Type a personality characteristics

Type A and B Personality

By Saul McLeod, updated 2017

This type of personality concerns how people respond to stress. However, although its name implies a personality typology, it is more appropriately conceptualized as a trait continuum, with extremes Type-A and Type-B individuals on each end.

Research Background

Friedman and Rosenman (both cardiologists) actually discovered the Type A behaviour by accident after they realized that their waiting-room chairs needed to be reupholstered much sooner than anticipated.

When the upholsterer arrived to do the work, he carefully inspected the chairs and noted that the upholstery had worn in an unusual way: “there’s something different about your patients, I’ve never seen anyone wear out chairs like this.”

Unlike most patients, who wait patiently, the cardiac patients seemed unable to sit in their seats for long and wore out the arms of the chairs. They tended to sit on the edge of the seat and leaped up frequently.

However, the doctors initially dismissed this remark, and it was only five years later that they began their formal research.

Friedman and Rosenman (1976) labeled this behaviour Type A personality. They subsequently conduced research to show that people with type A personality run a higher risk of heart disease and high blood pressure than type Bs.

Although originally called ‘Type A personality’ by Friedman and Rosenman it has now been conceptualized as a set of behavioural responses collectively known as Type A Behaviour Pattern.

Type A Behaviour Pattern (TABP)

Competitiveness

Type A individuals tend to be very competitive and self-critical. They strive toward goals without feeling a sense of joy in their efforts or accomplishments.

Interrelated with this is the presence of a significant life imbalance. This is characterized by a high work involvement. Type A individuals are easily ‘wound up’ and tend to overreact. They also tend to have high blood pressure (hypertension).

Time Urgency

Type A personalities experience a constant sense of urgency: Type A people seem to be in a constant struggle against the clock.

Often, they quickly become impatient with delays and unproductive time, schedule commitments too tightly, and try to do more than one thing at a time, such as reading while eating or watching television.

Hostility

Type A individuals tend to be easily aroused to anger or hostility, which they may or may not express overtly. Such individuals tend to see the worse in others, displaying anger, envy and a lack of compassion.

When this behaviour is expressed overtly (i.e., physical behaviour) it generally involves aggression and possible bullying (Forshaw, 2012). Hostility appears to be the main factor linked to heart disease and is a better predictor than the TAPB as a whole.

Type B & C Personalities

People with Type B personality tend to be more tolerant of others, are more relaxed than Type A individuals, more reflective, experience lower levels of anxiety and display a higher level of imagination and creativity.

The Type C personality has difficulty expressing emotion and tends to suppress emotions, particularly negative ones such as anger. This means such individual also display ‘pathological niceness,’ conflict avoidance, high social desirability, over compliance and patience.

Empirical Research

Friedman & Rosenman (1976) conducted a longitudinal study to test their hypothesis that Type A personality could predict incidents of heart disease. The Western Collaborative Group Study followed 3154 healthy men, aged between thirty-nine and fifty-nine for eight and a half years.

Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire.

Examples of questions asked by Friedman & Rosenman:

  • Do you feel guilty if you use spare time to relax?
  • Do you need to win in order to derive enjoyment from games and sports?
  • Do you generally move, walk and eat rapidly?
  • Do you often try to do more than one thing at a time?
  • From their responses, and from their manner, each participant was put into one of two groups:

    Type A behaviour: competitive, ambitious, impatient, aggressive, fast talking.

    Type B behaviour: relaxed, non-competitive.

    According to the results of the questionnaire 1589 individuals were classified as Type A personalities, and 1565 Type B.

    Findings

    The researchers found that more than twice as many Type A people as Type B people developed coronary heart disease. When the figures were adjusted for smoking, lifestyle, etc. it still emerged that Type A people were nearly twice as likely to develop heart disease as Type B people.

    For example, eight years later 257 of the participants had developed coronary heart disease. By the end of the study, 70% of the men who had developed coronary heart disease (CHD) were Type A personalities.

    The Type A personality types behaviour makes them more prone to stress-related illnesses such as CHD, raised blood pressure, etc.

    Such people are more likely to have their ”flight or fight” response set off by things in their environment.

    As a result, they are more likely to have the stress hormones present, which over a long period of time leads to a range of stress-related illnesses.

    Research Evaluation

    Limitations of the study involve problems with external validity. Because the study used an all male sample it is unknown if the results could be generalized to a female population.

