Typhoid shots side effects

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Typhim

SIDE EFFECTS

Adverse event information is derived from clinical trials and worldwide post-marketing experience.

Data From Clinical Trials

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reactions rates observed in the clinical trials of a vaccine cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another vaccine and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to vaccine use and for approximating rates.

Safety of Typhim Vi vaccine, the US licensed liquid formulation, has been assessed in clinical trials in more than 4,000 subjects both in countries of high and low endemicity. In addition, the safety of the lyophilized formulation has been assessed in more than 6,000 individuals. The adverse reactions were predominately minor and transient local reactions. Local reactions such as injection site pain, erythema, and induration almost always resolved within 48 hours of vaccination. Elevated oral temperature, above 38.C (100.4.F), was observed in approximately 1% of vaccinees in all studies. No serious or life-threatening systemic events were reported in these clinical trials.10,11

Adverse reactions from two trials evaluating Typhim Vi vaccine lots in the US (18- to 40-year-old adults) are summarized in Table 3. No severe or unusual side effects were observed. Most subjects reported pain and/or tenderness (pain upon direct pressure). Local adverse experiences were generally limited to the first 48 hours.10,11

Table 3 10,11: PERCENTAGE OF 18- TO 40-YEAR-OLD US ADULTS PRESENTING WITH LOCAL OR SYSTEMIC REACTIONS WITHIN 48 HOURS AFTER THE FIRST IMMUNIZATION WITH TYPHIM Vi VACCINE

No studies were conducted in US children. Adverse reactions from a trial in Indonesia in children one to twelve years of age are summarized in Table 4.10,11 No severe or unusual side effects were observed.

Table 4 10,11: PERCENTAGE OF INDONESIAN CHILDREN ONE TO TWELVE YEARS OF AGE PRESENTING WITH LOCAL OR SYSTEMIC REACTIONS WITHIN 48 HOURS AFTER THE FIRST IMMUNIZATION WITH TYPHIM Vi VACCINE

In the US Reimmunization Study, subjects who had received Typhim Vi vaccine 27 or 34 months earlier, and subjects who had never previously received a typhoid vaccination, were randomized to placebo or Typhim Vi vaccine, in a double-blind study. Safety data from the US Reimmunization Study are presented in Table 5.10,11,13 In this study 5/30 (17%) primary immunization subjects and 10/45 (22%) reimmunization subjects had a local reaction. No severe or unusual side effects were observed. Most subjects reported pain and/or tenderness (pain upon direct pressure). Local adverse experiences were generally limited to the first 48 hours.10,11,13

Table 510,11,13: US REIMMUNIZATION STUDY, SUBJECTS PRESENTING WITH LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC REACTIONS WITHIN 48 HOURS AFTER IMMUNIZATION WITH TYPHIM Vi VACCINE

Solicited Injection Site and Systemic Reactions When Given With Menactra Vaccine

The majority (70%-77%) of solicited injection site reactions at the Typhim Vi and at the Menactra injection sites were reported as Grade 1 and resolved within 3 days post-vaccination. The most common systemic reactions were headache (41% when Menactra and Typhim Vi were given concomitantly; 42% when Typhim Vi was given with Placebo, and 33% when Menactra vaccine was given alone one month after Typhim Vi vaccination) and fatigue (38% when Menactra vaccine and Typhim Vi were given concomitantly; 35% when Typhim Vi was given with Placebo, and 27% when Menactra vaccine was given alone one month after Typhim Vi vaccination). Fever ≥ 40.0.C and seizures were not reported.

Data From Worldwide Post-Marketing Experience

In addition to reports in clinical trials, worldwide voluntary adverse events reports received since market introduction of Typhim Vi vaccine are listed below. This list includes serious events and/or events which were included based on severity, frequency of reporting or a plausible causal connection to Typhim Vi vaccine. Because these events were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to vaccination.

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain

General Disorders And Administration Site Condition

Injection site pain, inflammation, induration, and erythema; lymphadenopathy, fever, asthenia, malaise, flu-like episode

Immune System Disorders

Anaphylaxis, allergic-type reactions such as pruritus, rash, urticaria, angioedema, difficulty breathing, hypotension; serum sickness

Musculoskeletal And Connective Tissue Disorders

Myalgia, arthralgia, cervical pain

Nervous System Disorders

Syncope with and without convulsions, headache, loss of consciousness, tremor

Respiratory System Disorders

Asthma

Additional Adverse Events

Post-marketing reports of glomerulonephritis, neutropenia, bilateral retinitis, and polyarthritis have been reported in patients who had also received other vaccines; however, a causal relationship has not been established.

