- Symptoms & Causes of Dumping Syndrome
- What are the symptoms of dumping syndrome?
- What causes dumping syndrome?
- Early Satiety
- What is early satiety?
- Symptoms of early satiety
- Early satiety tests
- Causes of early satiety
- Treatment of early satiety
- Diabetes Forecast
- Surprising Origins
- Glucose Matters
- 7 Ways to Trick Yourself Full
- SATIETY SECRET #1: Know what (and when) to drink.
- SATIETY SECRET #2: Fill up with fiber
- SATIETY SECRET #3: Pack in the protein
- SATIETY SECRET #4: Savor the flavors
- SATIETY SECRET #5: Trick your belly full
- SATIETY SECRET #6: Avoid distraction at dinner
- SATIETY SECRET #7: Downsize your snacks
- BLOCK THAT BINGE
Eva Miller*, a busy chef and caterer in Boston, was out with her friends last September when she started feeling strange.
“I didn’t have any wine, even though I usually do,” remembers Miller, whose name has been changed to protect her business. “I didn’t eat much. I had a lot of bloating and I just didn’t feel right.” She also felt full after eating only a small amount, which wasn’t typical for her. Around the same time, she also noticed weird hair growth on her upper lip.
“I’m of Scandinavian descent, so my hair is very white and blonde on my body, but the mustache was actually dark,” she says. Dark enough that she went to get it waxed, which she’d never done in her life. Miller was especially attuned to her body because she’d suffered from endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and fibroids in the past. She knew she needed to get checked out ASAP.
A few days after her outing with friends, she asked her gynecologist for a transvaginal ultrasound, which provides a view of the uterus, ovaries, and cervix. The ultrasound revealed a 10-inch mass in her uterus that was presumed to be a fibroid — a benign growth. Her doctor could feel it during a physical exam, too, so just to be on the safe side, he ordered a blood test for a certain biomarker called CA125. If the level comes back above 30, that can be indicative of ovarian cancer, though inflammatory or benign conditions like fibroids, ruptured cysts, or endometriosis can falsely elevate it.
Miller’s level came back at 540.
Her doctor wasn’t happy. He ordered a CT scan, which showed that her ovaries were fine, and the mass was in her pelvic area. Again, the radiologist reported a fibroid. Still concerned, her doctor thought she should consult with a surgical oncologist who specializes in complex hysterectomies — a procedure to remove her uterus altogether.
“But no one said cancer,” Miller remembers.
She underwent one more imaging test — an MRI — and again, the results came back indicating a fibroid, and confirmed that she had normal ovaries. But the surgeon thought the mass looked suspicious enough to suggest she go through with a hysterectomy. He thought it could be a rare fibroid sarcoma, a type of cancer in the uterine muscle that only affects 1 in 1,000 women who have problems with fibroids.
“OK, take it out,” she told him, even though she had six weddings to cater that weekend. “It’ll be a happily ever after.”
So on Oct. 23, 2015, she went in for surgery.
Miller’s original doctor and friend, Boston-based surgeon Elliot Lach, went with her to the operation to provide moral support. During the pre-op phase, after the anesthesiologist had listened her heart, a nurse had set up her IV, and she’d signed the final consent forms, a sudden change of heart struck her.
She jumped off the operating table, threatening to bolt. Dr. Lach didn’t stand in her way, but he “sternly” explained to her the necessity of undergoing the surgery, just in case something really was wrong. If it was, he said, she wouldn’t feel any obvious symptoms until it was too late to treat it. Reluctantly, she agreed.
Five hours later, she woke up to shocking news: Her strange mass was not a fibroid after all. It was stage 3 ovarian cancer, and it had grown 6 more centimeters since her last scan. (Ovarian cancer can double in two or three weeks.) The surgeon had gotten it all out, even though it also had spread to three other places — her fallopian tube, her colon, and her perineum.
Compared with other cancers like breast or skin, which can be routinely detected in their early stages, ovarian cancer is difficult to detect until it’s bursting out of the ovary and spreading to other organs, like in Miller’s case. And even then, her imaging tests did not pick it up.
