Tresiba insulin side effects

Tresiba

SIDE EFFECTS

The following adverse reactions are also discussed elsewhere:

  • Hypoglycemia
  • Medication errors
  • Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions
  • Hypokalemia

Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The safety of TRESIBA in subjects with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes was evaluated in nine trials of 6-12 month duration in adults and in one trial of 12-month duration in pediatric patients 1 year of age and older with type 1 diabetes. The cardiovascular safety of TRESIBA was evaluated in one double-blinded, event-driven trial of 2-year median duration in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular events .

The data in Table 1 reflect the exposure of 1102 adults with type 1 diabetes to TRESIBA with a mean exposure duration to TRESIBA of 34 weeks in three open-label trials. The mean age was 43 years and 1% were older than 75 years. Fifty-seven percent were male, 81% were White, 2% were Black or African American and 4% were Hispanic. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 26 kg/m². The mean duration of diabetes was 18 years and the mean HbA1c at baseline was 7.8%. A history of neuropathy, ophthalmopathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular disease at baseline was reported in 11%, 16%, 7% and 0.5% respectively. The mean eGFR at baseline was 87 mL/min/1.73 m² and 7% of the patients had an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m².

The data in Table 2 reflect the exposure of 2713 adults with type 2 diabetes to TRESIBA with a mean exposure duration to TRESIBA of 36 weeks in six open-label trials. The mean age was 58 years and 3% were older than 75 years. Fifty-eight percent were male, 71% were White, 7% were Black or African American and 13% were Hispanic. The mean BMI was 30 kg/m². The mean duration of diabetes was 11 years and the mean HbA1c at baseline was 8.3%. A history of neuropathy, ophthalmopathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular disease at baseline was reported for 14%, 10%, 6% and 0.6% of participants respectively. At baseline, the mean eGFR was 83 mL/min/1.73 m² and 9% had an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m².

Common adverse reactions (excluding hypoglycemia) occurring in TRESIBA treated subjects during clinical trials in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus are listed in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively. Common adverse reactions were defined as reactions occurring in ≥5% of the population studied. Hypoglycemia is not shown in these tables but discussed in a dedicated subsection below.

174 pediatric patients 1 year of age and older with type 1 diabetes were exposed to TRESIBA with a mean exposure to TRESIBA of 48 weeks. The mean age was 10 years: 25% were ages 1-5 years, 40% were ages 6-11 years, and 35% were ages 12-17 years. 55.2% were male, 78.2% were White, 2.9% were Black or African American and 4% were Hispanic. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 18.7 kg/m². The mean duration of diabetes was 3.9 years and the mean HbA1c at baseline was 8.2%. Common adverse reactions in TRESIBA treated pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were similar to the adverse reactions listed in Table 1.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of TRESIBA-Treated Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Table 2: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥5% of TRESIBA-Treated Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Adverse Reaction TRESIBA
(n=2713)
Nasopharyngitis 12.9 %
Headache 8.8 %
Upper respiratory tract infection 8.4 %
Diarrhea 6.3 %

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is the most commonly observed adverse reaction in patients using insulin, including TRESIBA . The rates of reported hypoglycemia depend on the definition of hypoglycemia used, diabetes type, insulin dose, intensity of glucose control, background therapies, and other intrinsic and extrinsic patient factors. For these reasons, comparing rates of hypoglycemia in clinical trials for TRESIBA with the incidence of hypoglycemia for other products may be misleading and also, may not be representative of hypoglycemia rates that will occur in clinical practice.

In the open-label adult clinical trials of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and in the open-label pediatric clinical trial of patients with type 1 diabetes, percentages of adult and pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes randomized to TRESIBA who experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia in clinical trials and adults with type 2 diabetes are shown in Tables 3 and 4, respectively.

