- Rotavirus vaccine side effects
- Common side effects of the rotavirus vaccine
- Rare side effects of the rotavirus vaccine
- More about vaccine side effects in babies
- What to do if your baby is unwell after the rotavirus vaccine
- How to report a vaccine side effect
- When should I immunize my child to protect against Rotavirus?
- Dose 1
- Dose 2
- Dose 3
- Rotavirus quick facts:
- About the immunization:
- Vaccine (Drops) for Rotavirus
- What are the side effects?
- What is rotavirus?
- What are the symptoms of rotavirus?
- Is rotavirus serious?
- How does rotavirus spread?
- Rotavirus vaccine Side Effects
- For the Consumer
- For Healthcare Professionals
- Further information
- More about rotavirus vaccine
- A Look at Each Vaccine: Rotavirus Vaccine
- What are the benefits of the rotavirus vaccine?
- What’s the recommended schedule?
- Who should not get the rotavirus vaccine?
- Are there any precautions I should take?
- What are the possible side effects?
- Your Child’s Immunizations: Rotavirus Vaccine
Rotavirus vaccine side effects
Like all vaccines, the rotavirus vaccine can cause side effects, but they’re generally mild and short-lived.
Common side effects of the rotavirus vaccine
Babies who have the vaccine can sometimes become restless and irritable, and some may develop mild diarrhoea.
Rare side effects of the rotavirus vaccine
As with all vaccines, there’s a very small (approximately 1 in a million) possibility of the rotavirus vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis.
Anaphylaxis after a vaccination is very rare and is a medical emergency. If it does happen, it’s usually quick and happens within minutes. The people who give vaccinations are trained to deal with anaphylactic reactions and, with treatment, children recover completely.
In very rare cases (about 2 in every 100,000 babies vaccinated), the rotavirus vaccine can affect the baby’s lower gut, and they may develop a rare gut disorder called intussusception. This causes a blockage in the intestine.
The symptoms of intussusception are:
- tummy ache
- sometimes passing what looks like redcurrant jelly in their nappy
If this happens, contact your doctor immediately.
More about vaccine side effects in babies
This NHS leaflet tells you the common vaccination reactions in babies and young children up to five years old (PDF, 118kb).
What to do if your baby is unwell after the rotavirus vaccine
As with all vaccines, a few babies will have side effects, such as diarrhoea, although in general these are mild and short-lived. The majority of babies will not have any problems at all.
Also, bear in mind that diarrhoea and vomiting in babies is common and is generally not related to the vaccine.
A baby can get rotavirus infection after being vaccinated – but this is uncommon and the illness is usually milder than it would have been if they had not been vaccinated.
If your baby is very unwell and/or the illness is going on for a long time, or you’re concerned in any way about their health following vaccination, please see your GP.
How to report a vaccine side effect
The Yellow Card Scheme allows you to report suspected side effects from a vaccine. It’s run by the medicines safety watchdog the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Find out how to report a vaccine side effect.
When should I immunize my child to protect against Rotavirus?
Your child is recommended to receive the immunization that will protect him or her against Rotavirus, at the following ages:
See full schedule
NOTE: If your child does not start the Rotavirus vaccine schedule before 15 weeks of age, he or she may not be able to receive this vaccine at all. All doses need to be given before 8 months of age.
Rotavirus quick facts:
Rotavirus is a viral infection, easily spread through contact with the stool (feces) of an infected person, or even if a child touches toys, change tables or other surfaces that have been contaminated with the stool of an infected person.
Only a very small amount of exposure to Rotavirus can make your child sick.
95% of unimmunized children will get Rotavirus at least once, by three to five years of age.
In Canada, Rotavirus infections are more common in the winter months (between December and May), with the majority of cases in March and April. It is still a real risk, all year long.
Worldwide, more than 500,000 deaths in young children are caused, each year, by Rotavirus.
Rotavirus is often spread through diaper changing, if proper hand washing and cleaning of the change area hasn’t happened.
What can happen to my child if he or she gets Rotavirus?