“For the patient, one has to decide to live with the risk of relying solely on diagnostic imaging tests or partnering with and following the recommendation and interpretation of an experienced surgeon,” Lach advises. If Miller had in fact ditched her surgery, he adds, she probably would not have survived much longer.
By the time ovarian cancer is detected, the prognosis may be grim: This year, there will be about 22,200 new cases and 14,000 deaths. Risk factors include older age, although women younger than 40 can get it; obesity; family history; endometriosis, and mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which can also elevate one’s risk of breast cancer.
But happily, in Miller’s case, she is responding well to treatment so far.
To be safe, she is now undergoing 18 weeks of chemotherapy and is tolerating it without much discomfort.
“It’s almost too good to be true,” Miller says. “I can count on my hands the bad days I’ve had. It’s kind of miraculous.”
She does take white cell boosters in between treatments to boost her immunity, and she’s lost most of her hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes, but her initial symptoms of feeling strangely full and bloated have now disappeared.
She also continues to work full time, and her CA125 level has dropped all the way to 8. In her case, the plus side of having an aggressive form of cancer — if there could be such a thing — is that it responds rapidly to chemo. “As it grows fast, it also dies fast,” she says. Since January, she’s been cancer-free.
Her prognosis, Dr. Lach says, is better than fifty-fifty because she is fairly young and can tolerate the poison of chemo. For the rest of her life, her CA125 levels will be tested to make sure it hasn’t returned. Before long, she expects to be back in the swing of her normal life, symptom-free and treatment-free.
“I think the best advice is to pay attention to your own body,” Miller reflects. “If something persists and it’s knocking at your door, you should answer it.”
Kira Peikoff is the author of No Time to Die, a thriller about a girl who mysteriously stops aging. It is available now. Connect with her on Facebook or tweet her @KiraPeikoff.
Symptoms & Causes of Dumping Syndrome
What are the symptoms of dumping syndrome?
The symptoms of early and late dumping syndrome are different. Symptoms may vary from person to person.
Early dumping syndrome
Symptoms of early dumping syndrome occur within 30 minutes after you eat a meal. You may have digestive symptoms, such as
- feeling uncomfortably full or bloated
- pain and cramping in your abdomen
- stomach “growling” or rumbling sounds
Other symptoms of early dumping syndrome may include
- feeling light-headed or fainting
- feeling tired or needing to lie down
- flushing, or reddening of your face, neck, or upper chest
- having a fast or irregular heartbeat
Symptoms of early dumping syndrome may include pain in your abdomen and feeling tired or needing to lie down.
Late dumping syndrome
Symptoms of late dumping syndrome occur 1 to 3 hours after you eat a meal. The symptoms of late dumping syndrome are caused by low blood glucose, also called low blood sugar or hypoglycemia. Symptoms of late dumping syndrome may include
- feeling light-headed or fainting
- feeling shaky or jittery
- feeling tired
- having a fast or irregular heartbeat
- trouble concentrating
What causes dumping syndrome?
Rapid gastric emptying, a condition in which food moves too quickly from your stomach to your duodenum, causes dumping syndrome.
Your digestive tract makes and releases hormones that control how your digestive system works. When food moves too quickly from your stomach to your duodenum, your digestive tract releases more hormones than normal. Fluid also moves from your blood stream into your small intestine. Experts think that the excess hormones and movement of fluid into your small intestine cause the symptoms of early dumping syndrome.
Experts also think that these excess hormones may cause your pancreas to produce too much insulin. Too much insulin can lead to low blood glucose 1 to 3 hours after a meal, causing the symptoms of late dumping syndrome.
Causes of rapid gastric emptying
The most common cause of rapid gastric emptying and dumping syndrome is surgery of the stomach or esophagus. Types of surgery that may lead to dumping syndrome include
- bariatric surgery, such as gastric bypass surgery and gastric sleeve surgery. These operations help people lose weight.
- esophagectomy, which is surgery to remove part of the esophagus. Doctors use this surgery to treat problems of the esophagus, such as esophageal cancer and Barrett’s esophagus.
- fundoplication, which is surgery to sew the top of the stomach around the esophagus. Doctors use this surgery to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and hiatal hernia.
