Iron gluconate 325 mg

Iron and Pregnancy

Why is it important to get enough iron?

Iron is used to make hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to your organs and tissues. When you’re pregnant, your body makes extra blood for both you and your baby. Your body needs extra iron to make this blood and also to support your baby’s rapid growth.

If you don’t get enough iron from your diet, your body gradually depletes its iron stores, and you are at risk for becoming anemic. Iron deficiency during pregnancy is very common; the National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimates that half of all pregnant women worldwide are iron-deficient.

According to experts, iron deficiency anemia in the first two trimesters is associated with a twofold risk that your baby will be born preterm and a threefold risk of low birth weight. Fortunately, iron deficiency is easy to prevent and to treat.

Most doctors check in the first trimester and again in the third trimester to be sure that anemia has not developed. If your blood count is low, your doctor may recommend you take an iron pill in addition to a prenatal vitamin fortified with iron for the rest of your pregnancy.

How much iron do I need during pregnancy?

As soon as your pregnancy begins, your body’s iron requirement increases by 50 percent, from 18 milligrams a day to 27 mg a day. And once you give birth, you will still need additional iron; experts recommend 9 mg a day for nursing mothers. If you’re under 18 years old, you’ll need slightly more — about 10 mg.

What are the signs of iron deficiency?

When your body’s iron stores are depleted, the result is a lower than normal level of hemoglobin in your blood, a condition called anemia. You may not notice anything out of the ordinary if you’re anemic. But you may notice more obvious signs, including fatigue, breathlessness, pale skin, and brittle nails.

Should I take a supplement?

Yes. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that all pregnant women take 27 mg a day of iron, which is considered a routine dose. However, if you have severe morning sickness and believe your iron supplement is increasing your nausea, talk to your healthcare provider. She may decrease your dosage or ask you to take the supplement in divided doses and with food. If you have an iron overload disease known as hemochromatosis, talk to your doctor, midwife, or nurse about your concerns. You’ll need to try to get sufficient iron from your diet instead.

There are three types of ferrous iron supplements: ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, and ferrous gluconate. All are fine, but what’s important is the amount of elemental iron. Read the label or follow your practitioner’s instructions.

Iron is best absorbed on an empty stomach, so take it before you eat in the morning or when you go to bed at night. Certain foods and vitamins inhibit the absorption of iron. One of these is calcium, so be careful not to take your calcium at the same time as your iron supplement. If your prenatal vitamin contains calcium (which it almost certainly does), don’t take it at the same time either.

Caffeine also prevents iron absorption, so wait a while to drink tea, coffee or a caffeinated soft drink after taking your iron supplement. Better still, avoid caffeine altogether. Vitamin C, on the other hand, helps your body absorb iron, so it’s a good idea to take your iron with a glass of orange juice or other juice that is high in vitamin C. Many women find it works well to take iron in the morning with juice and then take calcium or prenatal vitamins containing calcium before bed. If, however, the iron seems to be upsetting your stomach, switch these around and take the iron before bed when you can sleep off any discomfort.

Unfortunately, taking iron supplements can cause constipation, already an annoying problem for many pregnant women. If you suffer from these unwanted side effects, try increasing the amount of fiber in your diet by eating lots of fruits and vegetables and drinking plenty of fluids.

And finally, if you already have children, be sure to keep vitamins and iron supplements out of their reach. Accidental iron poisonings are all too common among children because they can mistake the brightly colored pills for candy.

Which foods are high in iron?

The best and most easily absorbed source of iron is heme iron, the kind contained in red meat, fish and poultry. Oysters and many other types of shellfish are good sources of heme iron. However, some types of seafood contain heavy metals such as mercury, so make sure you’re not eating too much.

Nonheme iron, the kind that is less easily absorbed, is found in beans, legumes, and vegetables. This is the form of iron added to iron-enriched and iron-fortified foods. If you’re a vegetarian, you just need to eat more of these vegetables to get enough. Combining both types of iron in one meal (for example, eating chili containing both ground meat and beans) is the best way for your body to absorb the highest percent of available iron.

Sources of heme iron found in food

Chicken liver, cooked
3 ounces
12.8 mg

Oysters, breaded and fried
6 pieces
4.5 mg

Lean beef (chuck)
3 oz.
3.2 mg

Clams, breaded and fried
3/4 cup
3.0 mg

Chicken, roasted (dark meat)
3.5 oz.
1.3 mg

Chicken, roasted (white meat)
3 oz.
1.1 mg

Sources of nonheme iron

Iron-fortified cereal
3/4 cup
18 mg

Instant oatmeal (with water)
1 cup
10 mg

Lentils, boiled
1 cup
6.6 mg

Spinach, boiled
1 cup
6.4 mg

Kidney beans, boiled
1 cup
5.2 mg

Molasses (blackstrap)
1 tbsp
3.5 mg

Tofu (raw,firm)
3.4 mg

1.5 mg

American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Planning Your Pregnancy and Birth. Third Edition.