    Studies carried out on women have not shown such a major difference between Type A and Type B and subsequent health. This may suggest that different coping strategies are just as important as personality.

    The study was able to control for other important variables, such as smoking and lifestyle. This is good as it makes it less likely that such extraneous variables could confound the results of the study.

    Theoretical Evaluation

    However, there are a number of problems with the type A and B approach. Such approaches have been criticized for attempting to describe complex human experiences within narrowly defined parameters. Many people may not fit easily into a type A or B person.

    A longitudinal study carried out by Ragland and Brand (1988) found that as predicted by Friedman Type A men were more likely to suffer from coronary heart disease. Interestingly, though, in a follow up to their study, they found that of the men who survived coronary events Type A men died at a rate much lower than type B men.

    The major problem with the Type A and Type B theory is actually determining which factors are influencing coronary heart disease. Some research (e.g., Johnston, 1993) has concentrated on hostility, arguing that the Type A behaviour pattern is characterized by underlying hostility which is a major factor leading to coronary heart disease.

    Other research has investigated the way that type A people experience and cope with stress, which is the major factor leading to coronary heart disease. It would seem that a much more sophisticated model is needed to predict coronary heart disease than Friedman and Rosenman’s Type A & Type B approach.

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    How to reference this article:

    McLeod, S. A. (2017). Type A personality. Simply psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-a.html

    APA Style References

    Forshaw, M., & Sheffield, D. (Eds.). (2012). Health psychology in action. John Wiley & Sons.

    Download this article as a PDF

    McLeod, S. A. (2017). Type A personality. Simply psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-a.html

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    Cluster A Personality Disorders and Traits

    There are a variety of treatments available for personality disorders. For many, a combination of treatments works best. When recommending a treatment plan, your doctor will take into account the type of personality disorder you have and how severely in interferes with your daily life.

    You might need to try a few different treatments before you find what works best for you. This may be a very frustrating process, but try to keep the end result — more control over your thoughts, feelings, and behavior — in the front of your mind.

    Psychotherapy

    Psychotherapy refers to talk therapy. It involves meeting with a therapist to discuss your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. There are many types of psychotherapy that take place in a variety of settings.

    Talk therapy can take place on an individual, family, or group level. Individual sessions involve working one-on-one with a therapist. During a family session, your therapist will have a close friend or family member who’s been affected by your condition join the session.

    Group therapy involves a therapist leading a conversation among a group of people with similar conditions and symptoms. This can be a great way to connect with others going through similar issues and talk about what has or hasn’t worked.

    Other types of therapy that might help include:

    • Cognitive behavioral therapy. This is a type of talk therapy that focuses on making you more aware of your thought patterns, allowing you to better control them.
    • Dialectical behavioral therapy. This type of therapy is closely related to cognitive behavioral therapy. It often involves a combination of individual talk therapy and group sessions to learn skills for how to manage your symptoms.
    • Psychoanalytic therapy. This is a type of talk therapy that focuses on uncovering and resolving unconscious or buried emotions and memories.
    • Psychoeducation. This type of therapy focuses on helping you better understand your condition and what it involves.

    Medication

    There are no medications specifically approved to treat personality disorders. There are, however, certain medications that your prescriber may use “off label” to help you with certain symptoms.

    Additionally, some people with personality disorders may have another mental health disorder which can be the focus of clinical attention. The best medications for you will depend on individual circumstances, such as the severity of your symptoms and the presence of co-occurring mental disorders.

    Medications include:

    • Antidepressants. Antidepressants help treat symptoms of depression, but they can also reduce impulsive behavior or feelings or anger and frustration.
    • Anti-anxiety medications. Medications for anxiety can help manage symptoms of dread or perfectionism.
    • Mood stabilizers. Mood stabilizers help prevent mood swings and reduce irritability and aggression.
    • Antipsychotics. Medications used to treat psychosis can be helpful for people who easily lose touch with reality or see and hear things that aren’t there.

    Make sure to tell your doctor about any medications you’ve tried in the past. This can help them better determine how you’ll respond to different options.

    If you try a new medication, let your doctor know if you experience uncomfortable side effects. They can either adjust your dosage or give you tips for managing side effects.

    Keep in mind that medication side effects often subside once your body gets used to the mediation.

    The 25 Things That People With Type A Personalities Do

    There are two personality types of people: Type A and Type B.

