Missed period ovarian cancer

Missed Period and Not Pregnant: What Could Be The Reason?

Ah yes, the familiar stress that most women can related to over a missed period. Nothing quite provokes a flurry of questions like: does it mean I’m pregnant? Could it be something else? Should I worry?

Here’s the thing: a missed period doesn’t always mean you’re pregnant. In fact, knowing when to expect your period versus when it’s missed can give you a major clue into your overall health. But, the key to decoding these clues is knowing your cycle.

To help you know what to look for, this post will cover:

  • What are the major causes of a missed period?
  • Does it mean you’re pregnant?
  • How can you track your cycle?

Missed Period Reason #1: Hormone Issue

A missed period can be major insight into whether your hormones are imbalanced, and the reason why comes down to why your period happens in the first place. After ovulation occurs, the follicle ruptures and releases an egg, and the rest of the follicle turns into the corpus luteum. This structure secretes progesterone, building up the uterine lining in preparation for implantation to occur. But, if implantation doesn’t occur, then corpus luteum shrinks, progesterone levels drop, and uterine lining begins to shed aka your period.

So, if you have a missed period, then it could potentially signal a problem with hormones involved in ovulation (aka luteinizing hormone) or building up the uterine lining (aka progesterone). Remember, if you’ve ovulated, then under healthy circumstances, either you’ll get your period or you won’t get your period if you’re pregnant. But, if you don’t get your period, then it doesn’t necessarily mean you ovulated. In fact, it’s possible to experience anovulatory cycles, or cycles without ovulation, and experience light bleeding or breakthrough bleeding.

When you track your cycle, make sure to record start of period because this is cycle day one and track your cycle length and frequency. Regular cycles are usually 21 – 35 days long. However, irregular cycles can be shorter or longer than that. If you’re not sure if you have irregular cycles, cycle tracking can help you tell the difference between missed periods versus irregular periods.

Missed Period Reason #2: Changes in Weight

Changes in weight, whether the gaining or losing weight, can cause you to miss your period. While it’s not clear exactly how significant the weight change has to be to cause a missed period, both obesity and anorexia have been linked to missed periods. One of the primary reasons is because adipose tissue, or fatty tissue, can actually make hormones like estrogens and other molecules involved in inflammation. So, major changes in weight, whether losing a significant amount of fat or gaining it, can result in major hormone imbalance, disrupting fertility and ovulation.

The bottom line? If you have recently begun a new and intense exercise regime or have recently gained weight, it’s possible that this could explain a missed period. It’s always a good idea to manage a healthy bodyweight, so talk to your doctor if you think weight management is affecting your cycle.

Missed Period Reason #3: Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding can be a reason for missed period. The biological processes related to lactation are complex and fascinating, but in the context of your period, it’s important to know that breastfeeding can lower circulating estrogen levels. Without estrogen to boost luteinizing hormone, there is no ovulation, and therefore, no period.

BUT, if you’re breastfeeding and having unprotected intercourse, it’s also possible that you’re pregnant if you’re not tracking your cycle (or the return of your cycle). If you’re not sure if your cycle has resumed or ovulation occurred, having unprotected intercourse during the the five days before ovulation and the day of ovulation (aka the fertility window), then it’s possible you’re pregnant. Check out the last section to know when is the earliest you could take a positive pregnancy test to know.

Missed Period Reason #4: PCOS

PCOS, or polycystic ovarian syndrome, is a reproductive condition that can result in irregular or missed periods. However, missed periods don’t necessarily mean PCOS. In fact, have two of the three following symptoms can indicate this condition is present:

  1. Irregular or absent menstrual cycles
  2. Excessive production of androgens (testosterone)
  3. Enlarged ovaries with multiple follicle growth.

In addition to missed periods, here are additional symptoms women may notice:

  • Hirsutism, or excess hair growth in unexpected places like face, bac, thumbs, toes, chest, and abdomen.
  • Hair loss
  • Infertility
  • Weight gain
  • Acne
  • Mood disruption
  • Pelvic pain
  • Sleep problems
  • Headaches

While there is no cure for PCOS, the good news is that PCOS can be managed with lifestyle changes and hormone interventions, and you can talk to your doctor about which option is right for you.