Mayo Clinic. Iron Deficiency Anemia.

March of Dimes. Anemia.

Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements.

American Academy of Family Physicians. Anemia: When Low Iron Is the Cause.

March of Dimes. Caffeine in Pregnancy.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Preventing Iron Poisoning in Children.

Office of Dietary Supplements. Iron.

Potassium gluconate

Generic Name: potassium gluconate (poe TASS ee um GLOO koe nate)
Brand Name: Kaon

Medically reviewed by on Dec 5, 2019 – Written by Cerner Multum

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What is potassium gluconate?

Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for several functions of your body, especially the beating of your heart.

Potassium gluconate is used to prevent or to treat low blood levels of potassium (hypokalemia). Potassium levels can be low as a result of a disease or from taking certain medicines, or after a prolonged illness with diarrhea or vomiting.

Potassium gluconate may also be used for other purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

Important Information

You should not use this medication if you have kidney failure, a urinary tract infection, uncontrolled diabetes, a peptic ulcer in your stomach, Addison’s disease, severe burns or other tissue injury, if you are dehydrated, if you take certain diuretics (water pills), or if you have high levels of potassium in your blood (hyperkalemia).

You should not take potassium gluconate tablets if you have problems with your esophagus, stomach, or intestines that make it difficult for you to swallow or digest pills.

Do not chew or suck on a potassium tablet. It can irritate your mouth or throat. Swallow the tablet whole with a full glass (at least 8 ounces) of water.

Avoid lying down for at least 30 minutes after you take this medication.

Take this medication with food or just after a meal.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition, your blood may need to be tested often. Your heart rate may also be checked using an electrocardiograph or ECG (sometimes called an EKG) to measure electrical activity of the heart. This test will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with potassium. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.

Serious side effects of potassium include uneven heartbeat, muscle weakness or limp feeling, severe stomach pain, and numbness or tingling in your hands, feet, or mouth.

Do not stop taking this medication without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking potassium suddenly, your condition may become worse.

Before taking this medicine

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to it, or if you have certain conditions. Be sure your doctor knows if you have:

  • high levels of potassium in your blood (hyperkalemia);

  • kidney failure;

  • Addison’s disease (an adrenal gland disorder);

  • a large tissue injury such as a severe burn;

  • if you are severely dehydrated; or

  • if you are taking a “potassium-sparing” diuretic (water pill) such as amiloride (Midamor, Moduretic), spironolactone (Aldactone, Aldactazide), triamterene (Dyrenium, Dyazide, Maxzide).

You should not take potassium gluconate tablets if you have problems with your esophagus, stomach, or intestines that make it difficult for you to swallow or digest pills.

Before using potassium gluconate, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have:

  • kidney disease;

  • heart disease, an enlarged heart, or high blood pressure;

  • a blockage in your stomach or intestines; or

  • chronic diarrhea (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease).

If you have any of these conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take potassium gluconate.

FDA pregnancy category C. This medication may be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.

It is not known whether potassium passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take potassium gluconate?

Take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take it in larger amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Do not chew or suck on a potassium tablet. It can irritate your mouth or throat. Swallow the tablet whole with a full glass (at least 8 ounces) of water. Call your doctor if it feels like the tablet is getting stuck in your throat when you swallow it.

Measure liquid medicine with a special dose-measuring spoon or cup, not a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

Liquid potassium should be mixed with water or fruit juice before taking. Follow the medicine label directions about how much water or juice to use.

Take this medication with food or just after a meal.

Your treatment may include a special diet. It is very important to follow the diet plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor. You should become very familiar with the list of foods you should eat or avoid to help control your condition.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition, your blood may need to be tested often. Your heart rate may also be checked using an electrocardiograph or ECG (sometimes called an EKG) to measure electrical activity of the heart. This test will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with potassium. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.

Do not stop taking this medication without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking potassium suddenly, your condition may become worse.

Store potassium gluconate at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the medication in a closed container.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, wait until then to take the medicine and skip the missed dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of potassium gluconate.

Overdose symptoms may include confusion, muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, chest pain, uneven heartbeat, or feeling like you might pass out.

What should I avoid while taking potassium gluconate?

Avoid lying down for at least 30 minutes after you take this medication.