    Quite honestly, I find that to be an overgeneralization. There are two sides of the personality spectrum: the Type A side and the Type B side. Those who would be grouped mostly towards the Type A side of the spectrum are those that are more driven, more focused, more goal-oriented, more diligent, more likely to get stressed and emotional, more likely to have heart attacks and more likely to have mental breakdowns. To think we started out with such good traits…

    The other side of the spectrum includes, well, everybody else. Those grouped mostly towards Type B aren’t as driven or goal-oriented, are more laidback and more careless.

    There are definitely benefits to both types, but Generation-Y strongly believes, and for good reason, that Type A personalities are superior.

    I, myself, am a Type A personality, so I have no qualms in saying that we are the sh*t; we are. The trick is to be a very rational and intelligent Type A personality.

    Unfortunately, Type A’s don’t always come with a high IQ or clearer understanding of oneself. If you are a Type A personality and can manage to control your faults, though, then you have a very bright future ahead of you. Here are 25 habits of Type A people:

    1. They don’t procrastinate. They hate the idea of wasting time so they do things the moment they come to mind. Why wait and do it later when you can just do it now?

    2. They always have a task list — a never-ending one. If there is another day to be lived, then there is another set of tasks to be accomplished.

    3. They have several alarms set throughout the day so they always stay on top of things. They wish they could remember it all in order to save time, but this is the best next thing.

    4. They have trouble understanding the stupidity of others. They don’t believe themselves to necessarily be exceptionally gifted or genius. So why is it that they are competent when almost everyone else seems like a moron?

    5. They don’t understand the concept of not being capable of doing something. To them, if something can physically be done, then why would they not be capable of doing it? If they need to learn something, they will.

    6. They understand that laziness is a choice. Most people talk about laziness as if it was some sort of disease. Type A’s look at such people as idiots. Laziness isn’t more of a disease than is ignorance.

    7. They often become passionate. If they are going to do something, then they are going to do something they believe to be meaningful. If it’s meaningful to them, then it deserves their fullest attention; passion is inevitable.

    8. …But not always for too long. Unfortunately, because they are so passionate, and because true success takes patience, any sort of early failure easily discourages them. They are likely to pack up and change careers in a heartbeat.

    9. They can be very emotional. Type A’s seem to be more strongly rooted in reality than most people. They seem to understand the world around them better, and because of this, they are more influenced by the outside world. Worse yet is that they are just as likely to be found lost in their thoughts — a very dangerous combination.

    10. They’re prone to stressing. Put simply, they worry a lot. They do their best to see into the future and can’t shake the fact that things can always go wrong. Plus, being as passionate as they are makes them dread that ever possible and looming, crappy outcome.

    11. Although they know they should take more time to relax, they don’t always find it appealing — and when they do, they simply can’t find the time. For them, they feel most at home working and doing their thing. It’s difficult for them to understand that getting away and slowing down is in their best interest.

    12. They love sleeping, but have trouble stopping their thoughts from racing. It’s not easy to fall asleep when your mind just keeps on running through thoughts and images. Stopping them is no easy task.

    13. They can muster superior focus. When things need to be done — for Type A’s, things always need to be done — they are able to focus intently and block out the rest of reality. They call it getting into their “zone.”

    14. They’re perfectionists. It’s not that they are trying to be perfect, but blemishes, mistakes and inconsistencies frustrate them. They find them ugly and appalling, not being able to allow them to pass their inspection. If they could, they would – but they simply can’t.

    15. Doing things efficiently is their first priority. As little time spent getting as much quality work done as humanly possible? If you just got a hard-on, then you’re a Type A personality.

    16. They make plans, lots of plans. If you want to achieve something, then Type A’s only find it logical that you should know how to get there. So they make plans. Unfortunately, making plans isn’t always efficient. Once they realize this, they revert to focusing less on planning and putting even more emphasis on efficiency.

    17. They center their life on their careers. Their careers are their passion, their purpose in life. Once they figure out what that is, there isn’t much else that interests them.

    18. More often than not, they feel that they are too busy to be in a relationship. This is sad, but true. Type A personalities often end up alone because they don’t allow themselves to date. They feel that they don’t have the time, so they don’t bother with trying to make a relationship work.

    19. They have a tendency to cut others off in conversation — not to be rude, but to be right. I mean, what’s the point of letting them yammer on with some nonsense when you can just tell them the way it really is, and then you can both move on with your lives, right?