Missed Period Reason #5: Post-pill readjustment

Coming off the pill can lead to “post-pill amenorrhea” which simply means your hormone levels are readjusting and can lead to a missed period or two.

The combination birth control pill (which has synthetic estrogen and progestin) works by suppressing or preventing ovulation. When you stop taking the pill, you’ll first experience a withdrawal bleed because of the drop in hormones. After that, resuming cycling can be highly variable. Some women begin cycling normally right away, and some women take some time.

One study found that after discontinuing oral contraceptives, 58% of women had ovulatory cycles on the first cycle after the pill. However, overall cycle length was longer and luteal phase was shorter, and it took up to nine months to resume cycling.

If you’ve been off the pill for two months and still have missed periods, it’s a good idea to talk to your doctor about post-pill amenorrhea and what can be done. Sometimes, being on the pill can actually cover up whether you have other conditions like PCOS. Your doctor can help distinguish whether your post-pill missed period is because of these conditions or if hormones can return to healthy levels.

Missed Period Reason #6: Extreme Stress

Stress has been linked to missed periods, but stress tends to be used a convenient scapegoat for poorly understood ailments. From causes of miscarriage to cycle irregularity, stress is used as a catch-all to explain the unexplained, even when stress isn’t necessarily a problem.

Conceptually, yes, stress could interfere with the menstrual cycle. This is because the hormones of the menstrual cycle are controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which communicated via different hormones to ultimately release hormones like estrogens from the ovaries. But, this system doesn’t exist in isolation, and different hormones and molecules, including the primary stress hormone cortisol and the immune system, can interact with estrogens to ultimately affect processes like ovulation and menstruation. Here’s the tricky question: you always have some amount of circulating cortisol, so how much is too much that it can actually disrupt ovulation and your cycle? It’s a tricky question subject to a lot of variability, so science research can’t answer that quite yet.

Bottom line? Managing stress is always a good idea for both your physical and mental health. While the stress of a bad day or working more doesn’t likely translate to very high physiological levels (or cortisol levels in your bloodstream), prolonged levels of stress, especially high stress, can be negative for your health.

Missed Period Reason #7: You’re Pregnant

A missed period or late period is a classic early pregnancy symptom. If you’ve had unprotected intercourse in the five days before ovulation or the day of ovulation, then it’s possible you’re pregnant. But, you don’t need to wait until you’re sure you’ve missed your period to take pregnancy test. In fact, a positive pregnancy test can happen as early as 12 days after ovulation.

How Can I Track My Cycle?

A lot of the information covered in this post mentions events in relation to ovulation and cycle length, and if you’re already tracking those, then great! But, if you’re new to tracking your cycle, there are many benefits to knowing your cycle. Knowing cycle length, frequency, and when you ovulate means you’re never surprised or out-of-tune with what’s happening with your body, which can be empowering for your overall health.

You may have heard of the calendar method, which basically assumes every single woman has a 28-day cycle and mechanically ovulates on day 14 of the cycle. But, if you’re a human woman, then it’s highly likely you don’t robotically ovulate at the same day of each of cycle In fact, most women have cycles between 22 – 36 days, and 42% of women experience cycle-to-cycle variability.

To better understand how your cycle works, make sure to record the first day of your period— that’s cycle day one—and get a sense of your cycle length and frequency. At-home ovulation tests can also help track ovulation.

One of the easiest ways to track your cycle is to use the Ava bracelet. It collects 3 million data points from several health measures, just while you sleep. The Ava algorithm analyzes your data and can deliver personalized insights into your cycle when you wake via our app. Knowing your cycle doesn’t have to be a complicated science, but Ava can help you be your very own data scientist.

By Aarthi Gobinath, PhD | Jul 13, 2018

Aarthi Gobinath, PhD

Aarthi Gobinath earned her PhD in neuroscience from the University of British Columbia. Her research covers the ways that stress affects the male and female brain differently.

Amy, right, with a friend. (Collect/PA Real Life)

When we miss a period, most of us have a cursory pregnancy scare, followed by dismissing our worries and hoping it’ll come back next month.

But while in most cases, a delayed period isn’t a big deal, it can be a sign of something more concerning.

Take Amy Allen, whose missed periods were actually a sign of ovarian cancer.