Reporting Of Adverse Events

Reporting by parents and patients of all adverse events occurring after vaccine administration should be encouraged. Adverse events following immunization with vaccine should be reported by the health-care provider to the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Reporting forms and information about reporting requirements or completion of the form can be obtained from VAERS through a tollfree number 1-800-822-7967 or visit the VAERS website at http//www.vaers.org.17

Health-care providers also should report these events to the Pharmocovigilance Department, Sanofi Pasteur Inc., Discovery Drive, Swiftwater, PA 18370, or call 1-800-8222463.

Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Typhim (Typhoid Vi Polysaccharide Vaccine)

Typhoid vaccine (inactivated), injection

Generic Name: typhoid vaccine (inactivated), injection (TYE foid vax EEN)
Brand Name: Typhim VI

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com on Aug 5, 2019 – Written by Cerner Multum

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  • Interactions
  • Pregnancy
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What is typhoid vaccine?

Typhoid (also called “typhoid fever”) is a serious disease caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Untreated typhoid infection may lead to kidney failure, or intestinal bleeding, which can be fatal. If the infection spreads to your gallbladder, you could become a chronic carrier of the bacteria that causes typhoid. A carrier may have no symptoms but is capable of spreading the infection to others.

Typhoid is spread through contact with the stool (bowel movements) of a person infected with the bacteria. This usually occurs by eating food or drinking water that has become contaminated with feces from an infected person. Once in the digestive tract, typhoid infection can spread to the blood and other parts of the body.

Typhoid can cause high fever, muscle aches, severe headache, weakness, confusion or agitation, loss of appetite, stomach pain, diarrhea or constipation, and rose-colored spots on the skin.

Typhoid vaccine is used to help prevent this disease in adults and children who are at least 2 years old. Although not part of a routine immunization schedule in the U.S., typhoid vaccine is recommended for:

  • people who travel to area where typhoid fever is common (non-industrialized parts of the world, especially Asia, Africa, and Central or South America);

  • people who live with someone who is a typhoid carrier; and

  • laboratory workers who may come into contact with Salmonella typhi in a work setting.

This vaccine works by exposing you to a small amount of the bacteria, which causes your body to develop immunity to the disease.

Typhoid vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body, and will not prevent any disease caused by bacteria other than Salmonella typhi.

Like any vaccine, the typhoid vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

Important Information

You should not receive this vaccine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to typhoid vaccine in the past.

Before taking this medicine

You should not receive this vaccine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to typhoid vaccine in the past.

Typhoid vaccine should not be used in a person who is a typhoid carrier.

If you have any of these other conditions, your vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all:

  • fever with any type of infection or illness;

  • a bleeding or blood clotting disorder (such as hemophilia);

  • a weak immune system caused by disease such as HIV/AIDS or cancer; or

  • a weak immune system caused by receiving certain medicines such as steroids, chemotherapy or radiation.

You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving this vaccine.

It is not known whether typhoid vaccine (inactivated), injection will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant. Your doctor will decide whether you should receive this vaccine.

It is not known whether typhoid vaccine passes into breast milk, or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not receive this vaccine without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How is typhoid vaccine given?

You should receive this vaccine at least 1 to 2 weeks before your scheduled travel or possible exposure to typhoid.

Typhoid vaccine is recommended for adults and children in the following situations:

  • people who travel to countries where typhoid fever is common;

  • people who will have long-term exposure to food or water that may be contaminated with typhoid;

  • people who live with someone who is a typhoid carrier; and

  • laboratory workers who may come into contact with Salmonella typhi in a work setting.

This vaccine is given as an injection (shot) into a muscle. You will receive this injection in a doctor’s office or other clinic setting.

The typhoid vaccine is given as a single injection. A booster dose is then recommended every 2 years during possible exposure to typhoid. Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor’s instructions or the schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Wash your hands often to help prevent typhoid when you are in an area where contamination is possible.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Be sure to receive a booster dose of this vaccine every 2 years during continued exposure to typhoid. If you do not receive the booster every 2 years, you may not be fully protected against the disease.

What happens if I overdose?

An overdose of this vaccine is unlikely to occur.

What should I avoid before or after getting typhoid vaccine?

In addition to receiving typhoid vaccine, take precautions while traveling to further prevent coming into contact with bacteria that cause typhoid fever:

  • Avoid eating leafy vegetables such as spinach or lettuce, which are harder to wash properly.

  • Avoid eating raw fruits or vegetables that cannot be peeled, or that have been peeled by another person.

  • Avoid drinks that contain ice, or frozen treats and flavored ices that may have been made with contaminated water.

  • Avoid eating foods you have not cooked or prepared yourself. Use clean surfaces and utensils when preparing food.

  • Drink only bottled water (carbonated is best) or water that has been boiled for at least 1 minute.

  • Avoid any food or beverage purchased from a street vendor.

Typhoid vaccine side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.

Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shots caused any side effects.