If your child gets Rotavirus, he or she will get a fever, followed by severe vomiting and watery diarrhea that can last up to a week. Rotavirus can also cause your child to get dehydrated, or develop what is called an “electrolyte imbalance”. This can result in your child needing hospital care. Sadly, Rotavirus can even lead to death.
About the immunization:
Rotavirus can be prevented through immunization.
The vaccine that protects your child against Rotavirus is called Rotavirus (Rot) vaccine.
When your child gets the Rotavirus vaccine, your child’s immune system will be prompted to build antibodies that protect – or “arm” – your child against Rotavirus.
The Rotavirus vaccine is given to your child as a liquid that your child will swallow.
The vaccine is a live vaccine; however, your child cannot get Rotavirus from Rotavirus vaccine.
Your child cannot get Rotavirus, or any other diseases, from the Rotavirus vaccine.
This vaccine is safe, and provides your child with protection against Rotavirus, which is definitely not safe.
The risk that Rotavirus poses to your child’s health is far greater than any risk related to immunizing your child against Rotavirus.
Rotavirus vaccine has been used in the United States since 2006, and is now also approved for use in Canada.
Safety checks before immunization
Your nurse will talk to you about your child’s health history before giving your child any vaccines. This will include questions about any medicines your child is taking, health conditions your child has or is experiencing, as well as any allergies your child may have. Your nurse will guide you on what is safe for your child, based on your child’s health history. When your nurse talks to you about your child’s health history, it is important that you inform your nurse if your child:
- is sick or has a fever greater than 38.5 C (101.3 F)
- is allergic to any foods, drugs, bee stings, etc.
- has allergies to any part of the vaccine, to your knowledge
- has a weakened immune system (immune compromised) – if there is a family history of a weak immune system that is inherited, it will need to be checked before your baby can have this vaccine. Also tell your healthcare provider if you took medication while you were pregnant or breastfeeding. Some medication may cause your baby to have a weak immune system.
- has a chronic bowel (gastrointestinal) condition or has ever had a bowel problem called intussusception (one part of the bowel sliding into another, like a telescope, causing a block)
- has had an allergic reaction (such as anaphylaxis) or other severe or unusual reaction to this or other vaccines in the past
Your nurse will guide you on what is safe for your child, based on your child’s health history.
Learn more about general vaccine safety here.
What might my child experience after immunization?
Reactions to Rotavirus vaccine are usually mild, go away within a few days, and may include:
- crying or feeling irritable
- poor appetite, vomiting, or diarrhea
- cough, runny nose
- ear discomfort
There may be a very low risk of intussusception (one part of the bowel sliding into another, like a telescope, causing a block) following rotavirus vaccine (1 to 7 cases per 100 000), usually within the first seven days after the first dose.This is even less likely following the second or third dose.
If your child gets severe stomach swelling or pain, persistent vomiting, blood in his or her stool (feces), and/or very high fever your child should be seen by a doctor immediately.
Unexpected or unusual reactions can happen after being immunized. Call Health Link at 811 to report any unusual reactions.
How can I manage my child’s symptoms after immunization?
No matter your child’s age, it is normal for him or her to experience some common, mild and temporary symptoms after immunization.
Here are a few tips to manage these mild symptoms:
- Fever. If you need medicine for fever or pain, check with your pharmacist or doctor. Follow the instructions on the medicine package carefully. If you are not sure whether your child’s fever is related to the immunization, dial 811 for Health Link or talk to your doctor or pharmacist, before giving your child medicine. Do not give aspirin to anyone younger than 19 years of age. Aspirin increases the risk of a rare but serious disease called Reye Syndrome.
- Fretfulness and poor appetite. Sometimes a child may be fretful, drowsy and refuse to eat for a few hours after immunization. Plan to relax in a quiet environment at home after immunization. Hold and cuddle your child when needed, and remember to keep the temperature at a comfortable level – your child is more likely to be fretful if he or she gets too warm.
- Diarrhea and vomiting. Give breast milk or formula so that your baby remains well hydrated.