Avoid taking potassium supplements or using other products that contain potassium without first asking your doctor. Salt substitutes or low-salt dietary products often contain potassium. If you take certain products together you may accidentally get too much potassium. Read the label of any other medicine you are using to see if it contains potassium.

Potassium gluconate side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • confusion, anxiety, feeling like you might pass out;

  • uneven heartbeat;

  • extreme thirst, increased urination;

  • leg discomfort;

  • muscle weakness or limp feeling;

  • numbness or tingly feeling in your hands or feet, or around your mouth;

  • severe stomach pain, ongoing diarrhea or vomiting;

  • black, bloody, or tarry stools; or

  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • mild nausea or upset stomach;

  • mild or occasional diarrhea; or

  • slight tingling in your hands or feet.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect potassium gluconate?

The following drugs can interact with potassium gluconate. Tell your doctor if you are using any of these:

This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with potassium gluconate. Tell your doctor about all your prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Further information

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Copyright 1996-2018 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 3.07.

Medical Disclaimer

More about potassium gluconate

  • Side Effects
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  • En Español
  • Drug class: minerals and electrolytes

Consumer resources

  • Potassium Gluconate Capsules and Tablets
  • Potassium Gluconate Controlled-Release Tablets

Other brands: Kaon

Professional resources

  • Potassium Gluconate (Wolters Kluwer)

Related treatment guides

  • Hypokalemia
  • Prevention of Hypokalemia


Are you a new drug developer? Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions. Stay in the know! As part of our commitment to providing the most up-to-date drug information, we will be releasing #DrugBankUpdates with our newly added curated drug pages. #DrugBankUpdates Name Potassium gluconate Accession Number DB13620 Type Small Molecule Groups Approved Description

Potassium gluconate is a salt of Potassium cation and is classified as a food additive by the FDA 7. It is also used as a potassium supplement 10.

Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid, where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function 1.

In dietary supplements, potassium is often present as potassium chloride, but many other forms—including potassium citrate, phosphate, aspartate, bicarbonate, and gluconate—are also used 5. Potassium gluconate is believed to be more palatable and non-acidifying than potassium chloride (KCl) 11.

Structure Download Similar Structures

Structure for Potassium gluconate (DB13620)

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  • potassium D-gluconate

External IDs E-577 / INS NO.577 / INS-577 Over the Counter Products

Name Dosage Strength Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End
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Kaon Elixir Oral Pfizer Canada Ulc 1995-12-31 2006-08-02 Canada
Potassium Tab 8.3mg Tablet Oral Bio Vita 1987-12-31 1996-09-09 Canada

Additional Data Available

  • Application Number Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products

Name Ingredients Dosage Route Labeller Marketing Start Marketing End
Flexadyn Tab Potassium gluconate (50 mg) + Copper gluconate (.1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (100 mcg) + Magnesium carbonate (100 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg) + Vitamin A (1000 unit) Tablet Oral Nutri Dyn Products Ltd. 1976-12-31 1996-09-09 Canada
Potassium Plus Vit B Complex Potassium gluconate (450 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (2 mg) + Potassium Iodide (100 mcg) + Riboflavin (1.2 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (1 mg) Tablet Oral Anabolic Laboratories Inc. 1981-12-31 1996-10-02 Canada
Potassium W Folic Acid Tab Potassium gluconate (650 mg) + Folic acid (400 mcg) Tablet Oral Quest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products 1978-12-31 2008-07-07 Canada

International/Other Brands Gluconsan-K Categories UNII 12H3K5QKN9 CAS number 299-27-4 Weight Average: 234.245
Monoisotopic: 234.01418418 Chemical Formula C6H11KO7 InChI Key HLCFGWHYROZGBI-JJKGCWMISA-M InChI InChI=1S/C6H12O7.K/c7-1-2(8)3(9)4(10)5(11)6(12)13;/h2-5,7-11H,1H2,(H,12,13);/q;+1/p-1/t2-,3-,4+,5-;/m1./s1 IUPAC Name potassium (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoate SMILES .(O)(CO)()(O)()(O)()(O)C()=O



Because of potassium’s wide-ranging roles in the body, low intakes can increase the risk of illness 8.

Potassium supplements are indicated to prevent hypokalemia in patients who would be at particular risk if hypokalemia were to develop (e.g., digitalis treated patients with significant cardiac arrhythmias). Potassium deficiency occurs when the rate of loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract is higher than the rate of potassium intake. In addition to serving as a preventative supplement, potassium gluconate also serves as a treatment for decreased potassium levels 8, 4, 10.


Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid, where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function, especially in excitable cells such as skeletal muscles, the heart, and nerves 3. Increases in interstitial potassium play an important role in eliciting rapid vasodilation, allowing for blood flow to increase in exercising muscle 13.

