Urine testing for kidney stones

Diagnosis of Kidney Stones

How do health care professionals diagnose kidney stones?

Health care professionals use your medical history, a physical exam, and lab and imaging tests to diagnose kidney stones.

A health care professional will ask if you have a history of health conditions that make you more likely to develop kidney stones. The health care professional also may ask if you have a family history of kidney stones and about what you typically eat. During a physical exam, the health care professional usually examines your body. The health care professional will ask you about your symptoms.

A health care professional will ask if you have a history of health conditions that make you more likely to develop kidney stones.

What tests do health care professionals use to diagnose kidney stones?

Health care professionals may use lab or imaging tests to diagnose kidney stones.

Lab tests

Urine tests can show whether your urine contains high levels of minerals that form kidney stones. Urine and blood tests can also help a health care professional find out what type of kidney stones you have.

Urinalysis. Urinalysis involves a health care professional testing your urine sample. You will collect a urine sample at a doctor’s office or at a lab, and a health care professional will test the sample. Urinalysis can show whether your urine has blood in it and minerals that can form kidney stones. White blood cells and bacteria in the urine mean you may have a urinary tract infection.

Blood tests. A health care professional may take a blood sample from you and send the sample to a lab to test. The blood test can show if you have high levels of certain minerals in your blood that can lead to kidney stones.

Imaging tests

Health care professionals use imaging tests to find kidney stones. The tests may also show problems that caused a kidney stone to form, such as a blockage in the urinary tract or a birth defect. You do not need anesthesia for these imaging tests.

Abdominal x-ray. An abdominal x-ray is a picture of the abdomen that uses low levels of radiation and is recorded on film or on a computer. An x-ray technician takes an abdominal x-ray at a hospital or outpatient center, and a radiologist reads the images. During an abdominal x-ray, you will lie on a table or stand up. The x-ray technician will position the x-ray machine over or in front of your abdomen and ask you to hold your breath so the picture won’t be blurry. The x-ray technician then may ask you to change position for additional pictures. Abdominal x-rays can show the location of kidney stones in the urinary tract. Not all stones are visible on abdominal x-ray.

Computed tomography (CT) scans. CT scans use a combination of x-rays and computer technology to create images of your urinary tract. Although a CT scan without contrast medium is most commonly used to view your urinary tract, a health care professional may give you an injection of contrast medium. Contrast medium is a dye or other substance that makes structures inside your body easier to see during imaging tests. You’ll lie on a table that slides into a tunnel-shaped device that takes the x-rays. CT scans can show the size and location of a kidney stone, if the stone is blocking the urinary tract, and conditions that may have caused the kidney stone to form.

If your nausea and vomiting do not stop:

You may need to stay in the hospital.

Can Kidney Stones Come Back?

After the kidney stone has passed or after it is removed, another stone may form. People who have had a kidney stone in the past are more likely to get another stone in the future.

If you have had a kidney stone, talk with your health care professional about your risk of getting another one. Ask your health care professional what steps you can take to lower your risk of getting another kidney stone.


The information in this summary comes from the research article, “Ultrasonography Versus Computed Tomography for Suspected Nephrolithiasis,” published in The New England Journal of Medicine, September 18, 2014. The research was done by Rebecca Smith-Bindman and her colleagues through funding by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Additional information came from:

  • The
  • The review article, “Managing Urolithiasis,” by Ralph C. Wang. Published in the Annals of Emergency Medicine, November 23, 2015.

This summary was prepared by the John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. It was written by Amelia Williamson Smith, M.S., Rebecca Smith-Bindman, M.D., Ralph Wang, M.D., and Michael Fordis, M.D.

AHRQ Publication number: 16-EHC008-A-EF

Kidney stones

Kidney stones are literally ‘stones’ that are situated either in the kidney or in the tube that leads from the kidney to the bladder, known as the ureter.

They can be single or multiple and can range in size from millimetres to several centimetres.
When a stone gets stuck in the ureter or kidney on it’s way out of the body, this causes extreme pain felt in the flank (side) or back and is known as renal colic. Kidney stones are three times more common in men affecting approximately 10-20% of men compared with 3-5% of women at some point in their lives.

A common age group to be affected is ages 30 – 50 yrs. Factors that increase the chance of getting kidney stones include:

  • people with a family history of kidney stones,
  • people of European descent,
  • living in hot climates (thought to be due to dehydration).