Severe allergic reactions after immunization are rare, occurring at an estimated annual rate of only one to ten per one million doses of vaccine administered, and can be treated. Our nurses will ask that you stay with your child, in the immunization clinic, for at least 15 minutes after your child receives his or her immunizations. For the dose that your child receives in school, the nurse will also require your child to stay for at least 15 minutes after his or her immunization. This will allow the nurse to identify and treat any immediate allergic reaction that could occur.
PLEASE NOTE: If your child gets severe stomach selling or pain, persistent vomiting, blood in his or her stool (feces), and/or very high fever following Rotavirus immunization, it’s important that you call your doctor or Health Link Alberta (at 811) to discuss.
Vaccine (Drops) for Rotavirus
What are the side effects?
Side effects are rare, usually mild, and may include fussiness, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Some studies have shown a small rise in cases of intussusception within a week after the first or second dose of rotavirus vaccine. Intussusception is a type of bowel blockage that is treated in a hospital. Some babies might need surgery. Studies estimate a risk ranging from about 1 intussusception case in every 20,000 infants to 1 intussusception case in every 100,000 infants after vaccination.
Prepare for your child’s vaccine visit and learn about how you can:
- Research vaccines and ready your child before the visit
- Comfort your child during the appointment
- Care for your child after the shot
Before, During, and After Shots
What is rotavirus?
Rotavirus causes severe diarrhea and vomiting. It affects mostly babies and young children. Diarrhea and vomiting can lead to serious dehydration (loss of body fluid). If dehydration is not treated, it can be deadly.
What are the symptoms of rotavirus?
Rotavirus symptoms include:
- Watery diarrhea
- Stomach pain
Diarrhea and vomiting can last for 3 to 8 days. Children may stop eating and drinking while they are sick.
Is rotavirus serious?
Rotavirus can be very harmful. Diarrhea, vomiting, and fever can cause a loss of body fluids. This leads to dehydration, which can be very dangerous, especially for babies and young children. Some children need an IV (needle in their vein) in the hospital to replace lost fluids.
How does rotavirus spread?
Rotavirus commonly spreads in families, hospitals, and childcare centers.
People who are infected with rotavirus shed the virus in their stool (poop). If you get rotavirus particles in your mouth, you can get sick. This can happen if you
- Touch contaminated objects or surfaces then put your fingers in your mouth
- Put your unwashed hands that are contaminated with poop into your mouth
- Eat contaminated food
Rotavirus can survive on objects for several days. It is very difficult to stop its spread just by hand washing or disinfecting surfaces. The best way to protect young children from rotavirus is to get them vaccinated.
Rotavirus vaccine Side Effects
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Nov 9, 2018.
- Side Effects
For the Consumer
Applies to rotavirus vaccine: oral powder for suspension, oral suspension
Along with its needed effects, rotavirus vaccine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking rotavirus vaccine:
- muscle aches
- nausea and vomiting
- pain or cramping in the abdomen or stomach
- sore throat
- stuffy or runny nose
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- difficulty with breathing
- noisy breathing
- shortness of breath
- tightness in the chest
- Black, tarry stools
- decreased urination
- dry mouth
- increase in heart rate
- loss of appetite
- rapid breathing
- sunken eyes
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- wrinkled skin
Incidence not known
- Blood in the urine
- bloody nose
- heavier menstrual periods
- pinpoint red spots on the skin
- red eyes
- red mouth
- skin rash
- swollen glands
- swollen hands and feet
- unusual bleeding or bruising
Some side effects of rotavirus vaccine may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
- Crying, fussiness, or irritability
- runny nose
- excess air or gas in the stomach or intestines
- full feeling
- passing gas
Incidence not known
- Hives or welts
- redness of the skin
- skin rash
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to rotavirus vaccine: oral powder for reconstitution, oral suspension
The most common adverse events were irritability, cough, runny nose, fever, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Very common (10% or more): Diarrhea (24.1%), vomiting (15.2%)