Becoming infected with typhoid is much more dangerous to your health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. Like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects, but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • fever, swollen glands, rash or itching, body aches;

  • tremors, general ill feeling;

  • a seizure; or

  • a light-headed feeling, like you might pass out.

Common side effects may include:

  • pain, tenderness, redness, or a hard lump where the shot was given;

  • headache; or

  • low fever.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.

Typhoid vaccine (inactivated), injection dosing information

Usual Adult Dose for Typhoid Prophylaxis:

0.5 mL, IM, once

-Reimmunization is recommended every 2 years, with a single dose, for travelers with repeated or continued exposure to S. typhi.

Usual Pediatric Dose for Typhoid Prophylaxis:

2 years and older:
0.5 mL, IM, once

-Reimmunization is recommended every 2 years, with a single dose, for travelers with repeated or continued exposure to S. typhi.

What other drugs will affect typhoid vaccine?

Before receiving this vaccine, tell the doctor about all other vaccines you have recently received.

Also tell the doctor about all medications you use, especially a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven).

Other drugs may affect typhoid injection, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any medicine you start or stop using.

Further information

  • Your doctor or pharmacist may have information about this vaccine written for health professionals that you may read. You may also find additional information from your local health department or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Copyright 1996-2018 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 3.01.

Medical Disclaimer

More about typhoid vaccine, inactivated

  • Side Effects
  • During Pregnancy
  • Dosage Information
  • Drug Interactions
  • En Español
  • Drug class: bacterial vaccines

Consumer resources

  • Typhoid Vaccine (Injection)
  • Typhoid vaccine, inactivated Subcutaneous, Injection (Advanced Reading)
  • Typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine Intramuscular (Advanced Reading)

Other brands: Typhim Vi

Related treatment guides

  • Typhoid Prophylaxis

Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever, often called typhoid, is rare in the United States, but it’s still common in some countries. About 5,700 people get sick with typhoid in the United States every year, usually after traveling to other countries. The typhoid vaccine can help prevent the disease.

There are 2 types of typhoid vaccine:

  • The typhoid shot
  • The oral typhoid vaccine (swallowed as a pill)

Why is the typhoid vaccine important?

Typhoid can lead to serious complications, like a high fever that can last for weeks or months. As many as 3 in 10 people who get sick with typhoid and don’t get treatment will die.

Americans can get typhoid while traveling. If you’re traveling to a country where typhoid is common, getting vaccinated is one way to protect yourself.

What is typhoid?

Typhoid is caused by bacteria. Symptoms of typhoid may include:

  • A high fever that lasts a long time
  • Weakness
  • Stomach pain
  • Not feeling hungry
  • A rash of flat, pink spots

Typhoid spreads when the poop from an infected person gets in water or food. Typhoid can spread when:

  • Waste from sewers gets into drinking water
  • Someone with typhoid doesn’t wash their hands before preparing food

People can still have typhoid germs in their body after their symptoms go away, and spread it to others without knowing it. Learn more about typhoid.

Who needs to get the typhoid vaccine?

The typhoid vaccine is recommended for people at high risk of coming in contact with typhoid. For example, you may need the typhoid vaccine if you:

  • Are in close contact with someone who has typhoid
  • Work in a lab studying typhoid
  • Are traveling to a country where typhoid is common

People who get the typhoid shot will need 1 dose, and a booster every 2 years. People who get the oral typhoid vaccine will need 4 doses every other day for a week, and a booster every 5 years.

Talk with your doctor about how to protect your family from typhoid. To find out if the typhoid vaccine is recommended where you’re traveling, visit CDC’s travel website.

Who should not get the typhoid vaccine?

Some people should not get the typhoid vaccine — or may need to wait to get it.

Typhoid shot

Some people should not get the typhoid shot, including:

  • Children younger than 2 years
  • People who have had an allergic reaction to the typhoid shot or any ingredient in the vaccine

If you’re sick, you may need to wait until you’re feeling better to get the typhoid shot.

Oral typhoid vaccine

Some people should not get the oral typhoid vaccine, including:

  • Children younger than 6 years
  • People who have had an allergic reaction to the oral typhoid vaccine or any ingredient in the vaccine

If you’re sick, you may need to wait until you’re feeling better to get the oral typhoid vaccine. And if you’ve been taking antibiotics, you need to wait for at least 3 days after you’ve stopped taking them to get the vaccine.

Your doctor may recommend that you get the typhoid shot instead of the oral vaccine if you have a weakened immune system, like if you:

  • Have HIV/AIDS
  • Have cancer
  • Are taking medicine that can affect the immune system

Your doctor can recommend the vaccine that’s right for you.

What are the side effects of the typhoid vaccine?

Side effects from the typhoid vaccine are usually mild and go away in a few days.