- gastrectomy, which is surgery to remove all or part of the stomach. Doctors use this surgery to treat stomach cancer and peptic ulcers.
- vagotomy, which is surgery to cut the vagus nerve in the stomach so that the stomach makes less acid. Doctors use this surgery to treat peptic ulcers.
Rapid gastric emptying sometimes occurs in people who have not had stomach surgery. For example, rapid gastric emptying may occur in people who have
- recently developed diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes
- pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, a condition in which the pancreas doesn’t make enough of certain enzymes, causing problems with digestion
- duodenal ulcers
- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
In some cases, a person has rapid gastric emptying and dumping syndrome but the cause is unknown.
What is early satiety?
Early satiety is the inability to eat a full meal or feeling full after only a small amount of food.
This is most likely due to gastroparesis, a condition in which the stomach is slow to empty.
Symptoms of early satiety
Symptoms often associated with early satiety include:
- an inability to consume a normal-sized meal
- a feeling of being full after eating very little food
- nausea and vomiting that occurs when attempting to eat a normal-sized meal
Early satiety tests
Tests may include:
- complete blood count and blood differential to check for anemia
- endoscopy (EGD) to examine the esophagus and stomach for abnormalities
- stool tests for bleeding
- x-ray studies of the stomach, esophagus, and small intestine (abdominal x-ray and an upper GI and small bowel series)
- gastric-emptying studies
Causes of early satiety
- ulcers of the stomach, also referred to as peptic ulcers
- an obstruction
- a tumor of the abdominal organs, or in the abdomen
- GERD (often referred to as heartburn) that irritates the lining of the esophagus
- a problem with the nerves that control the movement of food in the digestive system; this may be the result of surgery
Early satiety is the inability to eat a full meal
or feeling full after only a small amount of food.
Treatment of early satiety
- a diet that is low in fats
- smaller portions eaten more frequently
- prokinetic medications, such as Reglan, or Domperidone
Any change in eating habits or digestion should be referred to a physician.
Call your doctor if:
- the feeling lasts for days to weeks and does not get better
- you lose weight without trying
- you have dark stools
- you have nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, or bloating
- you have fever and chills
The doctor will examine you and ask questions such as:
- When did this symptom begin?
- How long does each episode last?
- What foods, if any, make the symptoms worse?
- What other symptoms do you have (for example, vomiting, excessive gas, abdominal pain, or weight loss)
Appetite loss or poor appetite are common side effects from cancer and its treatment. This means that you may eat less than usual, not feel hungry at all, or feel full after eating only a small amount.
Ongoing appetite loss may lead to serious complications. These include weight loss, not getting the nutrients that the body needs, and fatigue and weakness from muscle loss. These issues can slow recovery and lead to breaks in treatment.
It is important to talk with your health care team if you lose your appetite. They can help find the cause and make sure you are getting the nutrition you need.
Causes of appetite loss
Many different things can cause appetite loss in a person with cancer:
Changes in metabolism, which is the body’s process of breaking down food and turning it into energy. Such changes can happen with advanced cancer.
Cancer inside the abdomen, which may cause irritation or swelling.
An enlarged spleen or liver, which pushes on the stomach and creates a feeling of fullness.
Ascites, which is a buildup of fluid in the abdomen that may create a feeling of fullness.
Medications, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and other drugs.
Radiation therapy or surgery to any part of the gastrointestinal organs, such as the stomach or intestines.
Other side effects of cancer treatment can also cause appetite loss:
Nausea and vomiting
Mouth sores and mouth pain
Infections in the mouth
Changes in taste and smell
Constipation or diarrhea
Stress or anxiety
Managing appetite loss
Relieving side effects is an important part of cancer care and treatment. This is called palliative care, or supportive care. Talk with your health care team about any symptoms you experience and any change in symptoms.
If possible, the first step in treating appetite loss is to address the cause. Treatment for conditions such as nausea, mouth sores, dry mouth, pain, or depression may help improve appetite.
Although you may not feel like eating, remember that getting good nutrition and keeping a healthy weight are important parts of your recovery. Eating well can also help you better cope with the effects of cancer and its treatment.