Severe hypoglycemia in the open-label trials with adult patients was defined as an episode requiring assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrate, glucagon, or other resuscitative actions. Severe hypoglycemia in the pediatric trial was defined as an altered mental status where the child could not assist in his own care, was semiconscious or unconscious, or in a coma ± convulsions and may require parenteral therapy (glucagon or intravenous glucose). A Novo Nordisk hypoglycemia episode was defined as a severe hypoglycemia episode or an episode where a laboratory or a self-measured glucose calibrated to plasma was less than 56 mg/dL or where a whole blood glucose was less than 50 mg/dL (i.e., with or without the presence of hypoglycemic symptoms).

Table 3: Percent (%) of Type 1 Diabetes Patients Experiencing at Least One Episode of Severe Hypoglycemia or Novo Nordisk Hypoglycemia§ on TRESIBA in Open-Label Adult and Pediatric Clinical Trials

Study A Adults + insulin aspart 52 weeks Study B Adults + insulin aspart 26 weeks Study C Adults + insulin aspart 26 weeks Study J Pediatrics + insulin aspart 52 weeks
TRESIBA
(N=472)
TRESIBA
(N=301)
TRESIBA at the same time each day
(N=165)
TRESIBA at alternating times
(N=164)
TRESIBA
(N=174)
Severe hypoglycemia*
Percent of patients 12.3% 10.6% 12.7% 10.4% 17.8%
Novo Nordisk hypoglycemia§
Percent of patients 95.6% 93.0% 99.4% 93.9% 98.3%
*Severe hypoglycemia in pediatric patients: an episode with altered mental status, where the child could not assist in his own care, was semiconscious or unconscious, or in a coma ± convulsions and may require parenteral therapy (glucagon or intravenous glucose).
§Novo Nordisk hypoglycemia: a severe hypoglycemia episode or an episode where a laboratory or a self-measured glucose calibrated to plasma was less than 56 mg/dL or where a whole blood glucose was less than 50 mg/dL (i.e., with or without the presence of hypoglycemic symptoms).

Table 4: Percent (%) of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Experiencing at Least One Episode of Severe Hypoglycemia or Novo Nordisk Hypoglycemia§ on TRESIBA in Open-Label Adult Clinical Trials

Allergic Reactions

Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, generalized skin reactions, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypotension, and shock may occur with any insulin, including TRESIBA and may be life threatening . Hypersensitivity (manifested with swelling of tongue and lips, diarrhea, nausea, tiredness, and itching) and urticaria were reported in 0.9% of patients treated with TRESIBA.

Lipodystrophy

Long-term use of insulin, including TRESIBA, can cause lipodystrophy at the site of repeated insulin injections. Lipodystrophy includes lipohypertrophy (thickening of adipose tissue) and lipoatrophy (thinning of adipose tissue) and may affect insulin absorption . In the clinical program, lipodystrophy, lipohypertrophy, or lipoatrophy was reported in 0.3% of patients treated with TRESIBA.

Injection Site Reactions

Patients taking TRESIBA may experience injection site reactions, including injection site hematoma, pain, hemorrhage, erythema, nodules, swelling, discoloration, pruritus, warmth, and injection site mass. In the clinical program, injection site reactions occurred in 3.8% of patients treated with TRESIBA.

Weight Gain

Weight gain can occur with insulin therapy, including TRESIBA, and has been attributed to the anabolic effects of insulin. In the clinical program after 52 weeks of treatment, patients with type 1 diabetes treated with TRESIBA gained an average of 1.8 kg and patients with type 2 diabetes treated with TRESIBA gained an average of 3.0 kg.

Peripheral Edema

Insulin, including TRESIBA, may cause sodium retention and edema. In the clinical program, peripheral edema occurred in 0.9% of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 3.0% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with TRESIBA.

Immunogenicity

As with all therapeutic proteins, insulin administration may cause anti-insulin antibodies to form. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay and may be influenced by several factors such as: assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medication, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to TRESIBA with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading.