When she was 18 and about to start a psychology degree at York St John’s University, Amy went to her doctor on the advice of her mum – who was concerned that she hadn’t had a period in six months.

Reporting missing periods and and facial hair, Amy was wrongly diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome – a condition backed up by high levels of testosterone in her blood.

‘The doctor from home rang me to ensure I was getting checked out,’ says Amy. ‘My blood test results had revealed that my testosterone levels were 2.5 times higher than they should be, and my oestrogen levels were significantly lower.

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Amy went in for further tests at York Hospital in 2014.

(Picture: Collect/PA Real Life)

MRI scans showed that Amy had a suspected cyst on her ovary, which was biopsied in 2015.

‘Seven weeks had passed and I’d had my first period in a year and I thought everything was dandy,’ says Amy.

‘My periods had started at about 14, but after a few years they gave me very severe lower back pain and I developed bad facial hair. Then they stopped not long after I turned 18.’

When Amy was called back in for post-biopsy treatment, she was shocked to be told that she didn’t have PCOS – she had a rare form of ovarian cancer.

Common symptoms of ovarian cancer:

  • Pelvic or abdominal pain
  • Persistent bloating
  • Difficulty eating/feeling full quickly
  • Needing to wee more urgently or more often
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Loss of appetite

‘The doctors and nurses were so nice,’ says Amy.

‘They explained everything and we had a laugh about the rarity and excitement of the type of tumour – the first one to be diagnosed in Yorkshire.

‘If I hadn’t laughed I would have cried.

‘Getting the diagnosis was the scariest day of my life and a memory that will stay with me for a while.

‘At 19 years old and coming towards the end of my first year of university, cancer was not something I thought I’d personally have to go through.’

Amy had a Sertoli-Leydig tumour, an extremely rare stromal tumour of the ovary which can cause a lower pitch of voice and thicker body hair.

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‘The Sertoli and Leydig cells are in the testes of males, with Sertoli cells feeding sperm cells and Leydig cells releasing a male sex hormone,’ Amy explains.

(Picture: Collect/PA Real Life)

‘These cells are also found in the ovaries, with cancer cells releasing a male sex hormone causing symptoms such as a deep voice, enlarged clitoris, facial hair, loss in breast size and stopping of menstrual periods.’

Thankfully, as the cancer was confined to her ovary, Amy didn’t require chemotherapy. Instead she needed surgery, which she underwent at Leeds General Hospital.

In August 2015 Amy had her left ovary removed.

‘It took a while for the news of what was wrong with me to sink in,’ she says. ‘When it did, I realised I had some important decisions to make – decisions that had to be mine and mine alone.

‘I decided to get my ovary removed in case there was any trace of cancer left. It was the right decision, too, as there was.

‘Thankfully everything else came back clear and I’m still in remission.’

Amy is now sharing her experiences to urge women not to dismiss missed periods or other symptoms, and to push for treatment if they feel something is wrong. She’s now fundraising for the charity Ovarian Cancer Action to raise awareness.

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‘I’m speaking out so people know that ovarian cancer doesn’t just affect older people, although it is more common in older women,’ she says.

‘I was lucky, because the doctor rang me back and said this was quite serious and to get it checked out.

‘But my advice, particularly to younger people, is, ‘Don’t ignore it if you feel that something is serious and don’t allow yourself to be fobbed off.’

‘If my cancer hadn’t been discovered, I would never have been able to live life in the way I do now and to have achieved the things I’ve achieved.’

Important things to remember about ovarian cancer:

  • Cervical screening tests will not detect ovarian cancer
  • Most cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed in women who’ve gone through menopause, but younger women can also get ovarian cancer
  • Survival can be up to 90% for women diagnosed early
  • Symptoms are worth checking if they’re frequent, persistent, or new

MORE: Only 1% of women recognise this common symptom of ovarian cancer

MORE: What you need to know about mouth cancer

MORE: Meet the PCOS Nutritionist: How to eat your way to happier hormones and ovaries

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10 cancer symptoms women shouldn’t ignore

Cancer may not be on your radar, especially if you’re relatively young and healthy. But it should be, regardless of your age or family history.

Each year, nearly 90,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with a gynecologic cancer, such as endometrial (also known as uterine cancer), ovarian cancer or cervical cancer. More than 242,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer.