Side effects of the typhoid shot may include:

  • Pain, swelling, or redness where the shot was given
  • Headache
  • Fever

Serious side effects from the typhoid shot are very rare.

The most common side effects of the oral typhoid vaccine:

  • Fever
  • Headache

Less often, the oral typhoid vaccine can cause:

  • Stomach pain
  • Throwing up
  • A rash

Serious side effects from the oral typhoid vaccine are very rare.

Like any medicine, there’s a very small chance that the typhoid vaccine could cause a serious reaction. Keep in mind that getting the typhoid vaccine is much safer than getting typhoid. Learn more about vaccine side effects.

Where can I get more information about the typhoid vaccine?

Vaccine Information Statements (VISs) have detailed information about recommended vaccines.

  • Read the VIS for the typhoid vaccine.
  • Find the VIS for the typhoid vaccine in other languages.

Vaccination


Typhoid fever

Choosing a typhoid vaccine

In the UK, the 2 main vaccines available to prevent typhoid fever are:

  • Vi vaccine – given as a single injection
  • Ty21a vaccine – given as 3 capsules to take on alternate days

Combined typhoid and hepatitis A injections are also available for people aged 15 or over. Protection against hepatitis A lasts 1 year and protection against typhoid lasts 3 years.

The vaccines work by stimulating your body to create antibodies (infection-fighting proteins) that prevent you getting ill if you become infected with the typhoid bacteria.

But neither typhoid vaccine is 100% effective, so you should always take precautions when eating food and drinking water abroad.

As the Ty21a vaccine contains a live sample of Salmonella typhi bacteria, it isn’t suitable for people with a weakened immune system – for example, people receiving certain types of treatment, such as chemotherapy.

It also isn’t usually recommended for children under 6, whereas children can have the Vi vaccine from 2 years of age.

It’s unclear whether the Vi and Ty21a vaccines present a risk to pregnant or breastfeeding women. But vaccination should be considered if there’s a significant risk of getting typhoid.

The typhoid vaccine should ideally be given at least 1 month before you travel, although if necessary it can be given closer to your travel date.

Booster vaccinations are recommended every 3 years if you continue to be at risk of infection with typhoid bacteria.

Typhoid vaccine, inactivated Side Effects

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Feb 20, 2019.

  • Overview
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For the Consumer

Applies to typhoid vaccine, inactivated: intramuscular solution

Along with its needed effects, a vaccine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. It is very important that you tell your doctor about any side effects that occur after a dose of typhoid vaccine, even though the side effect may have gone away without treatment. Some types of side effects may mean that you should not receive any more doses of typhoid vaccine.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking typhoid vaccine, inactivated:

Rare

  • Difficulty in breathing or swallowing
  • hives
  • itching, especially of feet or hands
  • reddening of skin, especially around ears
  • swelling of eyes, face, or inside of nose
  • unusual tiredness or weakness (sudden and severe)

Some side effects of typhoid vaccine, inactivated may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

  • Fever
  • general feeling of discomfort or illness
  • headache
  • muscle pain
  • pain, redness, or swelling at place of injection

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to typhoid vaccine, inactivated: injectable suspension, intramuscular solution, oral delayed release capsule

General

The most common adverse events were injection site reactions.

Local

Very common (10% or more): Tenderness (98%), pain (56%), induration (18%), soreness (13%), erythema (11%)

Common (1% to 10%): Swelling

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Edema

Local reactions usually resolved within 48 hours of vaccination.

Other

Very common (10% or more): Malaise (37%), fatigue (38%), feverish (subjective) (11.1%)

Common (1% to 10%): Fever of 100F or greater, decreased activity, elevated oral temperature, general aches

Postmarketing reports: Asthenia, flu-like episode

Nervous system

Very common (10% or more): Headache (27%)

Postmarketing reports: Syncope without convulsions, loss of consciousness, tremor, vasovagal syncope in response to injection

Hypersensitivity

Postmarketing reports: Anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions including shock, serum sickness, allergic-type reactions such as pruritus, rash, urticaria, angioedema, difficulty breathing, or hypotension

Gastrointestinal

Common (1% to 10%): Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting

Postmarketing reports: Abdominal pain

Dermatologic

Common (1% to 10%): Itching

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Urticaria, rash

Musculoskeletal

Common (1% to 10%): Myalgia

Postmarketing reports: Arthralgia, cervical pain, polyarthritis

Hematologic

Postmarketing reports: Lymphadenopathy, neutropenia

Ocular

Postmarketing reports: Bilateral retinitis

Renal

Postmarketing reports: Glomerulonephritis

Respiratory

Postmarketing reports: Asthma

1. “Product Information. Typhim Vi (typhoid vaccine).” Connaught, Swiftwater, PA.