The kidneys act as the body’s filtering system. By processing our circulating blood, the kidneys absorb the good chemicals and minerals and eliminate the unwanted ones in our urine. If certain chemicals and minerals such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid or phosphate build up in the kidneys or in the urine they can form a stone.
Chemicals and minerals may build up for a variety of reasons including a lack of urine volume (found in people who do not drink enough fluids) or high levels of certain elements in the diet.

  • Most stones start out small in size and grow larger over time.
  • The stones may stay in the kidney or travel down the ureter into the bladder.
  • The majority of stones are composed of calcium oxalate.
  • Other types of stones include uric acid, struvite (infected stones) and, rarely, cystine stones.


In many cases, stones can be present without causing any symptoms at all. Stones that stay in the kidney can produce mild to moderate pain in the side but it is the stone that moves from the kidney into the ureter that causes the most severe pain (known as renal colic).

Renal colic is usually sudden, may come and go, and can be excruciating. The pain classically starts in the back and radiates to the groin. If you also develop fevers or cold chills with shakes (rigors), this can be a serious infection and you must see a doctor or after hours clinic straight away!

Kidney stones may also cause all or only a few of the following symptoms:

  • blood in the urine
  • nausea and vomiting
  • a burning sensation when passing urine
  • frequent urination (going to the toilet to pass urine more often)
  • loss of appetite
  • recurrent urinary infections
  • restlessness.


In many situations, the diagnosis of renal colic or kidney stones can be made just based on the symptoms and history. Sometimes further tests are needed such as one or more of the following:

  • If possible, collect the kidney stone. This can be very helpful to find what caused it.
  • x-rays (sometimes with injection of dye called an intravenous pyelogram IVP or intravenous urogram IVU)
  • a CT (computerised tomography) scan
  • renal ultrasound
  • urine test looking for blood can also be helpful.

If you continue to form stones, further blood tests and a 24-hour collection of urine will be required. These tests will help to identify any specific risk factors that may be causing your stones to develop. This may lead on to advice from a dietician regarding specific dietary recommendations and, in some circumstances, medications to prevent further stone formation.


Most kidney stones will pass through the urinary tract into the bladder where they will come out in the urine. During this time, you may experience renal colic that will generally be treated with strong painkillers from your family doctor or emergency clinic.

If the pain is controlled and your stone is known to be small, generally the best course of treatment is to wait for several days or weeks for the stone to pass into the bladder.

If, however, the stone is too large to pass or doesn’t pass with time, then treatment is needed. The choice of which type of treatment is best is made by your urologist, depending on many factors such as the size and position of the stone.

The treatment can either be in the form of:

  • Ureteroscopy – a small, narrow ‘telescope’ is passed up through the bladder to the stone so that the stone can be removed or broken (sometimes with a laser).
  • Lithotripsy– a special machine is used that sends ‘shock waves’ through the body to break up the stone into tiny pieces that will later pass in the urine.
  • Percutaneous surgery – a telescope is passed through the skin of the back (and into the kidney) to see and remove the stone. This is reserved for stones that are large and still in the kidney.
  • Open surgery – nowadays it is very rare to require a ‘cutting’ operation to remove a stone but it is sometimes the best option.

Self care

Approximately 50% of people will only pass one kidney stone in their lives but around 50% will get further kidney stones. The most important thing you can do to prevent further kidney stones forming is to drink lots of fluid.

  • Drink at least two to 2.5 litres of fluid each day.
  • Drink throughout the day and night if possible.
  • The best fluid is water
  • You will know if you are drinking enough by the colour of your urine, which should be pale yellow to clear.
  • Take the juice of one to two lemons (approximately 100mls daily). This can be diluted with water to drink over the course of the day.
  • Reduce salt (sodium) intake by keeping salt in cooking to a minimum and do not add salt to meals.
  • Avoid salty foods as much as possible such as:
    • Spreads – Marmite, Bovril, Oxo,
    • Snacks – salted chips and nuts
    • Tinned and packet soups or meats
    • Meats – ham, corned beef and smoked fish are high in salt
  • Avoid high protein intake as this can increase calcium and oxalate excretion and this increases stone formation.
  • Choose small to moderate serves of meat, fish, chicken, eggs, milk and dairy food.
  • Make sure you get enough calcium in your diet (low calcium can encourage stone formation)

Calcium intake

For adults the recommended daily allowance is approximately 800 milligrams which can be achieved by choosing three to four small to moderate servings of milk and dairy foods (e.g. one serve = a pottle of yoghurt, a glass of milk) per day.