Common (1% to 10%): Flatulence, abdominal pain
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Hematochezia, gastroenteritis
Rare (less than 0.1%): Intussusception, frequent bowel movement
Postmarketing reports: Recurrent intussusception (including death), gastroenteritis with vaccine viral shedding in infants with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCID)
Very common (10% or more): Fever (28%), otitis media (14.5%)
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Death
Postmarketing reports: Maladministration, transmission of vaccine virus strains from vaccine recipient to non-vaccinated contacts
Very common (10% or more): Cough/runny nose (31%)
Common (1% to 10%): Nasopharyngitis, bronchospasm
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Bronchiolitis, pneumonia
Rare (less than 0.1%): Apnea
Postmarketing reports: Apnea in very premature infants (28 weeks gestation or less)
Very common (10% or more): Fussiness/irritability (52%)
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Dermatitis
Rare (less than 0.1%): Urticaria, rash, eczema, dermatitis atopic
Postmarketing reports: Angioedema
Very common (10% or more): Loss of appetite (25%)
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Gastroenteritis
Rare (less than 0.1%): Dehydration, weight gain poor
Postmarketing reports: Anaphylactic reaction
Rare (less than 0.1%): Seizure, hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode, syncope-vasovagal
Rare (less than 0.1%): Kawasaki disease
Postmarketing reports: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Urinary tract infection
1. “Product Information. Rotarix (rotavirus vaccine).” GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC.
2. “Product Information. RotaTeq (rotavirus vaccine).” Merck & Company Inc, West Point, PA.
3. Cerner Multum, Inc. “Australian Product Information.” O 0
4. Cerner Multum, Inc. “UK Summary of Product Characteristics.” O 0
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.
More about rotavirus vaccine
- During Pregnancy
- Dosage Information
- Drug Interactions
- En Español
- Drug class: viral vaccines
- FDA Alerts (1)
- Rotavirus vaccine, live
- Rotavirus Oral Vaccine
- Rotavirus vaccine, live (Advanced Reading)
Other brands: Rotarix, RotaTeq
- Rotavirus Vaccine Live Oral (AHFS Monograph)
- … +1 more
Related treatment guides
A Look at Each Vaccine: Rotavirus Vaccine
How is the rotavirus vaccine made?
The first rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq, is made from a strain of rotavirus that was originally isolated from a calf. Human rotavirus proteins responsible for evoking protective antibodies, but incapable of causing disease, were also added. This combination of a calf rotavirus, which can’t cause disease in children, with human rotavirus proteins, which protect against disease, allows babies to develop immunity without getting sick.
The second rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix, is made from one type of rotavirus originally isolated from a person and weakened in the lab.
Does the rotavirus vaccine have side effects?
Studies of more than 130,000 infants showed that the vaccine did not cause vomiting, diarrhea, fever, irritability or poor feeding.
In 1999, a different rotavirus vaccine, called Rotashield®, was removed from the market because it was found to cause a rare form of intestinal blockage, affecting about 1 in 10,000 children. The Rotashield vaccine was made using a strain of rotavirus originally isolated from a monkey and is no longer available in the U.S.
The current rotavirus vaccines have also been found to be rare causes of intestinal blockage affecting about 1 in 100,000 children. Of interest, natural rotavirus is also a rare cause of intestinal blockage. Because both current rotavirus vaccines prevent rotavirus — and therefore prevent a rare form of intestinal blockage — the question became which was rarer, intestinal blockage caused by the vaccine or by natural infection. The question can be answered by looking at what happened to the rate of intestinal blockage once vaccination started to replace natural infection. Most recent evidence shows that the incidence of intestinal blockage of infants in the United States has not increased because of rotavirus vaccines.
What are the benefits of the rotavirus vaccine?
The vaccine protects against rotavirus, the leading cause of severe diarrhea in babies and young children around the world and – before the vaccine – in the United States. The virus causes severe diarrhea, fever, vomiting, dehydration, and sometimes death. It’s extremely contagious, spreading easily through ordinary person-to-person contact.