Most of these cancers occur in women after menopause. But gynecologic cancers can strike women before menopause, too.

“Your risk for all cancer types rises as you age, but it’s important to know what to look for at any age,” says Therese Bevers, M.D., medical director of the Cancer Prevention Center. “That way, if symptoms appear, you can tell your doctor right away.”

The signs of cancer, particularly gynecologic cancers, can be vague and similar to those of other conditions. Only breast and cervical cancers can be detected through screening. So recognizing these symptoms and talking about them with your gynecologist or primary care doctor can increase your odds of finding cancer early, when it’s most treatable.

Here are 10 cancer symptoms that every woman should be on the lookout for.

1. Abnormal vaginal bleeding. More than 90% of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer experience irregular bleeding. If you have already undergone menopause, any bleeding — spotting included — should be evaluated. Haven’t gone through menopause yet? See your doctor if you experience bleeding between periods, heavy bleeding or bleeding during sex. This can also be a sign of cervical or vaginal cancer.

2. Unexplained weight loss. If you’re overweight or obese, losing weight by exercising and making healthier food choices can actually help curb your cancer risk. But if you suddenly lose more than 10 pounds without changing your diet or exercise habits, talk to your doctor.

3. Vaginal discharge colored with blood. Bloody, dark or smelly discharge is usually a sign of infection. But sometimes, it’s a warning sign of cervical, vaginal or endometrial cancer.

4. Constant fatigue. A busy week can wear anyone out. But in most cases, a little rest should cure your fatigue. If fatigue is interfering with your work or leisure activities, stop blaming your hectic life and see your doctor.

5. Loss of appetite or feeling full all the time. Never hungry? Appetite changes may be symptoms of ovarian cancer or other cancers not related to the reproductive system.

6. Pain in the pelvis or abdominal area. Ongoing abdominal pain or discomfort — including gas, indigestion, pressure, bloating and cramps — can signal ovarian or endometrial cancer.

7. Changes in your bathroom habits. Suddenly need to urinate all the time or feel constant pressure on your bladder? Unless you’ve started drinking more liquids or you’re pregnant, this may be a sign of cancer.

8. Persistent indigestion or nausea. Occasionally, persistent indigestion or nausea can signal gynecologic cancers. Play it safe, and see your doctor if you feel queasy more often than usual.

9. Change in bowel habits may be a sign of something externally pressing on the colon. This could be any advanced stage gynecologic cancer or other cancers.

10. Changes in your breasts. Most breast cancers are detected by women themselves during routine daily activities like bathing, shaving or even scratching. Be alert for lumps in the breast or armpit. Also be on the lookout for changes to the skin on your breasts, changes in the look and feel of your breasts, and abnormalities in the nipples.

Having one or more of these symptoms doesn’t mean you have cancer. But if they last two weeks or longer, see your doctor to get yourself checked out.

Symptoms and Signs of Ovarian Cancer Symptoms vs. Pregnancy

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms vs. Pregnancy Symptoms

The symptoms that can be common to both ovarian cancer and pregnancy are as follows: pelvic discomfort, abdominal swelling and/or bloating, urinary frequency, constipation, abnormalities in menstruation, nausea and vomiting and fatigue. Symptoms of pregnancy that are not usually seen in ovarian cancer are premenstrual syndrome (PMS), missed menstrual period, breast swelling and/or tenderness, weight gain and fetal development in the uterus.

Pregnancy is easy to diagnose with a pregnancy test; ovarian cancer is difficult to diagnose because symptoms don’t appear until late in the disease process. Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed from a biopsy sample.

Pregnancy is the time when a fetus develops in a female’s body (about 9 months) to produce an offspring; ovarian cancer is abnormal development of cells that may form tumors in a female’s abdomen.

Pregnancy is a normal developmental condition while ovarian cancer is abnormal development and proliferation of certain cells related to or from the ovaries.

Ovarian cancer has four stages that describe increasingly severe disease that often results in death, while pregnancy is usually divided into three trimesters with the end of pregnancy resulting in a new life.