2. Cerner Multum, Inc. “UK Summary of Product Characteristics.” O 0

3. Cerner Multum, Inc. “Australian Product Information.” O 0

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.

Medical Disclaimer

Typhoid

If you more information about the typhus shot, call or visit your nearest Pharmaca location.
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Get more information on the typhoid fever vaccine, and if you should get vaccinated for typhus at Pharmaca:

  • What is the typhoid fever vaccine?
  • Where can you get the typhoid fever vaccine?
  • What is typhoid fever?
  • What causes typhoid fever?
  • Is typhoid fever contagious?
  • What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?
  • How do you treat typhoid fever?
  • More about the typhoid vaccination
  • What are the typhoid fever vaccine side effects?

Typhoid fever vaccine

Typhoid, or typhoid fever, is a serious and contagious disease. It’s caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi.

Typhoid fever causes severe symptoms not unlike the flu but marked by a severe fever. If typhoid is left untreated, it can kill up to 30 percent of people who get it.

There are also typhoid “carriers,” who may not show signs of the disease but can spread it to others.

Where to get the typhoid fever vaccine

Pharmaca has been providing immunization services recommended by the CDC for many years. We have locations in six states, and even offer some immunizations and vaccinations on a walk-in basis.

If you’re traveling, or think you may be in a position to need a typhoid fever vaccination, to set up an appointment to get your next vaccine.

What is typhoid fever?

Typhoid fever is an illness that is spread through contaminated food and water, or through close contact with a person who is already infected. Signs and symptoms of typhoid usually include a high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and either constipation or diarrhea.

Most people who get typhoid fever feel better within a few days of starting a round of antibiotics, but a small number can die of complications.

Typhoid fever is rare these days in modern, industrialized countries. But it’s still a serious health threat in less developed parts of the world, especially for children.

Chart courtesy of the CDC

What causes typhoid fever?

Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with the fever caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria that causes typhoid are left in water or food by a human carrier, which is then spread to others who come in contact with the bacteria left behind.

Typhoid fever in the US has been mostly eradicated since the early 1900s, when tens of thousands of cases were reported annually. Today, less than 400 cases are reported each year in the US, and these mostly from travelers who have recently been to Mexico and South America, and to a lesser extent India, Pakistan and Egypt.

Is typhoid fever contagious?

Typhoid fever is caused by bacteria spread from an infected person to a non-infected person, and is highly contagious. It’s most often spread from an infected person’s bacteria in the form of human waste. Then, if someone else eats food or drinks water that’s been contaminated with that bacteria, they can become infected and develop typhoid fever.

Typhoid fever symptoms

Signs and symptoms of typhoid fever usually develop over time, specifically 1–3 weeks after exposure to the disease.

Early illness

Once the signs of typhoid fever do appear, they can include:

  • Fever that starts low and increases daily
  • Headache
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Sweating
  • Dry cough
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Rash
  • Extremely swollen abdomen

Later illness

If the disease has progressed and you haven’t received treatment, further symptoms can include:

  • Becoming delirious
  • Not having energy to move
  • Exhaustion with your eyes half-closed, in what’s known as the “typhoid state”

It’s at this state that life-threatening complications develop. In some people, signs and symptoms can return up to two weeks after the initial fever has subsided.

Typhoid fever treatment

Typhoid fever can be treated successfully with antibiotic medication. If the fever is diagnosed early on, antibiotic tablets will most likely be prescribed, and should be taken for 1–2 weeks.

The symptoms should start to improve within a few days of taking these antibiotics. While taking them, non-medical treatment of typhoid fever includes getting plenty of rest, drinking plenty of fluids and eating regularly, if possible. Patients are also encouraged to keep up good personal hygiene to reduce the risk of spreading the infection.

Typhoid fever vaccination

There are two vaccines for typhoid fever. One is an inactivated (killed) vaccine taken as a shot, and the other is a live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine taken in pill form.

Those you receive the typhoid shot will need 1 dose, then a booster every 2 years. And people who get the typhoid fever vaccine pills will need 4 doses every other day for a week, and a booster every 5 years.

Keep in mind there are certain people who should not get the vaccine. These people include:

  • Children younger than 2 years
  • People who have had an allergic reaction to the typhoid shot or any ingredient in the vaccine

If you’re sick, you may need to wait until you’re feeling better to get the typhoid shot.

People who should not take the oral typhoid fever vaccine include:

  • Children younger than 6 years
  • People who have had an allergic reaction to the oral typhoid vaccine or any ingredient in the vaccine

If you’re sick, you may need to wait until you’re feeling better to get the oral typhoid vaccine. And if you’ve been taking antibiotics, you need to wait for at least 3 days after you’ve stopped taking them to get the vaccine.

How long does the typhoid fever vaccine last?