    20. They love the spotlight. Some may call them attention-whores.

    21. Always having a plan for the worst-case scenario is a necessity. What’s the worst possible thing that you can possibly imagine happening to you? You losing your job? Your pet Pooky getting run over by a car? Cancer? Armageddon? Yup, they have a plan for that.

    22. They walk fast and with a purpose, doing all they can to avoid lines of any sort. To them, walking is getting from point A to point B in order to do what needs to be done at point B as soon as possible so that they can move on to point C. If you’re out for a leisurely walk, then find a park.

    23. They are punctual and expect others to be the same. Other peoples’ time is worth respecting. The sooner you’re in, the sooner you’re out. That’s what she said.

    24. Doing things with a purpose is the only way they know how to live. If there is not purpose behind action, then Type A personalities don’t see a reason for doing it in the first place. They understand that actions are only worth the goal they are trying to achieve.

    25. They love solving problems and believe there is always a solution. They believe the world to work in a logical manner – minus the illogical creatures that live in it – and therefore, believe that there must always be a solution for every problem. For the very few that may not have a solution, they should be forgotten.

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    What It Really Means to Have a Type A Personality, Revealed

    What do you think of when you hear the words, “Type A personality?” You probably envision somebody who’s competitive, spends a ton of time at work, and always seems stressed about something. But what does this notorious combination of personality traits mean for you? What does it look like to have a Type A personality? And, more interestingly, do you or someone you know have this personality type?

    Read on to get the answers to all your questions about what it means to have a Type A personality.

    What’s a Type A personality, and what’s a Type B personality?

    The two personality types are very different. | iStock.com/AntonioGuillem

    It stands to reason that if some people have a Type A personality, then other people have a Type B personality. And the differences between the two will probably make it clear to you which one you are. VeryWell Mind reports that Type A personality traits include competitiveness, time urgency, and a tendency toward workaholism. Many people — particularly Type A people — see those personality traits as beneficial for career success.

    However, Type B personalities can also be high achievers at work. They tend to focus less on competitiveness and more on enjoying the journey. According to VeryWell, “They may work hard and take real pride in their accomplishments, but they don’t attach the same stress to their outcomes if they don’t come in first or achieve the most, something that tends to create significant stress in Type As.” People with a Type B personality may also be more creative and low-stress by nature.

    What other personality traits do Type A people have?

    Do you suspect that you — or someone in your family or on your team at work — have a Type A personality? Then you probably recognize some of the personality traits above. VeryWell Mind reports that experts consider time urgency and impatience, as well as free-floating hostility or aggressiveness as hallmarks of a Type A personality. Psychology Today explains that the behavioral characteristics of a Type A personality also include a few more traits:

    • Hostility
    • Impatience
    • Difficulty expressing emotions
    • Competitiveness
    • Drive
    • Perfectionism
    • An unhealthy dependence on external rewards (e.g., wealth, status, or power)

    VeryWell Mind reports that Type A personality can also include strong achievement orientation and a need for dominance. Some people with a Type A personality may even have distinct physical characteristics, which result from years of stress and Type A behavior. These physical characteristics can include facial tension, tongue clicking, teeth grinding, dark circles under the eyes, and even facial sweating.

    Can a Type A personality affect my health?

    The extra stress that people with a Type A personality experience can take a toll on their health and lifestyle, according to VeryWell. There’s some association with hypertension, heart disease, job stress, and even social isolation. In fact, a Type A personality can play a distinct role in your health, according to U.S. News. “One of the aspects of the impatient, hard-charging Type A personality that is known to increase heart disease risk is hostility,” the publication notes. Hostile people eat more and smoke more than other personality types. They also exercise less.

    Hostile people are also more likely to become overweight. And they often have higher cholesterol and blood pressure. Even worse? Researchers have found that hostile people are also more likely to die before reaching their 50s. These effects are due to elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol, as well as increased inflammation in the walls of the coronary arteries. Learning to control your anger and communicate clearly can have definite health benefits!

    Why do people develop a Type A personality?

    If you have a Type A personality and don’t particularly like it, are you stuck? VeryWell Mind reports some personality traits — such as extroversion or introversion — are innate. But others come about as a reaction to environmental factors. (Even if you have a natural tendency to certain types of behavior.) For example, your job or career could place heavy penalties on mistakes, or create extra stress.