Mechanism of action

Potassium is the most abundant cation (approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter) within human cells. Intracellular sodium content is relatively low. In the extracellular fluid, sodium predominates and the potassium content is low (3.5 to 5 mEq per liter). A membrane-bound enzyme, sodium-potassium–activated adenosinetriphosphatase (Na +K +ATPase), actively transports or pumps sodium out and potassium into cells to maintain the concentration gradients. The intracellular to extracellular potassium gradients are necessary for nerve impulse signaling in such specialized tissues as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle, and for the maintenance of physiologic renal function and maintenance of acid-base balance. High intracellular potassium concentrations are necessary for numerous cellular metabolic processes 8.

Intracellular K+ serves as a reservoir to limit the fall in extracellular potassium concentrations occurring under pathologic conditions with loss of potassium from the body 13.


Potassium is rapidly and well absorbed. A 2016 dose-response trial found that humans absorb about 94% of potassium gluconate in supplements, and this absorption rate is similar to that of potassium from potatoes 2.

Volume of distribution

Distribution is largely intracellular, but it is the intravascular concentration that is primarily responsible for toxicity 6.

Protein binding Not Available Metabolism Not Available Route of elimination

90% of potassium is eliminated via the kidneys. A small amount is eliminated in feces and sweat 6.

Half life Not Available Clearance

Potassium is freely filtered by the glomerulus in the kidney. The majority of filtered potassium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule and loop of Henle. Less than 10% of the filtered load reaches the distal nephron. In the proximal tubule of the nephron, potassium absorption is mainly passive and proportional to Na+ and water. K+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle occurs through both transcellular and paracellular pathways. The transcellular component is regulated by potassium transport on the apical membrane Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter. The secretion of potassium begins in the early distal convoluted tubule of the nephron and progressively increases along the distal nephron into the cortical collecting duct. Most urinary K+ can be accounted for by electrogenic K+ secretion mediated by principal cells in the initial collecting duct and the cortical collecting duct. An electroneutral K+ and Cl− cotransport mechanism is also present on the apical surface of the distal nephron. Under conditions of potassium deficiency, reabsorption of the cation occurs in the collecting duct. This process is regulated by the upregulation in the apically located H+-K+-ATPase on α-intercalated cells 13.


Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 9100 mg/kg in the mouse MSDS

Toxicity from overdose is rare but may result from intentional ingestion of potassium. Iatrogenic overdoses may occur 6.

Local irritation after ingestion causes GI upset. Severe hyperkalemia after large IV or oral overdoses causes muscular dysfunction including weakness, paralysis, cardiac dysrhythmias, and rarely death 6.

Mild to moderate toxicity

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, paresthesias, and muscle cramps are common. Rarely, gastrointestinal bleed may occur.

Severe toxicity

In severe toxicity, muscular weakness progressing to paralysis may occur. Cardiac arrhythmia often occur at concentrations greater than 8 mEq/L and death from cardiac arrest at concentrations of 9 to 12 mEq/L or higher. Characteristic ECG findings occur in the following order: peaked T waves, QRS complex blends into the T wave, PR interval prolongation, P wave is lost and ST segments depress, merging S and T waves, and finally, sine waves. The presence of the sine wave is a near terminal event, signaling that hemodynamic collapse and cardiac arrest are near. As serum hyperkalemia is corrected towards normal concentrations, the ECG changes resolve in reverse order 6.

Affected organisms

  • Humans and other mammals

Pathways Not Available Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available


Drug Interactions This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.

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Drug Interaction
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Acebutolol Potassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acebutolol.
Aceclofenac Potassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Aceclofenac.
Acemetacin Potassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acemetacin.
Acetylsalicylic acid Potassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
Agmatine Potassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Agmatine.
Alclofenac Potassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Alclofenac.
Aliskiren Potassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Aliskiren.
Alminoprofen Potassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Alminoprofen.
Alprenolol Potassium gluconate may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Alprenolol.
Amiloride The risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Potassium gluconate is combined with Amiloride.