Consider the following tips for getting proper nutrition when your appetite is low:
Eat 5 to 6 small meals a day, and snack whenever you are hungry.
Do not limit how much you eat.
Determine which times of day you are hungry and eat at those times.
Eat nutritious snacks that are high in calories and protein. This includes dried fruits, nuts and nut butters, yogurt, cheeses, eggs, milkshakes, ice cream, cereal, pudding, and protein bars or granola bars.
Keep your favorite foods on hand for snacking.
Increase the calories and protein in foods by adding sauces, gravy, butter, cheese, sour cream, half and half, whipped cream, and nuts or nut butters.
Drink larger amounts of fluids between meals, rather than with meals, which may make you feel full too quickly.
Choose nutritious or filling drinks, such as milk or nutritional milkshakes or smoothies.
Ask family members or friends to get groceries and prepare food for you when you are too tired to shop or cook. Also consider buying precooked meals.
Try to eat in pleasant surroundings and with family or friends.
Try placing food on smaller plates rather than larger plates.
If the smell or taste of food makes you nauseous, eat food that is cold or at room temperature. This will decrease its odor and reduce its taste.
If you are having trouble tasting food, try adding spices and condiments to make the foods more appealing.
If you have changes in taste, such as a metallic taste in your mouth, try sucking on hard candy such as mints or lemon drops before eating a meal.
Ask your doctor about ways to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and constipation. Also tell your doctor if you are having any difficulty managing pain.
Try light exercise, such as a 20-minute walk, about an hour before meals. This can help stimulate your appetite. Consult your health care team before starting an exercise program. Exercise also helps maintain muscle mass.
Meet with a registered dietitian for advice on meal planning and symptom management. A dietitian can also decide whether you might benefit from nutritional supplements or digestive enzymes. Ask your health care team if there is a dietitian available at your treatment center.
Your doctor may treat appetite loss and associated weight loss with certain medications, including:
Megestrol acetate (Ovaban, Pallace) or medroxyprogesterone (Amen, Depo-Provera, Provera). These are forms of the progesterone hormone that can improve appetite and weight gain.
Steroid medications. These can increase appetite, improve a person’s sense of well-being, and help with nausea, weakness, or pain.
Metoclopramide (Reglan). This helps move food out of the stomach and can prevent feeling full before eating enough food.
Dronabinol (Marinol). This is a cannabinoid made in the laboratory, which may stimulate appetite.
Sometimes, a feeding tube is placed temporarily through the nose into the stomach. A more permanent tube can also be placed directly into the stomach from the abdominal wall if necessary.
If you are experiencing appetite loss, be sure to let your health care team know. They will work to find a solution that is right for you.
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Almost everyone knows the uncomfortable ache that comes from eating too much: You feel stuffed. But for some people with diabetes, a full sensation may have nothing to do with overindulging. Instead, it may be a sign of a serious complication called gastroparesis. Never heard of it? It’s not uncommon; symptoms of gastroparesis have been reported in 5 to 12 percent of people with diabetes. Here’s what you need to know about preventing and treating this complication before it creates more serious problems.
In normal digestion, food leaves the stomach and makes its way into the small intestine no more than three hours after eating. However, in people with gastroparesis this journey is delayed and food remains in the stomach longer than it should, leading to a variety of symptoms.
The most common symptoms of gastroparesis are feeling full early in a meal, upper abdominal pain, heartburn, erratic blood glucose levels, nausea, bloating, and vomiting of undigested food. If food lingers in the stomach too long, it may fuel bacterial overgrowth or form hard lumps called bezoars, which can cause a dangerous blockage. Severe gastroparesis can lead to malnutrition and weight loss.
Gastroparesis is most common in people who’ve had diabetes for longer than 10 years and affects those with both types 1 and 2. It is often found in people with microvascular complications: retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, diseases of the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, respectively.
The cause of diabetic gastroparesis is rooted in the nervous system. Movement of food through the digestive tract is governed by nerves that send signals from the brain for digestive muscles to contract; these contractions maneuver food from the stomach into the small intestine. Yet unchecked neuropathy can cut off the signals that keep food flowing, leading to gastroparesis.