  • Typhoid pills provide up to five years’ protection and are approved for use in individuals over the age of 6. It’s taken orally over the course of four doses.
  • Typhoid vaccine provides protection for up to two years. This vaccine is approved for use in individuals over age 2.

Typhoid fever vaccine side effects

As with any medication or vaccine, there are potential reactions to receiving the vaccine. Some common side effects of typhoid fever vaccine can include:

  • Fever
  • Head pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Not feeling well
  • Signs and symptoms at the injection site

Other, rarer side effects of the vaccine can also include:

  • Chest pain
  • Joint pain
  • Life-threatening allergic reaction
  • Liver problems

Travel vaccinations

Side effects from polio vaccine can include pain and redness at the injection site and fever.

Measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox

Measles is caused by a virus and is spread by droplets when an infected person breathes, coughs or sneezes and is highly infectious. Most outbreaks of measles in Australia are caused by inadequately immunised young travellers bringing it into the country.

In Australia, routine childhood immunisation against measles, mumps and rubella is usually given as a triple vaccine called MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) at 12 months. An additional dose called MMRV that also includes varicella (chickenpox vaccine) is given at 18 months.

Vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella is recommended before travelling overseas for people born during or since 1966 who have not had 2 doses of MMR previously. Two doses of measles-containing vaccine should be given at least 4 weeks apart.

Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine is also usually offered to unvaccinated travellers who have not had chickenpox. Combination MMRV vaccines are not recommended for people 14 years and older.

Side effects are more common after the first dose of MMR. The most common side effects include fever, tiredness and rash.

Pain, redness and swelling where you had your injection are the most common side effects from varicella vaccine. Rash or fever can also occur.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is extremely contagious and can be caught by eating contaminated food. Hepatitis A vaccination is generally recommended before travelling to all developing countries.

A single dose of hepatitis A vaccine (e.g. Avaxim, Havrix, VAQTA) is usually given as primary vaccination and then a booster dose can be given 6-18 months after the first vaccination to prolong its effect. Ideally, the vaccination should be given 4 weeks before travel.

Combination vaccines

A combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine (called Twinrix) is available in Australia. For adults, it is given as a course of 3 doses of vaccine: one vaccination is given immediately, the second is given one month later, and the third is given 5 months after that. (This is sometimes described as being given at zero, one and 6 months.) There is also an accelerated schedule of injections for adults needing fast protection due to limited time before departure. This comprises 3 doses given on days 0, 7 and 21 with a booster given at 12 months.

There is also a combined hepatitis A and typhoid vaccine (called Vivaxim). Long-term protection requires a booster dose of hepatitis A vaccine 6 to 36 months later.

Side effects may include tenderness at the site of the injection. Some people have also reported tiredness, fever or headaches.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus and is one of the most serious forms of viral hepatitis. It can lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis B can be spread by exposure to blood or sexual contact with an infected person.

Most Australians born since 2000 have been vaccinated against hepatitis B as part of their routine childhood vaccinations. If you have not been vaccinated or are not immune to hepatitis B, vaccination before travelling may be recommended if you are travelling to certain areas, including Central and South America, Africa or Asia. Vaccination is usually recommended if you are staying long term in one of these areas, or have frequent visits. It’s also recommended if you are likely to participate in activities that put you at increased risk.

You will need to discuss with your doctor your risks and when you should start the immunisation programme.

  • The standard schedule for hepatitis B vaccination (e.g. Engerix-B, H-B-Vax II) involves a series of 3 injections over 6 months.
  • A 2-dose schedule of hepatitis B vaccine (e.g. Engerix-B, H-B-Vax II) is also available for adolescents aged 11 to 15 years. This takes 4-6 months to complete.

Accelerated schedules can be given if there is a limited time before you set off. This comprises 3 doses given over 2 months, with a booster given at 12 months. In exceptional circumstances, 3 doses can be given over 3 weeks, with a booster at 12 months. A rapid schedule for a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine called Twinrix (3 doses given over 3 weeks and a 4th dose at 12 months) is also available.

Possible side effects related to the hepatitis B vaccine include pain where you had the injection, fever, tiredness, aches and pain and nausea. Allergic reactions are rare.

Typhoid is an infection caused by a bacterium called Salmonella typhi and is usually caused when contaminated food, milk or water is eaten or drunk. Symptoms of typhoid may include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, reduce appetite and cough. It can also lead to abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhoea, and complications such as bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of the condition do not usually appear for 7-14 days.

Typhoid is still a problem in many countries so you should discuss with your doctor the areas you will be travelling through and if this vaccination is required. Typhoid vaccination is usually recommended for travellers older than 2 years to countries with high levels of the disease in the population (including the Indian subcontinent and countries in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific). The risk of typhoid fever seems to be higher among travelers who are visiting friends and relatives in at-risk areas.