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    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level Evidence Level

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Food Interactions Not Available General References External Links KEGG Drug D01298 PubChem Compound 16760467 PubChem Substance 347829307 ChemSpider 8931 ChEBI 32032 ChEMBL CHEMBL2106978 Wikipedia Potassium_gluconate ATC Codes A12BA05 — Potassium gluconate

  • A12BA — Potassium

MSDS (47.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials

Phase Status Purpose Conditions Count
1, 2 Enrolling by Invitation Treatment Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) 1


Manufacturers Not Available Packagers Not Available Dosage forms

Form Route Strength
Tablet Oral
Elixir Oral
Tablet Oral

Prices Not Available Patents Not Available


State Solid Experimental Properties

Property Value Source
melting point (°C) 180 MSDS

Predicted Properties

Property Value Source
Water Solubility 833.0 mg/mL ALOGPS
logP -1.9 ALOGPS
logP -3.4 ChemAxon
logS 0.55 ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic) 3.39 ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic) -3 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 7 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 5 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 141.28 Å2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 5 ChemAxon
Refractivity 49.11 m3·mol-1 ChemAxon
Polarizability 16.62 Å3 ChemAxon
Number of Rings 0 ChemAxon
Bioavailability 1 ChemAxon
Rule of Five Yes ChemAxon
Ghose Filter No ChemAxon
Veber’s Rule No ChemAxon
MDDR-like Rule No ChemAxon

Predicted ADMET features Not Available


Mass Spec (NIST) Not Available Spectra

Spectrum Spectrum Type Splash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum – GC-MS Predicted GC-MS Not Available


Description This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group. Kingdom Organic compounds Super Class Organic oxygen compounds Class Organooxygen compounds Sub Class Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates Direct Parent Sugar acids and derivatives Alternative Parents Medium-chain hydroxy acids and derivatives / Medium-chain fatty acids / Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives / Hydroxy fatty acids / Monosaccharides / Secondary alcohols / Carboxylic acid salts / Polyols / Carboxylic acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivativesOrganic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Organic potassium salts / Organic zwitterions / Carbonyl compounds / Primary alcohols show 6 more Substituents Gluconic_acid / Medium-chain hydroxy acid / Medium-chain fatty acid / Beta-hydroxy acid / Hydroxy fatty acid / Hydroxy acid / Fatty acyl / Fatty acid / Monosaccharide / Carboxylic acid saltSecondary alcohol / Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid / Organic alkali metal salt / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Polyol / Organic potassium salt / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic salt / Carbonyl group / Organic zwitterion / Alcohol / Primary alcohol / Aliphatic acyclic compound show 15 more Molecular Framework Aliphatic acyclic compounds External Descriptors Not Available


Kind Protein Organism Humans Pharmacological action Yes Actions Substrate Inducer General Function Transporter activity Specific Function May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase. Gene Name FXYD2 Uniprot ID P54710 Uniprot Name Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma Molecular Weight 7283.265 Da


Kind Protein Organism Humans Pharmacological action Yes Actions Substrate General Function Steroid hormone binding Specific Function This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates th… Gene Name ATP1A1 Uniprot ID P05023 Uniprot Name Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1 Molecular Weight 112895.01 Da Kind Protein Organism Humans Pharmacological action Yes Actions Substrate General Function Sodium:potassium:chloride symporter activity Specific Function Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume. Gene Name SLC12A1 Uniprot ID Q13621 Uniprot Name Solute carrier family 12 member 1 Molecular Weight 121449.13 Da Kind Protein group Organism Humans Pharmacological action Yes Actions Substrate General Function Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity Specific Function Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of H(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. Responsible for acid production in the stomach.


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Drug created on June 23, 2017 14:45 / Updated on February 02, 2020 03:03

Calcium Gluconate Injection

Generic Name: 95mg/mL calcium gluconate; and 3.0 mg/mL calcium D-saccarate
Product Name: Calcium Gluconate Injection

Indication: What Calcium Gluconate Injection is used for

Calcium gluconate is a calcium salt used to treat or prevent a lack of calcium in the body. Other reasons for treatment with Calcium Gluconate Injection are:

  • High potassium levels in the blood;
  • An overdose of magnesium sulfate i.e. Epsom salts;
  • Sudden severe stomach pain;
  • During heart resuscitation to strengthen the heart muscle.

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why this medicine has been prescribed for you. Your doctor may have prescribed it for another reason.

Action: How Calcium Gluconate Injection works

This medicine works by increasing the level of calcium in the blood or by binding to excess potassium or magnesium in the blood.

Calcium is essential for the maintenance of the functional integrity of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems, and cell membrane and capillary permeability. This cation is an important activator in many enzymatic reactions and is essential to a number of physiologic processes including the transmission of nerve impulses; contraction of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles; renal function; respiration; and blood coagulation. Calcium also plays a regulatory role in the release and storage of neurotransmitters and hormones, in the uptake and binding of amino acids, in cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) absorption and in gastrin secretion.

The calcium of bone is in a constant exchange with the calcium of plasma. Since the metabolic functions of calcium are essential for life, when there is a disturbance in the calcium balance because of dietary deficiency or other causes, the stores of calcium in bone may be depleted to fill the body’s more acute needs. Therefore, on a chronic basis, normal mineralisation of bone depends on adequate amounts of total body calcium.