Other restrictions

You will be informed by your health professional if further dietary restrictions such as limiting oxalate-containing foods are required.


If you are taking any herbal, vitamin or dietary supplements or antacids, please check with your health professional as these may increase your risk of forming stones.

Learn more

Kidney stones NHS Choices

Kidney Stone Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, & Prevention

Your kidneys remove waste and fluid from your blood to make urine. Sometimes, when you have too much of certain wastes and not enough fluid in your blood, these wastes can build up and stick together in your kidneys. These clumps of waste are called kidney stones.

  • What are the causes and risk factors of kidney stones?
  • What are the symptoms of kidney stones?
  • What are the treatments for kidney stones?
  • How can I prevent kidney stones?
  • Types of kidney stones

What are the causes and risk factors of kidney stones?

Anyone can get a kidney stone, but some people are more likely than others to have them. Men get kidney stones more often than women do. Kidney stones are also more common in non-Hispanic white people than in people of other ethnicities. You may also be more likely to have kidney stones if:

  • You have had kidney stones before.
  • Someone in your family has had kidney stones.
  • You don’t drink enough water.
  • You follow a diet high in protein, sodium and/or sugar.
  • You are overweight or obese.
  • You have had gastric bypass surgery or another intestinal surgery.
  • You have polycystic kidney disease or another cystic kidney disease.
  • You have a certain condition that causes your urine to contain high levels of cystine, oxalate, uric acid or calcium.
  • You have a condition that causes swelling or irritation in your bowel or your joints.
  • You take certain medicines, such as diuretics (water pills) or calcium-based antacids.

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What are the symptoms of kidney stones?

If you have a very small kidney stone that moves easily through your urinary tract, you may not have any symptoms, and may never know that you had a kidney stone.

If you have a larger kidney stone, you may notice any of the following symptoms:

  • Pain while urinating
  • Blood in your urine
  • Sharp pain in your back or lower abdomen
  • Nausea and vomiting

If you are having any of these symptoms, contact your health care provider.

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What are the treatments for kidney stones?

The treatment for a kidney stone depends on the size of the stone, what it is made of, whether it is causing pain and whether it is blocking your urinary tract. To answer these questions and to figure out the right treatment for you, your doctor might ask you to have a urine test, blood test, x-ray and/or CT scan. A CT scan sometimes uses contrast dye. If you have ever had a problem with contrast dye, be sure to tell your doctor about it before you have your CT scan.

If your test results show that your kidney stone is small, your doctor may tell you to take pain medicine and drink plenty of fluids to help push the stone through your urinary tract. If your kidney stone is large, or if it is blocking your urinary tract, additional treatment may be necessary.

One treatment option is shock wave lithotripsy. This treatment uses shock waves to break up the kidney stones into small pieces. After the treatment, the small pieces of the kidney stone will pass through your urinary tract and out of your body with your urine. This treatment usually takes 45 minutes to one hour and may be done under general anesthesia, which means you will be asleep and unable to feel pain.

Another treatment option is ureteroscopy. This treatment is also done under general anesthesia. The doctor uses a long tool shaped like a tube to find and remove the stone or to find and break the stone into small pieces. If the stone is small, the doctor may be able to remove it. If it is large, it may need to be broken into pieces. In this case, a laser will be used to break the stone into pieces that are small enough to pass through your urinary tract.

In rare cases, a surgery called percutaneous nephrolithotomy is needed to remove a kidney stone. During the surgery, a tube will be inserted directly into your kidney to remove the stone. You will need to be in the hospital for two to three days to have and recover from this treatment.

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How can I prevent kidney stones?

The best way to prevent most kidney stones is to drink enough fluids every day. Most people should drink eight to 12 cups of fluid per day. If you have kidney disease and need to limit fluids, ask your doctor how much fluid you should have each day. Limiting sodium and animal protein (meat, eggs) in your diet may also help to prevent kidney stones. If your doctor can find out what your kidney stone is made of, he or she may be able to give you specific diet recommendations to help prevent future kidney stones.

If you have a health condition that makes you more likely to have kidney stones, your doctor might tell you to take medicine to treat this condition.

Never start or stop any treatment or diet without talking to your doctor first!