    VeryWell reports that some people “do have a natural tendency toward being more intense.” But not all hope is lost. As the publication explains, “This tendency can be exacerbated by environmental stress, or mitigated by conscious effort and lifestyle changes.” You can make changes to your work life, consciously shift your thought patterns, choose to become more patient with people, work on your patience levels, or take up stress-relieving hobbies.

    Read more: Stress at Work: Signs You’re Headed for a Nervous Breakdown

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    Understanding the 4 Personality Types: A, B, C, and D

    The approach taken by the Hire Success System is that each person is a unique combination of all Four Personality Types. Rather than put descriptive “labels” on people, we chose to keep it simple and refer to the various personality types as “A”, “B”, “C”, and “D”. Because the Applicant is instructed to respond to the Personality Profile Form based on how they are “At Work”, the result will indicate which of the 4 types they draw from most, and in varying degrees to the least.

    On the Summary Report, a bar chart is provided along with a Percentage “Strength” of each of the 4 Personality types. The higher the percentage, the “stronger”, or more dominant that personality type. When two or more personality types are close, or the same, in strength, the Applicant may be characteristic of each of the types equally.

    The Type “X” Personality

    Whenever two or more Personality types are equal in strength, the Hire Success System will add an “X” to those personality types. For example, if an Applicant’s two highest strength Personality Types were “A” and “B”, the System would report them as “AX” and “BX”. In the extremely rare event that all four types were identical, the Applicant would be considered an “X” personality type by Hire Success.

    The “X” indicates a “cross”, or an intersection of two or more types. It is not unusual to see the “X” between two of the 4 personality types, and it does not necessarily have to include the Primary (or strongest) Personality. However, when it does include the Primary Personality, the Applicant may have a tendency to be like one type in one situation and the other type in yet another situation. Even when all 4 types are very close in strength, the Applicant may seem like a “chameleon” of Personalities. In many instances, this can be beneficial for many jobs, especially when it is important that they be able to get along with almost everybody, such as consultative sales people for example. The “X” personality type tends to change Personality “colors” as needed based on who they may be with. Although somewhat unpredictable at times, this rare combination could be an important asset if utilized fully.

    The Type “A” Personality

    The “A” personality likes to be in charge and be in control of their environment and their lives. They are normally not very detail oriented, choosing to delegate details to others. They are usually very goal oriented and practical in their solutions. However, arriving at their solutions and goals will entail a no-nonsense, “bottom-line” approach.

    Type “A” personalities don’t like a lot of restraints or restrictions placed on them, preferring instead to work independently and set their own schedules. Since they often tend to be a workaholic, it is not unusual to see them put in whatever time and effort it takes to accomplish their goal. They may seem impatient at times especially if they believe someone is spending too much time going over details with them or impeding their successful completion of whatever goal or project they are focusing on at the moment.

    Don’t be surprised to see this personality type in a supervisory position or management. Having an entrepreneurial streak, they may be a business owner or strive to own their own business someday. The type “A” personality is not easily discouraged and will normally exude confidence.

    If their job is “routine” or repetitive day by day, they will get bored easily and not enjoy the work. They will want it to appear they are “tough” in these situations but internally may be miserable if the job is too routine. The type “A” personality will do whatever is necessary to prevent themselves from falling into a pattern or routine and seek freedom and independence instead. They will also be very dissatisfied if they believe someone is trying to take advantage of them or hold them back.

    The “A” personality may not be very good at recognizing co-worker’s feelings and needs; not because they don’t care, but because they are so focused on achieving their goals. If you’re looking for someone who works well under pressure and seems to excel in high stress situations, the type “A” personality is probably what you’re looking for.

    The Type “B” Personality

    The “B” personality is a very outgoing, energetic and fast paced individual who likes to be around people and enjoys being the center of attention. They are good relationship builders and most people like them right away. Their driving need is for approval, so they try and like everyone in hopes everyone will in turn reciprocate and like them too. Compliments, acknowledgement of their achievements, words of admiration and even applause from groups will be the most important thing you can do for them.

    Type “B” personalities love to talk about themselves and some may view them as self-centered, but their real motivation is to be liked. An extreme example was the character played by Bette Midler in the movie “Beaches” when she invited an old friend up to see her lavish apartment and told her friend about her own success. Then she said to the friend: “Enough about me, let’s talk about you. So what do you think of me?”