Good hygiene and sanitation don’t effectively stop rotavirus disease, so immunization is your best defense. The vaccine is given orally, and most babies who receive it won’t get rotavirus diarrhea at all. Almost all of them will be protected from severe rotavirus diarrhea.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), before the vaccine came into use in the United States in 2006, rotavirus infected almost all children in the United States by age 5. (Adults can contract it too, but the illness tends to be mild.)
The virus triggered more than 400,000 doctor visits and 200,000 emergency room visits, 55,000 to 70,000 hospitalizations, and 20 to 60 deaths each year. By 2008, the vaccine had reduced the number of young children needing hospitalization for rotavirus disease by as much as 96 percent.
What’s the recommended schedule?
Recommended number of doses
Two or three doses before the age of 8 months, depending on the type of vaccine
Note: Unlike most vaccines, the rotavirus vaccine is given by mouth rather than as an injection.
- At 2 months
- At 4 months
- At 6 months (not needed if the Rotarix brand of vaccine was given at 2 and 4 months)
The CDC advises against starting the vaccine series in babies 15 weeks and older. If your baby hasn’t had a first dose by then, talk to your doctor about whether it makes sense to try to catch up.
The vaccine isn’t recommended for babies once they turn 8 months old because there’s not enough evidence to show how well it works in older babies, and there is some evidence that they’re more likely to have an adverse reaction, like fever.
To track your child’s immunizations, use BabyCenter’s Immunization Scheduler.
Who should not get the rotavirus vaccine?
- A child younger than 6 weeks old
- A child 8 months old or older
- A child who had an allergic reaction to a previous rotavirus vaccine or who is allergic to one of the components of the vaccine. Be sure to tell your doctor if your baby has any severe allergies, including an allergy to latex.
- A child with a history of intussusception, a condition in which part of the intestine folds into itself and blocks the passage of food. Some studies show a higher risk of intussusception in children who get the vaccine, especially in the week after the first or second dose.
- A child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a group of rare, life-threatening genetic disorders that affect the body’s ability to fight infection and often result in chronic diarrhea and failure to thrive.
Are there any precautions I should take?
A child with a mild illness can probably get the rotavirus vaccine. But you’ll probably want to delay it if your child’s moderately or severely ill. Either way, let your doctor know that your child is sick.
The rotavirus vaccine should be used with caution in infants with a compromised immune system or a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The vaccine’s safety and effectiveness for these children haven’t been determined.
Children with spina bifida (a birth defect of the spinal cord) or bladder exstrophy (a birth defect involving the bladder) are more likely to have an allergic reaction to latex, a component of the Rotarix applicator. If your child has either of these conditions, talk to your doctor about using the RotaTeq vaccine, which is latex-free.
Because the vaccine contains a live virus that could potentially infect others, take extra care in disposing of diapers and wash your hands.
What are the possible side effects?
The risk of any vaccine causing serious harm is extremely low. In tests of the vaccine, some babies had minor symptoms including diarrhea and irritability – but the rate was similar to unvaccinated children.
Some studies have found a very small risk of babies developing a serious intestinal problem called intussusception. If your baby seems to have abdominal pain, develops bloody stools, or starts vomiting, take him to a doctor immediately.
Severe allergic reactions are rare but possible with any vaccine. See what our expert says about how to tell whether your baby’s having an adverse reaction.
If your child has an adverse reaction to this or any other vaccine, talk to your child’s doctor and report it to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.
Your Child’s Immunizations: Rotavirus Vaccine
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What Is Rotavirus?
Rotavirus is a common virus that causes vomiting and diarrhea, especially in infants and young children. Childcare centers are a common site of outbreaks.
Rotavirus Immunization Schedule
The vaccine, which is a liquid given by mouth, is recommended at ages 2 and 4 months, and again at 6 months, depending on the brand of vaccine used.
Why Is the Rotavirus Vaccine Recommended?
Rotavirus can cause severe diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and, for some kids, hospitalization. Besides protecting the individual child, vaccination against rotavirus can help stop spread in the community.
Possible Risks of Rotavirus Immunization
Side effects can include diarrhea and vomiting, and a fever.