There is an oral typhoid vaccine (Vivotif) and also vaccines given by injection (Typherix, Typhim Vi), including a combined hepatitis A and typhoid vaccine (Vivaxim). Your doctor or travel health consultant will advise which is the right one for you.

The oral vaccine requires 3 doses taken over a week (sometimes 4 are given); the injected vaccine is a single dose vaccine. You will need to start the doses before you leave and, if you require other vaccinations, these will need to be timed to make sure there are no adverse reactions.

Side effects are rare with typhoid vaccines. If side effects do happen, they are usually mild and may include pain at the injection site (for the injected vaccine), fever and nausea.

Influenza

Influenza – the flu – is a common viral infection that can be spread from person to person very easily, and can be passed on very quickly in crowded areas or areas of close contact (such as on your plane flight). As such, this is an important vaccination for all travellers, especially if they will be travelling to an area during influenza season. Flu vaccination is recommended for children and adults wanting to avoid getting sick with influenza.

People over the age of 65 and those with underlying health problems are especially at risk, as are those travelling in large tourist groups or on cruises.

Fever, tiredness and muscle aches are common side effects of flu vaccination. Tenderness, pain, swelling and redness at the site where you had the injection is also common. Influenza-like symptoms can occur after vaccination (but this does not mean you have flu, as vaccines do not contain live virus and so cannot cause flu). Allergic reactions are rare.

Meningococcal disease

Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, more commonly known as meningococcus. Meningococcal infections usually cause meningitis (inflammation of the meninges — the lining of the brain and spinal cord), septicaemia (blood poisoning), or a combination of both.

Neisseria meningitidis can live in the external environment and, surprisingly, in the nasal passages, throat and windpipe of a proportion of the population without causing any problems. The meningococcus bacterium is transmitted through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Meningococcal disease is one of the most serious bacterial diseases and can cause death or may result in serious long-term health problems. Fortunately, there is normally a very low risk of contracting meningococcal disease except if you are travelling in areas where epidemics are currently occurring.

Outbreaks and epidemics of meningococcal disease are commonly seen in the dry season in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in areas extending from Senegal to Ethiopia, which has been referred to as the ‘meningitis belt’.

You should check with your doctor or a travel health centre for information about major epidemic sites. If you are travelling in identified high-risk areas, especially in the dry season, you should have a suitable meningococcal vaccine for protection.

Meningococcal vaccination is currently not required for entry into most countries. However, proof of recent vaccination is required by Saudi Arabia for pilgrims travelling to Mecca for the annual Hajj or for the Umrah.

Strains of meningococcus

Of the 13 different strains (or serogroups) of meningococcus, the ones that commonly cause disease globally include strains A, B, C, W135 and Y.

Meningococcal vaccinations recommended for travellers

Travellers should be aware that there is no single meningococcal vaccine that protects against all strains of meningococcal disease. However, quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (e.g. Menactra, Menveo, Mencevax, Nimenrix) offers protection against 4 strains of meningococci — A, C, W135 and Y, and is recommended if you are travelling to current meningococcal epidemic areas or staying in regions that have been known to be at risk of epidemics. Proof of immunisation with quadrivalent vaccine is required by Saudi Arabia for pilgrims visiting Mecca for the Hajj or Umrah.

Note that the meningococcal vaccine currently given as part of the Australian National Immunisation Program only protects against meningococcal C and is not suitable for travel to meningococcal risk areas. There is also a vaccine against meningococcal type B (Bexsero) which is currently available on private prescription only, but again this only protects against one strain and is not suitable protection for travel to meningococcal epidemic areas.

The recommended quadrivalent vaccination for adult travellers is a single dose and immunity generally lasts for 3 to 5 years. Booster doses may be needed after 5 years for further travel to at-risk areas. The number of doses needed for child travellers varies according to their age and the vaccine brand given – check with your doctor or travel clinic about doses in children.

Possible side effects associated with quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination include mild redness and soreness at the injection site and mild fever.

Rabies

Rabies virus is a Lyssavirus and is closely related to the Australian bat lyssavirus. Rabies is a serious viral infection that is almost always fatal. It is usually transmitted by the bite, scratch or saliva of an infected animal, such as a dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk or monkey. It is seen in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Rabies is present in many popular holiday destinations for Australians, such as Indonesia (including Bali) and Thailand.

All travellers to affected areas are generally advised to avoid close contact with animals and to know how to give first aid if they are bitten by an animal. Avoid feeding or patting animals, even where tourists are encouraged to do so.