Because the symptoms of gastroparesis may have other causes, a doctor will run some tests to diagnose this disease. First, he or she may want to rule out an obstruction as the cause of digestive problems. Then, if gastroparesis remains a possibility, the doctor will probably measure the rate at which foods leave the stomach.
The best way to detect gastroparesis is a technique called scintiscanning. The patient eats a meal containing traces of radioactive particles, and as digestion occurs, the emitted radiation is tracked. If, after four hours, more than 10 percent of the meal remains in the stomach, that is considered abnormal and may
Neuropathy can be prevented with good blood glucose control, so bringing blood glucose levels down to prevent further damage to the nerves is the first step in managing gastroparesis. Plus, high blood glucose itself can delay food in the stomach, which is another reason to get control. Unfortunately, though, gastroparesis can make blood glucose more difficult to control. Since, with gastroparesis, it may take hours after eating for food to enter the small intestine—where glucose is absorbed into the body—blood glucose levels may behave erratically, spiking or dropping at unanticipated times. Diabetes treatments may need to be adjusted to accommodate gastroparesis.
Some diabetes medications, including pramlintide acetate (Symlin) and exenatide (Byetta), may delay gastric emptying. These medications, and others that can delay food from moving out of the stomach, may need to be used with caution, if at all, in people with gastroparesis.
While gastroparesis usually is a chronic condition, numerous therapies can improve its symptoms and ensure proper nutrition. Gastroparesis can vary widely in its severity, and therapy should of course be tailored by a doctor to the particular case.
Minor cases can often be treated through simple dietary changes. Eating six small meals a day instead of three bigger ones may help with feeling overly full. Doctors may also recommend cutting down on high-fat foods, which slow digestion, and high-fiber foods, which can be difficult to digest. In more severe cases, a liquid or pureed diet may be necessary.
Prescription medications may help relieve gastroparesis. These meds are usually either prokinetics, which act on the central nervous system to increase contractions of the intestines, or antiemetics, which reduce nausea and vomiting. Other gastroparesis treatments under study include botulinum toxin injections and electrical stimulation of the stomach. If all else fails, surgically installing a feeding tube allows nutrients to be fed directly into the small intestine, bypassing the stomach.
While treatments generally can’t cure gastroparesis, therapies can often keep people with this complication of diabetes healthy and comfortable. And if you don’t have gastroparesis, avoiding it is certainly one more compelling reason to keep blood glucose levels under control.
7 Ways to Trick Yourself Full
Breakfast was two Krispy Kreme strawberry-filled doughnuts. I needed something quick, so I downed the pastries in my car on the way to work. Feeling full and high on sugar, I tackled my inbox with gusto. But by 10 a.m., my gut was grumbling again—and lunch was hours away. It was nothing like the previous morning, when I made an egg-and-Swiss sandwich on whole-wheat toast. Even though that had about 200 fewer calories than my Krispy Kreme binge, it kept me full till 1 p.m. Both breakfasts were satisfying—at the time. What was the difference?
The answer, fellow hungry men, lies in your brain’s dual perceptions of fullness. “Satiation” is the feeling of fullness at the end of a meal. “Satiety,” on the other hand, is a measure of how long it takes before you’re hungry again. Of course, food companies don’t want you to stay satisfied. Fifteen years ago, Susanna Holt, Ph.D., an Australian researcher who ranked foods according to their satiety power, approached a number of food companies for funding to continue her work. She’s still waiting: The companies were motivated to decrease the satiety of their foods—so people would buy more. Take control.
Master satiation and you can keep portion sizes in check; boost satiety and you can prevent needless snacking. (Avoid empty calories with these five protein-packed snacks.) Read on and you’ll be able to fill your gut—and then lose it.
SATIETY SECRET #1: Know what (and when) to drink.
Think of your stomach as a balloon. As you eat, it stretches. And once it expands to its maximum capacity, the sensors throughout your digestive system tell your brain’s amygdala that it’s time to stop chowing down—regardless of what you’ve filled your belly with. As Alan Aragon, M.S., Men’s Health’s nutrition advisor, puts it, “Eating half a roll of toilet paper would make you feel full.”