Calcium Gluconate Injection contains 95mg/mL calcium gluconate and 3.0 mg/mL calcium D-saccharate in water for injections.

Calcium Gluconate Injection does not contain lactose, sucrose, gluten, tartrazine, alcohol, dyes or any preservatives.

Dose advice: How to use Calcium Gluconate Injection

Before you are given Calcium Gluconate Injection

When you must not be given it

You should not be given Calcium Gluconate Injection if you have an allergy to:

  • Any medicine containing calcium gluconate;
  • Any of the ingredients listed here.

Some of the symptoms of an allergic reaction may include:

  • Shortness of breath;
  • Wheezing or difficulty breathing;
  • Swelling of the face, lips, tongue or other parts of the body;
  • Rash, itching or hives on the skin.

You should not be given Calcium Gluconate Injection if the calcium levels in your blood or urine are above normal levels. Some conditions that may cause high levels of calcium are:

  • Hyperparathyroidism, an overproduction of certain hormones;
  • An overdose of vitamin D;
  • Tumours of the bone or other tumours which raise levels of calcium in the blood.

You should not be given Calcium Gluconate Injection if you have severe heart disease.

You should not be given Calcium Gluconate Injection if you have severe kidney disease.

You should not be given Calcium Gluconate Injection if you suffer from galactosaemia. This is a rare genetic disorder.

You should not be given Calcium Gluconate Injection if you have been bedridden for a long time causing the loss of calcium from the bones.

You should not be given Calcium Gluconate Injection if you are being treated with certain heart drugs such as digoxin and digitalis.

You should not be given Calcium Gluconate Injection if the solution is discoloured, cloudy, turbid, or a precipitate is present. The solution is normally a clear, colourless liquid.

You should not be given Calcium Gluconate Injection if when diluted with another solution it causes the solution to precipitate, become cloudy, turbid, discolour, or particles are visible. The doctor or nurse will check to ensure the medicine is not past its expiry date and has not been tampered with.

If you are not sure whether you should be given this medicine, talk to your doctor.

Before you are given it

Tell your doctor if you have allergies to any other medicines, foods, preservatives or dyes. Tell your doctor if you have or have had any of the following medical conditions:

  • Kidney or heart disease;
  • Kidney stones or stones of the urinary tract;
  • Diseases causing high levels of vitamin D in the blood;
  • Dehydration or any other chemical imbalance in the blood;
  • High phosphate levels in the blood;
  • A blood transfusion.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or are breast-feeding. Your doctor will discuss the risks and benefits of you being given Calcium Gluconate Injection during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

If you have not told your doctor about any of the above, tell them before you are given Calcium Gluconate Injection.

Taking other medicines

Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, including medicines that you buy without a prescription from your pharmacy, supermarket, health food shop, naturopath or herbalist.

Some medicines and calcium gluconate may interfere with each other. These include:

  • Medicines used to treat heart diseases such as cardiac glycosides e.g. digoxin or digitalis;
  • Tetracycline antibiotics such as Achromycin and Tetrex;
  • High doses of vitamin D or vitamin A;
  • Medicines used to treat Paget’s disease such as calcitonin;
  • Medicines used to reduce blood pressure such as verapamil and other calcium channel blockers;
  • Medicines used to reduce excess fluid in the body such as thiazide diuretics;
  • Medicines used to relax muscles prior to surgery such as tubocurarine;
  • Medicines containing calcium, magnesium, potassium phosphate or sodium phosphate.

These medicines may be affected by Calcium Gluconate Injection or may affect how well it works. You may need different amounts of your medicines, or you may need to take different medicines.

Your doctor or pharmacist has more information on medicines to be careful with or avoid while being given Calcium Gluconate Injection.

How Calcium Gluconate Injection is given

Calcium Gluconate Injection must only be given by a doctor or nurse.

How it is given

It is usually given as a slow injection or infusion into a vein.

Calcium Gluconate Injection will normally be warmed to body temperature before use.

How much is given

Your doctor will decide what dose of calcium gluconate you will receive and for how long you will receive it. This depends on your medical condition and other factors, such as your weight. Sometimes only a single dose of calcium gluconate is required.

If you are given too much (overdose)

Calcium Gluconate Injection must only be given by a doctor or nurse so an overdose is unlikely to occur.

Some medical conditions may result in too much calcium in the blood. Your doctor or nurse will monitor the level of calcium in the blood.

If you notice any symptoms of an overdose contact your doctor immediately or go to the Emergency Department at the nearest hospital.