    Their biggest fear is being humiliated in public, since that might make many people disapprove of them and the thought of that would be devastating. The “B” personality doesn’t want to appear unattractive or unsuccessful either, so they will make sure their appearance is impeccable and will always give the impression of being very successful at whatever they do, whether they are or not.

    Some of the strengths you can count on from the “B” personality are their enthusiasm, outgoing behavior, friendliness towards others, and their ability to persuade even the most skeptical of people. They tend to be “dreamers” and can often turn those dreams into very practical ideas in the workplace. Type “B” personalities are normally spontaneous and use their quick wit and humor to make people like them. They aren’t too good about hiding their own feelings either, so if they are hurt or disappointed, you’ll probably be able to read it in their mannerisms and overall disposition.

    Some of the natural weaknesses that are associated with the “B” personality include being impatient, having a relatively short attention span, and not being very detail oriented. In business, type “B” personalities may tend to socialize at work and not spend as much time doing their work because they strive for the social interaction. Although this is their natural tendency, many have learned to control themselves and keep their social nature in perspective.

    The Type “C” Personality

    The “C” personality is a very detail oriented individual that likes to be involved in things that are controlled and stable. They are interested in accuracy, rationality and logic. People who can’t seem to control their emotions will bother them because they believe being emotional makes objectivity difficult or perhaps impossible. They will also dislike being around people who are full of “hype”, since they desire facts, accuracy, and logic. Other people’s emotions may not be a priority for them as they tend to strive for the facts and “let the chips fall where they may”.

    Type “C” personalities tend to be quite controlling, both of themselves and others. They don’t like things to get out of hand and may not appear very expressive at times because they don’t really want themselves to display a lot of emotion. They are very outcome driven and will be sticklers for following procedures and protocol in getting the job done. They are careful, resourceful, and above all, excellent thinkers who will look at all aspects of an issue before taking a stand. Once they take a stand on an issue, they will have the facts to back it up so anyone who challenges them better be prepared.

    They like their jobs to be clearly defined and want to know exactly what is expected of them. Knowing those facts, they will be able to prioritize their tasks and see them through to completion.

    When in decision making roles, they are cautious, logical and require many details and facts before they make a decision. People who try to sell them something by trying to get them emotionally involved usually fail to get them to buy because the type “C” personality will consider them a “hype artist” and wonder what facts they are trying to hide with all that hype.

    In more public roles, the type “C” personality will strive for originality, cleverness and uniqueness in whatever they happen to be doing. Because of their detail orientation, they are meticulously prepared with all the details so nothing is left for anyone to disagree with. Many accountants and lawyers, for example, are “C” personalities. They are excellent for any job that requires creative thinking based on patience, facts and accuracy.

    The Type “D” Personality

    The “D” personality takes a slower, easy pace toward their job and life in general. They seek security and longevity on the job and are very happy doing a repetitive task, day in and day out as the repetition allows them to become very skilled in what the do. They won’t like it, however, if the rules change a lot as that is contrary to their desire to minimize change and stick with what they know works. One extreme example we’ve all seen or heard of are bookkeepers who refuse to use computers because they can count on the old way and don’t want to change. The “D” will resist change out of concern that even though the current way may be unpleasant, the unknown may be even more unpleasant.

    They seek the respect, sincere admiration, and acceptance of others. The type “D” personality will willingly work hard to please the people they work for as long as they feel appreciated and receive plenty of reassurance that they are needed, thus providing a sense of security that they need. They often think the “A” personality type is crazy for taking so many risks and not showing much concern for security and longevity.

    Type “D” personalities are usually very organized and being around a messy environment or disorganization will bother them. They are also good at playing a very supportive role with others and are normally very caring, thoughtful, and compassionate. They are patient, good listeners and will persevere when all others have given up. They especially like working in a group or on a team and will be a stabilizing force within that group or team.

    Although they may not be as fast as others, they are accurate and thorough. They will usually keep their feelings to themselves and are reluctant to express themselves, even if a more assertive type seems to be taking advantage of them. They will probably choose to “go along to get along”.

    To attract the “D” type personality, be sure and talk about the company benefit package and the long-term growth potential within the company. Having a secure, stable environment will be very important to the “D” personality.

    Application Of the 4 Basic Personality Types: A, B, C, and D

    The descriptions above are the same, or similar to what you will see printed on the Hire Success Overview Report. The System automatically provides a description of the Primary Personality at the beginning of the Overview Report. Variations of the above will be printed if the personality is an “X” personality combined with another type.