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Types of kidney stones

  • Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stones. They are usually made of calcium and oxalate (a natural chemical found in most foods), but are sometimes made of calcium and phosphate.
  • Uric acid stones form when your urine is often too acidic. Uric acid can form stones by itself or with calcium.
  • Struvite stones can happen when you have certain types of urinary tract infections in which bacteria make ammonia that builds up in your urine. Struvite stones are made of magnesium, ammonium and phosphate.
  • Cystine stones are made of a chemical that your body makes naturally, called cystine. Cystine stones are very rare, and happen in people who have a genetic disorder that causes cystine to leak from the kidneys into the urine.

Kidney stones can be as small as a grain of sand or as large–sometimes larger than–a pearl. They can stay in your kidneys or travel through your ureters (the tubes that go from your kidneys to your bladder), and out of your body with your urine. When a kidney stone moves through your ureters and out your urethra with your urine, it is called passing a kidney stone. A kidney stone can also get stuck in your urinary tract and block urine from getting through. When you pass a kidney stone or a large kidney stone blocks the flow of your urine, it can be very painful.

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Diagnosing Kidney Stones


Kidney stones are common: Nearly one in 10 Americans is diagnosed with one at some point. Without treatment and preventive efforts, half of all people who have been treated for one or more kidney stones develop another within five to 10 years.

At NYU Langone, our doctors treat people who have many types of kidney stones, including calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, struvite, uric acid, and cystine.

Most kidney stones can be passed through the urinary tract, occasionally unnoticed. Larger stones, however, can cause irritation, obstruction, and pain. Some of the most common symptoms of kidney stones include pain in the side or groin, nausea, vomiting, fever, and blood in the urine.

Diagnostic Tests for Kidney Stones

Your doctor conducts an initial physical exam and may order several tests, including blood and urine tests and imaging exams, to determine whether you have kidney stones and to diagnose the particular type and location. If you have passed a stone or had one surgically treated, your doctor may analyze the stone to determine its type and suggest additional testing to find out if you have more.

All of these tests may be scheduled on the same day as your doctor’s visit. Our radiologists and urologists can also review the results of scans you’ve had done at other medical facilities.

Blood Tests

During your initial exam, your doctor may collect a small amount of blood in order to assess your kidney function, look for signs of infection, and test for factors that can contribute to the formation of kidney stones, such as high calcium levels, parathyroid hormone, and uric acid.

Urine Tests

Your doctor may analyze a sample of your urine in order to check for crystals, which can lead to the formation of kidney stones, and order a urine culture to determine if you have a urinary tract infection. He or she may also ask you to collect urine at home for 24 hours or more, using containers that are supplied by the doctor’s office. This gives your doctors additional information about the presence of metabolic factors that can influence the formation of kidney stones in the urinary tract.


Your doctor may recommend an ultrasound scan to evaluate your kidneys, bladder, and ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. This helps your doctor to check for stones that haven’t passed, to monitor the growth of a stone, and to screen for recurrence. In this test, a handheld device called a transducer is placed on the abdomen and used to produce sound waves that create images of the pelvic organs.

Kidney-Ureter-Bladder X-ray

A kidney-ureter-bladder, or KUB, X-ray of the abdomen and pelvis can help doctors to determine whether a kidney stone has grown, passed, or returned.

CT Scan

Your doctor may use a CT scan to look for stones in the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to determine their size and exact location, and to evaluate the anatomy of your urinary tract. At NYU Langone, doctors regularly use low-dose CT scans, which provide images of the abdomen and pelvis while minimizing your radiation exposure. Another kind of CT scan, called dual-energy CT, can help to determine the kidney stone type.

MRI Scans

MRI scans, in which magnetic waves are used to create computerized two- or three-dimensional images, are not typically used to evaluate kidney stones. However, this procedure, which does not use radiation, can sometimes help to safely diagnose kidney stones in pregnant women. Our urologists have experience managing kidney stones during pregnancy, and work closely with NYU Langone obstetricians to do so.

Kidney stones vary in size

You’re more likely to get kidney stones if you’ve had one before, if they run in your family, or if you have certain health conditions like obesity, high blood pressure or gout.

Some medications, such as antiviral drugs, can increase your risk.

But for most people, it is not known why they happen.

There are many types of kidney stones, but most often they are made from calcium. They can range from in size as small as a grain of sand to as big as a golf ball.