Symptoms of an overdose may include:

  • Nausea, vomiting;
  • Loss of appetite;
  • Abdominal pain, constipation;
  • Weakness in the muscles and painful joints;
  • Excessive thirst and an excessive passing of urine;
  • Change in heartbeat or chest pain.

Contact the Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26 for further advice on overdose management.

While you are being given Calcium Gluconate Injection

Things you must do

If you are about to be started on any new medicine, remind your doctor and pharmacist that you have been given Calcium Gluconate Injection.

Tell any other doctors, dentists, and pharmacists who treat you that you have been given this medicine.

If you are going to have surgery, tell the surgeon or anaesthetist that you have been given this medicine. It may affect other medicines used during surgery.

If you become pregnant while being given this medicine, tell your doctor immediately.

If you are about to have any blood tests, tell your doctor that you have been given this medicine. It may interfere with the results of some tests.

Keep all of your doctor’s appointments so that your progress can be checked. Your doctor may do some tests from time to time to make sure the medicine is working and to prevent unwanted side effects.

Things to be careful of

Be careful driving or operating machinery until you know how Calcium Gluconate Injection affects you. This medicine may cause dizziness, light-headedness or weakness in some people. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive, operate machinery or do anything else dangerous.

If you feel light-headed, dizzy or faint when getting out of bed or standing up, get up slowly. Standing up slowly, especially when you get up from bed or chairs, will help your body get used to the change in position and blood pressure. If this problem continues or gets worse, talk to your doctor.

After being given Calcium Gluconate Injection

After you have been given Calcium Gluconate Injection you should lie down for a short time to prevent dizziness.

If you feel light-headed or dizzy when getting up, get up slowly. Standing up slowly will help your body get used to the change in position and blood pressure.

If this problem continues or gets worse, talk to your doctor or nurse.


Calcium Gluconate Injection will be stored in the surgery, pharmacy or ward of a hospital. The injection is kept in a cool dry place where the temperature stays below 30°C but not refrigerated.

Calcium Gluconate Injection will only be opened when it is time for you to have the injection.

Schedule of Calcium Gluconate Injection

Calcium Gluconate Injection is unscheduled.

Side effects of Calcium Gluconate Injection

Tell your doctor or nurse as soon as possible if you do not feel well while you are being given Calcium Gluconate Injection. This medicine may have unwanted side effects in a few people. All medicines can have side effects. Sometimes they are serious, most of the time they are not. You may need medical treatment if you get some of the side effects.

Do not be alarmed by this list of possible side effects. You may not experience any of them. Ask your doctor to answer any questions you may have.

Tell your doctor or nurse if you notice any of the following and they worry you:

  • Tingling sensation;
  • A feeling of heat or heaviness over the body;
  • A calcium or chalky taste.

If any of the following happen, tell your doctor immediately or go to the Emergency Department at your nearest hospital:

  • Dizziness, feeling faint;
  • Irregular, fast or slow heartbeat, chest pain;
  • Nausea or vomiting, loss of appetite;
  • Constipation or abdominal pain;
  • Sweating, hot flushes;
  • Skin redness, pain or burning at the injection site;
  • Muscle or joint pain;
  • Tiredness or weakness;
  • Excessive thirst or urination.

The above list includes very serious side effects. These side effects are very rare.

Tell your doctor or nurse if you notice anything that is making you feel unwell. Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some people. Some of these side effects can only be found when your doctor does tests from time to time to check your progress.

For further information talk to your doctor.

ferrous gluconate
Apo-Ferrous Gluconate ◆, Fergon, Ferralet, Fertinic ◆, Novoferrogluc ◆, Simron

Pharmacologic classification: oral iron supplement
Therapeutic classification: hematinic
Pregnancy risk category A

Indications and dosages
Iron deficiency. Adults: 100 to 200 mg elemental iron P.O. t.i.d.
Children ages 2 to 12: 3 mg/kg P.O. daily in three or four divided doses.
Children ages 6 months to 2 years: Up to 6 mg/kg P.O. daily in three or four divided doses.
Infants: 10 to 25 mg P.O. daily divided into three or four doses.
Elderly patients: May need higher doses because reduced gastric secretions and achlorhydria may lower their capacity for iron absorption.

Hematinic action: Ferrous gluconate replaces iron, an essential component in the formation of hemoglobin.