Ovarian cancer is difficult to diagnose because symptoms often do not occur until late in the disease. Symptoms do not occur until the tumor has grown large enough to apply pressure to other organs in the abdomen, or until the cancer has spread to remote organs. The symptoms are nonspecific, meaning they could be due to many different conditions. Cancer is not usually the first thing considered in a woman having symptoms.

The only early symptom of the disease can be menstrual irregularity. Symptoms that come later include the following:

  • Pelvic pain or pressure
  • Pain with intercourse
  • Abdominal swelling and bloating
  • Urinary frequency
  • Constipation
  • Ascites: Collection of fluid in the abdomen, contributing to abdominal distension and shortness of breath
  • Loss of appetite
  • Feeling full after eating little
  • Gas and/or diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abnormalities in menstruation, pubertal development, and abnormal hair growth (with tumors that secrete hormones)
  • A missed menstrual period is most often the first sign of pregnancy and is a common first trimester symptom.
  • Not all women will experience the same symptoms in early pregnancy or experience these symptoms to the same degree. The time when very early pregnancy symptoms and signs start is also different for every woman.
  • Feelings of breast swelling, tenderness, or pain are also commonly associated with early pregnancy.
  • There is usually only a small amount of weight gain in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this early stage of pregnancy a weight gain of about one pound per month is typical.
  • Many women report cravings for certain foods during the early stages of pregnancy.
  • A persistently elevated basal body temperature (the oral temperature measured first thing in the morning, upon arising from sleep) is another characteristic sign of early pregnancy.
  • Nausea and vomiting, sometimes known as “morning sickness” typically begins in the 2nd to 8th week of pregnancy.
  • Other possible early pregnancy symptoms are mood swings, fatigue, changes in skin pigmentation, frequent urination, and headache.
  • Signs and symptoms of early pregnancy can occur before the missed period and be confused with those of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or the approaching menstrual period. It is not possible to determine if you are pregnant (in the absence of having a menstrual period) until a pregnancy test is positive.
  • Signs and symptoms of early pregnancy can occur before the missed period and be confused with those of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or the approaching menstrual period. It is not possible to determine if you are pregnant (in the absence of having a menstrual period) until a pregnancy test is positive.

  • A missed menstrual period is most often the first sign of pregnancy and is a common first trimester symptom.
  • Not all women will experience the same symptoms in early pregnancy or experience these symptoms to the same degree. The time when very early pregnancy symptoms and signs start is also different for every woman.
  • Feelings of breast swelling, tenderness, or pain are also commonly associated with early pregnancy.
  • There is usually only a small amount of weight gain in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this early stage of pregnancy a weight gain of about one pound per month is typical.
  • Many women report cravings for certain foods during the early stages of pregnancy.
  • A persistently elevated basal body temperature (the oral temperature measured first thing in the morning, upon arising from sleep) is another characteristic sign of early pregnancy.
  • Nausea and vomiting, sometimes known as “morning sickness” typically begins in the 2nd to 8th week of pregnancy.
  • Other possible early pregnancy symptoms are mood swings, fatigue, changes in skin pigmentation, frequent urination, and headache.
  • Signs and symptoms of early pregnancy can occur before the missed period and be confused with those of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or the approaching menstrual period. It is not possible to determine if you are pregnant (in the absence of having a menstrual period) until a pregnancy test is positive.
  • Signs and symptoms of early pregnancy can occur before the missed period and be confused with those of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or the approaching menstrual period. It is not possible to determine if you are pregnant (in the absence of having a menstrual period) until a pregnancy test is positive.

The subtle symptoms of ovarian cancer – what a survivor wants women to know

Sandra Fenton was 67 when she was diagnosed with stage four ovarian cancer. Looking back, she realised she’d been experiencing symptoms for some time.

She had excuses for tiredness and lethargy: she was busy preparing to move from New Zealand back to Australia to help look after her grandchildren.

She says, “I was working 10 hour shifts and preparing to move. I was tired, but I was working so much.”

It made sense: even her doctor at the time agreed that this was probably the case.

She also had lower pelvic pain, but nothing extreme.

“It was more of a niggle,” Sandra says. “I didn’t realise it was a symptom.”

While it seems logical to expect a disease as serious as cancer to cause serious pain, in Sandra’s case, the twinge in her stomach was easy to dismiss.