Kidney stone pain

The pain of kidney stones can be severe, although some people feel no pain. You usually feel it in your back, side, lower belly or groin. It is caused by the stone passing from your kidney to your bladder, or from your bladder to the outside world.

Kidney stone symptoms

If you have kidney stones, you may also:

  • have blood in your urine
  • feel sick
  • vomit
  • have a fever, hot and cold shivers or sweats
  • feel like you have gravel in your urine
  • feel like you need to pass urine often or urgently

Kidney stones diagnosis

Kidney stones can be found by chance during tests for other conditions, if your doctor thinks you might have kidney stones, tests include urine tests, blood tests and scans such as an simple x-ray and an ultrasound.

The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine recommends that a computed tomography (CT) scan may not always be necessary to diagnose kidney stones. Ask your doctor if a CT scan is necessary for you. For further information, visit the Choosing Wisely Australia website.

Kidney stones treatment

You can take simple painkillers like paracetamol if the pain is mild. If the pain is severe, you will need to see your doctor or go to an emergency department.

Ensure you drink adequate amounts of clear fluid such as water.

Most stones are small and come out on their own in the urine. You can check for stones by urinating through a piece of stocking. If you do catch a stone, keep it in a clean jar so your doctor can find out what it is made from.

A larger stone might need to be removed by a surgeon, who can use ultrasound to break it up, or an operation to remove it.

Some people are also advised to take medicine to make the urine less acidic or antibiotics if there is a kidney or bladder infection.

Preventing kidney stones

You can reduce the risk of getting a kidney stone by:

  • drinking plenty of water
  • limiting drinks that contain phosphoric acid (which may be used to flavour cola and beer)
  • avoiding or treating urinary tract infections quickly
  • limiting your intake of animal protein such as meat, chicken and eggs
  • drinking fruit juices, especially orange, grapefruit and cranberry
  • including dairy foods or alternatives in your diet
  • reducing your salt intake

If you have had a stone before, your doctor may advise you about additional treatments to help you avoid getting another one.

For more information, visit the Kidney Health Australia website.


You have a kidney stone episode and your doctor asks you to collect your urine for 24 hours. Why oh why is this being asked of you? Isn’t it dreadful enough that you just had a kidney stone?

The only way to find out WHY you are forming kidney stones is to complete a urine collection.

The test results will tell your doctor how saturated your urine is with stone making crystals.

The more saturated your urine is, the more likely you are to form new stones.

Some clients have come to me and said, “Why do I need to do a urine collection if the doctor removed my stone and had it analyzed?”

A stone analysis may tell you what type of stone you made, but there are many different reasons you may have made that type of stone.

Figuring out your prevention plan is very complicated, and without a urine collection it is nearly impossible.

Figuring out all of the details behind urine collections can be exhausting. I just released a course called The Kidney Stone Prevention Course to help you understand how to implement your physician’s prescribed treatment plans.

One Day or Two Day Collections?

When you do your first collections, the ones your treatment is going to be based on, it is wise to do two: Two 24 hour urine collections.

Before you start pulling your hair out, let me tell you why.

What you eat and drink during your collection is going to be represented by your test results. If you do your collection on your birthday, you may be celebrating, drinking, eating foods you don’t usually eat and this will not represent a “normal” day for you.

If you do two collections, your test results will show a better picture of what you are eating and drinking.

Sometimes I see a two day collection and the day to day results are so very different they enable me to ask some important questions. For example, “The sodium levels in your urine were very high on your first collection, did you go out to eat that day?”

When I worked at Litholink Corporation we would tell patients to collect their urine on a weekday and a weekend day.

We requested the collection be completed this way because typically what we eat during the week is not what we eat during the weekend.

This way the lab results would show the difference between eating and drinking habits and we could offer better treatment suggestions to the doctors on the lab report.


Always Drink and Eat Normally

Many patients don’t want to hear their doctor scold them for not drinking enough so when they do their urine collection they drink and drink and drink. This is not what they usually do. Some already know they were eating badly and made some big changes so their tests would look better.

Why am I going to call you out on this? Am I just a pain in the neck?


Cheating on Your Collection Days Will Not Help

If you drink more than you usually do or eat differently than you usually do, your doctor will base your treatment plan on what you did for those days.

You want your treatment plan to be based on what you usually did when you formed stones so that changes you make will lessen your chances of making more stones.

Suppose you already know you should drink more water, and you do it during your collections. You never did it before, when your stones were forming. Your doctor sees that you’re drinking 4 liters of water a day (you wanted to impress him or her).