Absorption: Absorbed from the entire length of the GI tract, but primary absorption sites are the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Up to 10% of iron is absorbed by healthy individuals; patients with iron-deficiency anemia may absorb up to 60%. Food may decrease absorption by 33% to 50%.
Distribution: Transported through GI mucosal cells directly into the blood, where it is immediately bound to a carrier protein, transferrin, and transported to the bone marrow for incorporation into hemoglobin. Iron is highly protein-bound.
Metabolism: Liberated by the destruction of hemoglobin but is conserved and reused by the body.
Excretion: Healthy people lose only small amounts of iron daily. Men and postmenopausal women lose about 1 mg/day, premenopausal women about 1.5 mg/day. Loss usually occurs in nails, hair, feces, and urine; trace amounts are lost in bile and sweat.

Route Onset Peak Duration
P.O. 4 days 7-10 days 2-4 mo

Contraindications and precautions
Contraindicated in patients receiving repeated blood transfusions and those with peptic ulceration, regional enteritis, ulcerative colitis, hemosiderosis, primary hemochromatosis, or hemolytic anemia unless iron deficiency anemia is also present. Use cautiously on long-term basis.

Drug-drug. Antacids, aluminum-containing phosphate binders, cholestyramine, cimetidine, vitamin E: Decreases ferrous fumarate absorption. Separate doses by 1- to 2-hour intervals.
Chloramphenicol: Increases response to iron therapy. Monitor patient carefully.
Doxycycline: May interfere with ferrous fumarate absorption even when doses are separated. Avoid use together.
L-thyroxine: May decrease L-thyroxine absorption. Separate doses by at least 2 hours. Monitor thyroid function.
Levodopa, methyldopa: May decrease absorption of these drugs. Monitor patient carefully.
Penicillamine: Decreases penicillamine absorption. Separate doses by at least 2 hours.
Quinolones: May decrease quinolone absorption. Monitor patient closely.
Tetracycline: Inhibits absorption of both drugs. Give tetracycline 3 hours after or 2 hours before iron supplement.
Vitamin C: Increases iron absorption. May be used as a beneficial drug interaction.
Drug-herb. Black cohosh, chamomile, feverfew, gossypol, hawthorn, nettle, plantain, St. John’s wort: Decreases iron absorption. Discourage use together.
Drug-food. Cereals, cheese, coffee, eggs, milk, tea, whole-grain breads, yogurt: May impair oral iron absorption. Discourage use together.

Adverse reactions
GI: nausea, epigastric pain, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, black stools, anorexia.
Other: temporary staining of teeth (with elixir).

Effects on lab test results
None reported.

Overdose and treatment
The lethal dose of iron is between 200 and 250 mg/kg; fatalities have occurred with lower doses. Signs and symptoms may follow ingestion of 20 to 60 mg/kg. Between 30 minutes and 8 hours after ingestion, patient may experience lethargy, nausea, vomiting, green and then tarry stools, weak and rapid pulse, hypotension, dehydration, acidosis, and coma. If death doesn’t immediately ensue, symptoms may clear for about 24 hours. At 12 to 48 hours, symptoms may return, accompanied by diffuse vascular congestion, pulmonary edema, shock, seizures, anuria, and hyperthermia. Death may follow.
Treatment requires immediate support of airway, breathing, and circulation. In conscious patient with intact gag reflex, induce emesis with ipecac; otherwise, empty stomach by gastric lavage. Follow emesis with lavage, using a 1% sodium bicarbonate solution, to convert iron to less irritating, poorly absorbed form (phosphate solutions have been used but carry hazard of other adverse effects). Take abdominal X-ray to determine continued presence of excess iron; if serum iron levels exceed 350 mg/dl, deferoxamine may be used for systemic chelation.
Survivors are likely to sustain organ damage, including pyloric or antral stenosis, hepatic cirrhosis, CNS damage, and intestinal obstruction.

Special considerations
• Ferrous gluconate blackens feces and may interfere with test for occult blood in the stools; the guaiac test and orthotoluidine test may yield false-positive results, but the benzidine test is usually not affected.
• Iron overload may decrease uptake of technetium 99m and thus interfere with skeletal imaging.
• Drug can be given between meals or with some food, but absorption may be decreased.
Breast-feeding patients
• Iron supplements are commonly recommended for breast-feeding women; no adverse effects have been documented.
Pediatric patients
• Overdose may be fatal in children; treat immediately.
Geriatric patients
• Iron-induced constipation is common in elderly patients; stress proper diet or prescribe a stool softener.

Patient education
• To promote absorption, tell patient to take tablets with orange juice.
ALERT Inform parents that as few as three tablets can cause poisoning in children. Caution parents to store drug securely away from children.
• Caution patient not to substitute one iron salt for another because the amounts of elemental iron vary.

Reactions may be common, uncommon, life-threatening, or COMMON AND LIFE THREATENING.
◆ Canada only
◇ Unlabeled clinical use

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