    These type A, B, C, and D personality descriptions are “classical” descriptions designed to provide you with some background information about this particular Personality. The Hire Success System uses this classical description for contrast for the specific descriptions and values found in the Traits Section of the Report. In many cases, the Applicant’s individual traits may differ, at least to some degree, from what you may see described in the overall Personality Description.

    The Hire Success System determines the Traits independently of the Personality calculation and does not base Trait information on what might be expected from a particular Personality type. This opens the door to highlight those differences that make this Applicant a unique individual, not one squeezed into one of 4 boxes. If and when you see a Trait differ from what might be described in the Personality Overview, it is not a mistake. Quite the contrary, it is most likely the true trait you can expect to see from the Applicant on a day-to-day basis and not just an “expectation” based on a Classical Type A, B, C, or D Personality Description.

    Examples of Personality Traits

    By popping open your journal and recording the answers to these questions, you can use the information to discover your true personality. Let’s dive a little bit deeper.

    Examples of Positive Personality Traits

    Some, if not most, of your personality traits are likely to be positive. For example:

    • Being honest and taking responsibility for your actions are admirable qualities.
    • Adaptability and compatibility are great traits that can help you get along with others.
    • Drive and determination will help you keep going no matter what.
    • Compassion and understanding mean you relate well to others.
    • Patience is a virtue and also a good personality trait.
    • Courage will help you do what’s right in tough situations.
    • Loyalty is a good quality to possess, making others trust you.

    Here is a list of positive adjectives that can help you describe personality traits:

    Adventurous Helpful
    Affable Humble
    Capable Imaginative
    Charming Impartial
    Confident Independent
    Conscientious Keen
    Cultured Meticulous
    Dependable Observant
    Discreet Optimistic
    Dutiful Persistent
    Encouraging Precise
    Exuberant Reliable
    Fair Sociable
    Fearless Trusting
    Gregarious Valiant

    Examples of Negative Personality Traits

    What would life be without balance? Whether we like to admit it or not, some of our personality traits are also likely to be negative:

    • A propensity for lying, in order to avoid responsibility for our actions, is a deplorable quality.
    • Being rigid and selfish, unyielding to the needs of others are not endearing qualities.
    • Being full of laziness and excuses is sure to drive others away, too.
    • An inability to empathize with others will also alienate us from others.
    • Being quick to anger will turn people away.
    • Being disloyal, quick to talk about others behind their backs or, worse, stab them in the back for personal gain also falls high on the scale of negative personality traits.

    Here is a list of negative adjectives that may describe aspects of personalities from time to time:

    Arrogant Quarrelsome
    Boorish Rude
    Bossy Sarcastic
    Conceited Self-centered
    Cowardly Slovenly
    Dishonest Sneaky
    Finicky Stingy
    Impulsive Sullen
    Lazy Surly
    Malicious Thoughtless
    Obnoxious Unfriendly
    Picky Unruly
    Pompous Vulgar

    Determining Personality Types

    There are many different personality types. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, there are sixteen different types. It’s unlikely that a person would fit into a single mold, but it is interesting to see which “mold” we tend toward.

    Your personality type can be determined by many factors. One way to discover your personality type is to approach it scientifically. Test yourself online or ask a psychologist or therapist to analyze you.

    In psychology, there are five factors that determine different personality traits. The big five factors are:

    1. Openness: appreciation for a variety of experiences.
    2. Conscientiousness: planning ahead rather than being spontaneous.
    3. Extraversion: being sociable, energetic and talkative.
    4. Agreeableness: being kind, sympathetic and happy to help.
    5. Neuroticism: inclined to worry or be vulnerable or temperamental.

    Your personality test will assess how much of each of the big five factors you possess. This will help you gain more insight into your internal experience so you can make sense of your own thoughts and behaviors.

    How Do I Create My Personality?

    Your personality is set by no one but you. It encompasses the actions you take and the decisions you make. Either you are a patient person or not, a responsible person or not. Try asking yourself some searching questions to discover just what kind of person you are, such as: “if you found an animal hurt and alone, what would you do?” or “if you won the lottery how would you spend your time and money?”.

    You may not be able to change your personality type, but you can change aspects of your personality by taking determined, active steps to become a more balanced person. Taking up a hobby is a great way to become a well-rounded individual. Sports can help you learn teamwork, arts and crafts can make you more patient, volunteering can help you become more caring. Even just reading a book can expand your horizons and push you to be better.