S/he will be impressed and assume that low fluids were not and will not be your problem.

But, maybe low fluids were your problem. You won’t know and neither will your doctor.

So what?

No one, including you, will make fluids a priority and you may well forget to keep showing off.

Then what?

Maybe nothing else was wrong except low fluids, and that was gone for the moment – when you did the tests.

Maybe the fluids have already fallen back to your original low levels.

Your doctor will not be able to offer you any help, or worse, may tell you something generic like “avoid all green, leafy vegetables”. I don’t want anyone avoiding green, leafy, veggies if they don’t have to.

I tell clients, “if you drink gin all day then please do that during the test”.

If you don’t drink much water, please do as you normally do.

Getting on the right treatment plan is imperative in preventing new stones from forming. The only way to get on the right treatment plan is to eat and drink as you normally do on the days you are collecting your urine.


Diet Changes Before Collection Begins

Some of you were told to change your diets before doing the urine collection and wind up doing the collection while on your new diet.

This will NOT help.

You want your results to show what you did while you were making stones. For the day(s) you are asked to collect your urine, eat as you did before you knew you had a kidney stone.

Then go back to doing what your doctor told you to do or what s/he tells you to do after the test results are available.

Don’t Collect During Holidays

Many people will want to do their collection on the holiday because they are off work. If you are like me, you eat differently on holidays than you do on non-holidays.

Thanksgiving is not representative of how you normally eat, so this is not the time to do your collection.

Remember, since your results will show what you ate for that particular day, a treatment plan based on holidays will not be useful to you. Your doctor may tell you to go on certain diets that you do NOT have to go on.

That would not be helpful at all!

Make Time to do the Urine Collections

I completely understand that doing a urine collection is a total pain in the neck. It is annoying and nothing you want to do.


There is nothing quite as bad as having a stone attack. If you have to weigh one against the other, doing a urine collection is the clear winner.

Find the time. It’s worth it.

Occupation Need Not be a Barrier

I have had pilots, truck drivers, surgeons, salespeople, and teachers all find the time and make collections while at work. Whether or not it is possible depends on a lot of circumstances, but doing it on the job is the ideal for one of your two days.

Some of you will not be able to bring the collection jug to work.

Perhaps you might have to take a day off from work.

If you do take a day off from work, please drink and eat as you normally would on a work day.

If you do a two-day collection, remember to do one on a weekend so your doctor can see how it differs from a weekday.

Questions About Your Collection

Once you receive your urine collection, please read all instructions on how to complete it.

If you have any questions, call the place of business you received your supplies from and ask them all the questions you may have before starting the collection.

It is dreadful when you have to re-do a collection because you didn’t do it the way they wanted you to.

Follow-up Collections

Once you do your initial 48-hour urine collection, the doctor will go over the results with you.

From those results, you will be told to do certain things that will help prevent stones in the future. You may be told to go on medications, drink more water, change your diet, or all three.

Four to six weeks after you have incorporated all the changes your doctor has prescribed for you, your doctor SHOULD ask you to do a 24-hour urine collection to make sure those changes are working for you.

If you don’t do a follow-up, how will you know if your treatment plan is working?

If your doctor doesn’t order a follow-up, ask for it.

You should expect your doctor will contact you about your results and make whatever changes are needed to get you the best possible prevention.

Annual 24-Hour Collections

Our urine chemistries change over time. It is prudent that you complete a yearly collection to ensure your treatment plan is still working for you.

Partly urine chemistries change because we are getting older, or have developed some new disease condition.

Diets change even if we are unaware of the changes because they occur slowly.

We gain or lose weight which can affect urine chemistries.

Our habits change: We give up or get a health club membership, or start running.

A Final Thought from Jill

Clearly now, you can see how important it is to complete urine collections.

I want you to know that I don’t ask you to see the importance of doing these darn collections without having compassion and empathy that you have to do them.

I know they are not convenient, nor are they fun.

Just keep in mind that if you don’t complete a urine collection, you will not know why you formed stones and will most likely keep right on forming them. I want to keep you away from that scenario.

Prevention is always our best defense. Completing your collections is a pretty benign way to keep stones at bay.

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Figuring out all of the details behind urine collections can be exhausting. I just released a course called The Kidney Stone Prevention Course to help you understand how to implement your physician’s prescribed treatment plans.

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