After arriving back in Australia, Sandra still didn’t feel quite right, but put it down to the stress of the move and adjusting from the cool New Zealand climate to the hot and humid end of an Ipswich summer.

“I felt lethargic, I became withdrawn, but I put it down to the heat. I used to love dancing, but instead I stayed home in my room. I had horrendous night sweats, but I thought it was because I was still going through ‘the change’.”

It wasn’t until one morning in January when she woke up with an extremely bloated stomach that Sandra knew something was very wrong.

“I woke up like I was nine months pregnant. I went to the doctor, who sent me straight for a scan and ultrasound. That was on Monday. I went back to the doctor on Thursday and he told me to, “Go and get admitted to hospital.”

Sandra was admitted to Ipswich Hospital, where she found out her diagnosis. She had stage four ovarian cancer, which had spread from her ovaries, though her stomach lining and into her lungs. Her daughter has since told her that doctors warned the family to prepare for the worst.

But, after enduring a long period of treatment – first chemotherapy and then surgery – Sandra made it through. Turning 70 this year, she is now happily cancer free.

After a diagnosis of ovarian cancer, a woman’s chance of surviving for five years is only 44.4% (compared to 90% for breast cancer and 69% for bowel cancer). Sandra now lives with ‘survivor’s guilt’ – why did she pull through when so many other women die from the disease? To combat this, she helps spread the word about ovarian cancer and its symptoms, knowing that early detection saves lives.

She says, “No matter what your age, don’t ignore changes and symptoms or make excuses for them. Go to your doctor. Never think that you’re wasting the doctor’s time with a minor concern. We women need to overcome embarrassment about seeing a doctor for women’s health issues. We need to talk about these things.”

She is also concerned about misconceptions women might have about ovarian cancer, including family history or screening.

“It’s not in my family history or genetics – we did a test. Just because it’s not in your family doesn’t mean you’re safe. And you can’t pick it up with a Pap smear .”

There is no standard screening test available for ovarian cancer, like there is for breast cancer or human papillomavirus which causes cervical cancer. For this reason, doctors and survivors like Sandra urge women to be aware of the symptoms of ovarian cancer and see their doctor if they are experiencing anything new or abnormal.

Sandra’s family also encourages others to pay attention to changes in their loved one’s health and prompt them to see their doctor about any symptoms. Her daughter says that while they noticed that Sandra wasn’t herself when she moved back to Australia, they all put it down to tiredness from her move. They now know they were seeing the signs of a serious disease.

Listen to the above episode of My Amazing Body for more information about the ovaries.

Symptoms of ovarian cancer

Symptoms of ovarian cancer can include:

  • abdominal or pelvic pain, pressure or discomfort
  • increased abdominal size
  • persistent abdominal bloating
  • excessive fatigue or lethargy
  • needing to urinate often or urgently
  • changed bowel habits
  • feeling full after only eating a small amount
  • appetite loss
  • indigestion
  • unexplained weight loss or gain
  • irregular periods
  • bleeding in-between periods, or;
  • post-menopausal bleeding.

Ovarian cancer is more common in women over 60, but can occur in women of any age.

It’s important to remember that most of the time; the above symptoms will be caused by a much less serious condition than ovarian cancer. Women should treat these symptoms seriously, but try not to worry and head to the GP for answers.

Ovarian Cancer Australia recommends women keep a Symptom Diary, which will help them track their overall health, and record possible symptoms of ovarian cancer or other less serious conditions. They recommend seeing a GP if any of the symptoms of ovarian cancer are experienced multiple times during a 4-week period.

A GP may conduct a physical examination, blood tests, an ultrasound or other imaging tests to check for ovarian cancer, though a definite ovarian cancer diagnosis is made through surgery. Women should return to the doctor for further tests or seek a second opinion if, like Sandra, symptoms that were attributed to another cause persist.

Women like Sandra who have had ovarian cancer and lived to tell the tale are hard to come by. Sandra shares her story to encourage women to pay attention to their bodies, hoping that if more women are diagnosed early, there will be more survivors to share their stories with her.

More information

Ovarian Cancer Australia

Cancer Council – Ovarian Cancer

Cancer Australia – Ovarian Cancer

Health Direct – Ovarian Cancer

The Ovaries – My Amazing Body podcast

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