    How Can My Personality Affect Others?

    Being positive and upbeat can influence everyone around you, and so can negativity. For example, a friendly smile to a stranger can brighten up their day, just as a glare can cause their mood to drop. Bear in mind the famous Bible quote from Jesus of Nazareth, “Do unto others as you would have them do to you”.

    While you may not be able to help it if you are having a bad day, or if you don’t like doing a particular task, changing your attitude changes everything. Complaining and sulking will only make time drag when doing an unpleasant job. Instead, try to shift your thoughts and redirect your mind. Being a more pleasant person helps everyone.

    The Main Characteristics of Type A Personality

    Before talking about a specific type of personality, we should get the basic concept out of the way. Personality is the set of characteristics that defines human beings, given that it distinguishes us from others. Furthermore, it serves to predict our attitudes and behaviors. Psychology understands personality as a pattern of feelings, emotions, thoughts, and behavior tendencies that remain stable over time and differentiate an individual from another. Although there are many types, in this article we’re going to be talking specifically about Type A personality.

    There are many different classifications and personality theories. Basically, every single theory focuses on classifying personality into types. Others, however, prefer to classify them into profiles or groups of traits that define the entire personality structure. In this article, we’ll focus on Friedman and Rosenman’s personality theory.

    Both of these authors were cardiologists. In the 50s, they conducted several studies on personality types. As a result, they discovered two types: Type A and Type B (and Type C later on). While Type A personality is characterized by very strong and rigid features, Type B is characterized by greater flexibility and docility in behavioral tendencies and attitudes.

    Type A Personality

    Three solid characteristics define this personality: competitiveness, sense of urgency, and hostility. These three attributes come to the surface mainly in stressful and challenging situations. In other words, a person with Type A personality isn’t competitive and impatient in every aspect of their personal life. Instead, they show these three characteristics in determined situations.

    Competitiveness

    Those with Type A personality are extremely goal-oriented. Thus, they strive to give the best of themselves and stand out from the rest in most (if not all) situations. They want to be the best in everything they do. Being able to show the best performance in stressful or challenging situations is important to them. Mind you, they don’t give up easily.

    The competitiveness of this personality also leads to a very high level of self-demand since they seek success in pretty much everything they do. For type A people, achieving a goal is a satisfactory experience. In fact, reaching an active goal is these people’s cerebral reward.

    Sense of Urgency

    Another characteristic that defines Type A personality is impatience or sense of urgency. No matter the situation, these people want everything right away. These people have a hard time waiting and have a great need to solve problems immediately. Clearly, this leads them to make wrong decisions due to impulsiveness and imprudence. Waiting is not in their vocabulary because they basically have a different perception of time than the rest. They may even prefer to lower the quality of their work in exchange for finishing it faster.

    Hostility

    Under stressful situations, people with this personality type tend to show a high level of hostility. They demonstrate this by being verbally or even physically aggressive. These people are very quick to raise their voice and use a threatening tone almost without realizing it. It’s as if this were an automatic trait. Also, this hostility leads to hypervigilance. It’s almost like they’re always waiting for a threat to show up so they feel they always need to be prepared to defend themselves.

    What Does Type A personality Influence?

    Researchers defined this personality as a result of studying the stress response of a group of test subjects. While some of them responded with reactive and proactive stress (type A), others responded with reflection, passivity, and calmness (type B). This is why those with type A personality tend to develop cardiovascular diseases.

    But does that mean they’ll all eventually suffer from cardiovascular diseases? No. This personality type is a risk factor, meaning that a stressful person with this personality type is more likely to suffer from a heart attack or a dangerous hypertension episode than a person with another personality type. This shows why it’s so important for these people to go to therapy in order to regulate their personality traits. Believe it or not, with therapeutic work, they can be modified.

    This personality pattern makes coexistence and teamwork difficult. That being said, in addition to influencing their health, this personality type influences these people’s relationship with the rest of the world. As a matter of fact, type A people usually prefer to work alone or in tasks that are as independent as possible. Without a doubt, their impatience hinders their friendships/relationships in general.

    Nonetheless, therapy can help regulate this personality type. Moreover, certain work environments have intervention programs specifically aimed at balancing the triad of Type A traits.

    As a conclusion, it’s important to emphasize that this personality requires psychological counseling, as it’s essential for these people to develop emotional self-management strategies.

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