When to Delay or Avoid Rotavirus Immunization
The vaccine is not recommended if your child:
- is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization
- had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine. Tell your doctor if your child has an allergy to latex, as one of the rotavirus vaccine brands has a latex applicator.
- has severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), a genetic disorder
- had intussusception, a type of bowel blockage, in the past
Talk to your doctor about whether it’s a good idea for your child to be vaccinated if he or she:
- has an abnormality of the digestive system or a gastrointestinal disease
- has immune system problems from a disease such as cancer; is taking steroids, or other drugs that weaken the immune system; or is undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy
Your doctor may determine that the benefits of vaccinating your child outweigh the potential risks.
Caring for Your Child After Rotavirus Immunization
For pain and fever, check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen, and to find out the appropriate dose.
If vomiting or diarrhea happen, give your child small amounts of fluid often and watch for signs of dehydration, such as less urine (pee) than usual.
When Should I Call the Doctor?
- Call if you aren’t sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided.
- Call if there are problems after the immunization.
Rarely, some kids will develop intussusception within a week of getting the first dose of the vaccine. So after the first dose, watch for symptoms such as periods of intense abdominal pain with uncontrollable crying; vomiting; blood or mucus in the poop; and seeming weak, drowsy, or fussy.
Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: March 2019
Most infants recover completely with no further problems. However, intussusception can reoccur in up to 10% (1 in 10) of cases.
Intussusception in figures
In New Zealand it is estimated that there are 65 cases of intussusception for every 100,000 children under one year old3.
The risk after vaccination with RotaTeq has been estimated in the United States around 1 infant in every 100,000 infants vaccinated.
In Australia the risk was estimated at 7 children per 100,000 vaccinated with RotaTeq4.
What should I do if my child has a serious reaction?
Signs of a severe allergic reaction can include hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing and a fast heartbeat. These usually start a few minutes to a few hours after vaccination.
If you think your child may have a severe allergic reaction you should call an ambulance.
Signs of intussusception include severe crying and tummy pain, infants might pull their legs up to their chest as if they have colic. Infants may also vomit or have blood in their poo. If this happens call an ambulance. Tell the hospital doctor when your baby got the vaccine.
Afterwards please report the reaction to the Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring (CARM).
Does RotaTeq contain mercury?
RotaTeq does not contain mercury (thiomersal) or aluminium.
Have there been any reactions to rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand?
You can find a summary of reports of suspected adverse reactions (adverse events following immunisation) to rotavirus vaccine in the Suspected Medicine Adverse Reaction Search (SMARS).
Search for suspected adverse reactions using SMARS.
Do the benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh the risks?
The overall benefits of preventing rotavirus outweigh the small risk of intussusception.
Vaccination is not mandatory in New Zealand. You should weigh up the benefits and risk of harm for your child before giving them any vaccine or medicine. If you need more advice you can talk to your healthcare professional or call the Immunisation Advisory Centre on 0800 466 863.
Benefits versus risks in figures
In Australia introduction of rotavirus vaccination has resulted in a 70% decrease in hospitalisation for rotavirus. In New Zealand, this would reduce the rate of hospitalisation by 444 children per 100,000 per year. In contrast, it is expected that the number of cases of children hospitalised for intussusception could increase by up to 7 children per 100,000 per year.
Grimwood K, Huang QS, Cohet C, et al. 2006. Rotavirus hospitalisation in New Zealand children under 3 years of age. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 42(4):196–203.
Merck Sharp & Dohme (New Zealand) Limited. 2013. RotaTeq Oral Suspension 3 July 2013. URL: www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/datasheet/r/RotaTeqsusp.pdf (accessed 7 April 2014).
Chen YE, Beasley S, Grimwood K, et al. 2005. Intussusception and rotavirus associated hospitalisation in New Zealand. Archives of Disease in Childhood 90(10): 1077–1081.
Carlin JB, Macartney K, Lee KJ, et al.2013. Intussusception risk and disease prevention associated with rotavirus vaccines in Australia’s national immunisation program. Clinical Infectious Diseases 57(10): 1427–1434.