In a 52-week study of adult insulin-experienced type 1 diabetes patients, 68.9% of patients who received TRESIBA were positive at baseline for anti-insulin degludec antibodies and 12.3% of the patients developed anti-insulin degludec antibodies at least once during the study. In a 52-week study of pediatric insulin-experienced type 1 diabetes patients, 84.1% of patients who received TRESIBA were positive at baseline for anti-insulin degludec antibodies and 5.8% of patients developed anti-insulin degludec antibodies at least once during the study. In a 52-week study of adult insulin-naive type 2 diabetes patients, 1.7% of patients who received TRESIBA were positive at baseline for anti-insulin degludec antibodies and 6.2% of patients developed anti-insulin degludec antibodies at least once during the study. In these trials, between 96.7% and 99.7% of patients who were positive for anti-insulin degludec antibodies were also positive for anti-human insulin antibodies.

Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Tresiba (Insulin Degludec Injection)

Tresiba Investigation

In September of 2015, the FDA approved the long-acting insulin treatment Tresiba (insulin degludec) for use by adults managing diabetes mellitus, both types 1 and 2. The drug is a long-acting basal human insulin analog for subcutaneous injection. The FDA is reviewing potential risks associated with Tresiba, as well as a similar drug Ryzodega, and their likelihood to trigger cardiovascular health problems. There is currently a lack of long-term data available, so anyone using the drug is doing so at the risk of long-term consequences.

The FDA recommends Tresiba be used and dosage be determined on an individual basis. The medication is administered subcutaneously once a day. As with all insulin use, blood glucose levels should be monitored and modification of dosage done under medical supervision.

Tresiba Medical Trials, Including DEVOTE

Novo Nordisk began a cardiovascular trial called DEVOTE in 2013 and submitted the temporary results earlier in 2016. The study is a Phase 3 double blind randomized trial intended to compare the safety and efficacy of insulin degludec to insulin glargine for cardiovascular outcomes. The trial includes 7500 patients and is expected to continue for up to five years.

According to the FDA, previous studies looked at primary outcomes including major adverse cardiovascular events including death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke, as well as secondary outcomes including severe hypoglycemic episodes and changes in glycosylated hemoglobin.

According to the agency’s website, studies included Tresiba used in combination with mealtime insulin for the treatment of patients with type-1 diabetes in two 26-week and one 52-week active-controlled clinical trials. That trial included 1102 participants exposed to Tresiba.

Additional studies analyzed the efficacy and safety of Tresiba used in combination with mealtime insulin or used as add-on to common background oral antidiabetic drugs for the treatment of patients with type-2 diabetes were evaluated in four 26-week and two 52-week active-controlled clinical trials involving 2702 participants exposed to Tresiba.

What Adverse Reactions Occurred in Tresiba Users?

There were some adverse reactions experienced by study participants, the most common of which included hypoglycemia, allergic reactions, injection site reactions, pitting at the injection site, rash, itching, edema, and weight gain. The FDA has also issued notification that the medication not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

According to study data:

“A meta-analysis of clinical trials, carried out by the US Food and Drug Administration, suggested an increase of about 60% in the incidence of cardiovascular complications, based on a composite endpoint combining myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death.”

There is also no data yet on long-term effects of Tresiba regarding a link to cancer, and it has not yet been determined if the medication is safe for use during pregnancy.

Is Tresiba Effective?

Data from Tresiba trials have shown reductions in HbA1C equivalent to those achieved with other long-active or pre-mixed insulin. According to study data:

“Efficacy in terms of HbA1c control was similar to that of the other insulin analogues administered once a day. The frequency of severe hypoglycaemia was similar in the groups treated with insulin degludec and those treated with the other insulins (10% to 12% among patients with type 1 diabetes and less than 5% in patients with type 2 diabetes). Deaths and other serious adverse events were similarly frequent in the different groups.”

The medication is still in Phase 3 clinical trials, so there is not yet any finalized data on cardiovascular outcomes.

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