is sometimes called an “anti-stress” vitamin. Research has found that B1 may strengthen the immune system and improve the body’s ability to control mood and physiological impairments due to stress.

“Thiamine is also used for maintaining a positive mental attitude, preventing memory loss, enhancing learning abilities, fighting stress and increasing energy,” Ross told Live Science. Thiamine injections are also given to patients who have a memory disorder called Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Ross added.

B1 may also be good for treating other impairments. According to the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, many studies have also concluded that B1, along with other vitamins, may prevent cataracts. A study by the Laboratory of Pharmacotherapy at the Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Takatsuki, Japan found that thiamine has a potential to prevent obesity and metabolic disorders in rats. Other researchers believe that vitamin B plays a part in the body’s metabolism and may be interregnal to the treatment of metabolic disorders.

Dosage

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for B1 varies, depending on age and gender. Here are the RDA levels of B1 according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine:

  • Males who are 14 and older should consume 1.2 milligrams per day (mg/day).
  • Females who are 14 to 18 years old should consume 1.0 mg/day.
  • Females who are 19 and older should consume 1.1 mg/day, though women who are pregnant or breastfeeding may need more and should consult her doctor.

Typically, most people can get their daily dose of B1 from eating healthy foods. Some may opt to take a multivitamin or a supplement to ensure that the RDA is met. Many vitamin supplements can cause overdose and medical problems, but B1 is fairly safe in this respect. “Because they are water soluble it is less likely you will overdose on them as other vitamins,” said Dr. Kristine Arthur, internist at Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California. Ross agrees and stated that thiamine is considered safe at high doses and is relatively nontoxic.

B1 deficiency

Though rare in developed countries like the United States, deficiencies in B1 can create serious medical problems. Severe deficiency of thiamine causes complications involving the nervous system, brain, muscles, heart and gastrointestinal system,” said Ross.

“If you are deficient you can develop specific disorders such as Beriberi and Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome,” said Arthur. Beriberi can cause abnormal nerve function, heart failure and swelling in the legs, while Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome can cause memory loss, confusion and difficulty with balance. These problems are most common in alcoholics. Drinking too much alcohol makes it harder for the body to absorb and store thiamine, according to the National Library of Medicine. In many cases, alcoholism treatment includes B1 therapy.

Beriberi can also be passed down through genes. The elderly are also susceptible to thiamine deficiency. This is because their bodies have a harder time absorbing the vitamin.

The use of diuretics is another cause for B1 deficiency, according to Oregon State University. Since B1 is water soluble and is not stored in the body, diuretics, which primary use is to flush water from the body, also flushes away vitamins like thiamine.

Symptoms of vitamin B1 deficiency

The symptoms of B1 deficiency are many and typically are related to the nervous, muscular and gastrointestinal systems. According to a review published by the journal Congestive Heart Failure, symptoms include depression, emotional instability, uncooperative behavior, fearfulness, agitation, weakness, dizziness, insomnia, memory loss, pain sensitivity, peripheral neuropathy, sonophobia, backache, muscular atrophy, myalgia, nausea, vomiting and constipation.

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