Vaccinations for rabies and lyssavirus infection can be given before travelling (called pre-exposure prophylaxis) or after a bite from an animal to prevent infection (called post-exposure prophylaxis). Post-exposure prophylaxis involves a combination of rabies vaccination (e.g. Merieux Inactivated Rabies Vaccine or Rabipur) and immunoglobulin (Imogam) given as soon as possible after the bite or scratch. Be aware that post-exposure prophylaxis may not be easily available at some destinations.

Vaccination before travelling may be advisable for some people, especially those who are likely to be interacting with animals, and consists of 3 injections. Vaccination after a bite or exposure to a rabid animal consists of 2-5 injections given at set intervals starting as soon as possible after exposure, and again may not be available at the destination. Every year there are cases of travellers returning to Australia requiring post-exposure prophylaxis.

Possible side effects relating to rabies vaccination include pain at the injection site, headaches, tiredness and nausea. Severe allergic reactions are rare, but mild to moderate reactions can occur after a booster dose of rabies vaccine. Allergic reactions may cause generalised itching, swelling, fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting and joint pain.

Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis is a viral infection that results from the bite of an infected mosquito and is commonly seen in areas of Asia including India and Bali in Indonesia. Japanese encephalitis vaccination (e.g. Imogev, JEspect) may be recommended if you are travelling to Asia in the wet season, for a month or more or making repeated visits. Vaccination may also be recommended if you intend to visit rural areas, spend a lot of time outdoors or travel to places that do not have mosquito nets, insect screens or air-conditioning.

Vaccination involves one dose or 2 doses 28 days apart, depending on your age and the brand of vaccine given. In some cases, a booster is needed after 1-2 years.

Common side effects include injection site pain and swelling, headache, fever, muscle aches, fatigue and tiredness.

Yellow fever

Yellow fever can occur after being bitten by a mosquito infected with the yellow fever virus. The name comes from some of the symptoms – fever and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Yellow fever can be life-threatening.

Yellow fever vaccination is recommended for travellers older than 9 months of age who will be travelling to an area with a risk of yellow fever virus transmission, e.g. some areas of Africa and South America.

Vaccination can only be carried out by approved Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres. Many GP surgeries are approved yellow fever vaccination providers. Details of centres can be obtained from your state or territory health department and are widely available on the internet. The vaccine (Stamaril) is very effective and usually offers protection for decades after a single dose. Some people may need a booster after 10 years if they are still at risk of infection. Babies younger than 9 months and those with allergy to eggs that causes anaphylaxis cannot be vaccinated.

An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) against yellow fever is needed to travel to many countries if you are arriving there from a country with a risk of yellow fever transmission. If you cannot be vaccinated, you will need a letter of exemption to be allowed entry to these countries.

Most people who experience side effects have only mild symptoms, including mild fever, headache and muscle pains. Rarely, significant side effects are associated with the yellow fever vaccine. The risk of side effects is higher in older people and include disorders of the nervous system and multi-organ system failure, which are similar to yellow fever itself.

Cholera

Cholera is a type of gastroenteritis that is commonly contracted through eating or drinking contaminated food or water. Cholera occurs regularly in Africa, Asia, South America and Central America, and epidemics can occur after natural disasters. Cholera produces profuse watery diarrhoea of sudden onset that leads to dehydration. Severe dehydration can lead to death.

There is an oral cholera vaccine (Dukoral) available in Australia, but it is not given routinely. Its effect is relatively short lasting and for most people the risk of catching cholera is low. Vaccination is needed only if you will be in high-risk situations in high-risk areas. Discuss this with your doctor or travel medicine professional.

The Dukoral vaccine is given as a drink, in 2 doses at least one week apart for adults and children older than 6 years. Younger children require 3 doses. For those who continue to travel to high risk areas, booster doses should be given at 6 months for children aged 6 years and younger; and 2 years for adults and children older than 6 years.

Side effects are uncommon. Some people have mild abdominal (tummy) pain and diarrhoea after taking the cholera vaccine.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection, and most cases in Australia occur in people who were born in Asia, southern and eastern Europe, the Pacific Islands and north and sub-Saharan Africa.

Tuberculosis usually only occurs in healthy people after long term contact with an infected person. Vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) may be recommended for some young children travelling to overseas countries for an extended period where there is an increased risk of infection, but is not normally recommended for healthy adults. Vaccination may be recommended based on your child’s age and where are how long they will be travelling for. If vaccination is needed, it is best given at least 3 months before departure. Vaccination is available from state and territory tuberculosis services. The vaccine used for tuberculosis immunisation is called BCG vaccine and is in short supply worldwide. The current version used in Australia (BCG 10) is not registered by the Therapeutic Goods Association (TGA).

A local skin reaction is expected at the injection site following tuberculosis vaccination. Swelling and tenderness of the local lymph nodes may also occur, and in rare cases an abscess may form at the injection site.

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Last Reviewed: 08/01/2018

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