To stretch your stomach without stuffing it with calories (or paper products), you need water. Aragon recommends drinking a glass 30 minutes before a meal and sipping frequently while eating. Water-rich foods—soup, salad, fruit, and vegetables—will also fill your belly without contributing excessive calories.
SATIETY SECRET #2: Fill up with fiber
Fiber draws water from your body and from the food you’ve eaten, and transports it to your intestinal tract, helping to deliver that meal-ending satiation, according to a 2009 study by researchers at the University of Washington.
Fiber may boost satiety, too. Since it passes through the body undigested, fiber slows the absorption of nutrients and makes you feel fuller longer, according to a 2008 study by researchers at the University of Minnesota. A 2009 study in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association found that adding 6 grams of soluble fiber (such as ground flaxseed) to yogurt provided the satiating power of an additional 260 calories. To reap the satiating benefits of fiber, aim for 25 to 35 grams daily.
Refined carbohydrates, on the other hand—like in those Krispy Kremes—are satiety killers. When participants in a 2008 British study drank a high-carb beverage for breakfast, they reported feeling hungrier at lunch than when they drank a beverage high in protein. Here’s why: Too much sugar brings on a rapid spike in insulin, which causes a sugar crash later and triggers a craving for more food.
SATIETY SECRET #3: Pack in the protein
Protein, your muscle-growing fuel, also has the power to raise levels of peptides—synthesized amino acids—in your stomach. “These peptides initiate cross-talk with the brain on a molecular level to send out satiety signals,” says Aragon. He recommends aiming for 20 to 40 grams of protein at each meal. (See below for a sample day of belly-filling food.)
SATIETY SECRET #4: Savor the flavors
Your belly is rumbling, and a waiter sets a juicy burger in front of you. Resist the urge to unhinge your jaws and swallow it whole. Thoroughly chewing your food increases what researchers call “oro-sensory factors,” which send satiation signals to your brain, helping you feel full on less food, according to a 2009 study by Dutch researchers. Study participants who chewed each bite for an extra 3 seconds ended up consuming less. And skip those sippable meal-replacement shakes and calorie-clogged smoothies from the juice joint.
SATIETY SECRET #5: Trick your belly full
You can’t trust your gut. Maybe you’ve heard about the Cornell University study with the trick bowls: People who ate soup from bowls that continuously refilled ate 73 percent more than those who ate from ordinary bowls. The kicker: They rated themselves as feeling no more full. Scientists call this use of sensory cues to assess fullness “learned satiation.” Try this: Dole out a portion of food onto a smaller plate and immediately place the rest in the refrigerator. Once you eat, the visual cue of a clean plate will signal that you’ve had enough—and the leftovers will stay out of sight and out of mind, in the fridge.
Want more ways to whittle your waistline? Try these nine weight-loss rules that work.
SATIETY SECRET #6: Avoid distraction at dinner
What you’re doing while you eat might be as important as what you’re eating. You’re likely to consume much more food and eat for longer periods of time when you’re distracted by television, music, or a computer, according to a 2009 review of studies published in Trends in Food Science & Technology. Eating while distracted interrupts brain-to-stomach satiation signals, making it harder to monitor your food intake. Also, distraction raises the risk of overeating the wrong types of foods—think popcorn at the movies.
The takeaway from all this is simple: When you eat, actually eat. Grab a seat. Focus on your meal. Don’t check your e-mail or hit up Hulu for last night’s Daily Show. Pay attention to your first plate of food and you might find that you don’t need to go back for seconds.
SATIETY SECRET #7: Downsize your snacks
As long as you’re eating satiety-inducing nutrients at every meal, you’ll reduce your urge for food between meals, says Aragon. But if your gut’s growling and your next meal is far away, a snack can help prevent you from doing a Joey Chestnut impression at dinner.
The problem is, our appetite for snacks has become insatiable. Between 1977 and 2006, Americans’ snacking increased 11 percent while our average downtime between meals dropped from 4? hours to 3? hours, according to a 2009 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The fast-food chains couldn’t be happier with our snack fetish. McDonald’s hawks a 340-calorie Snack Wrap, and Taco Bell’s “Fourthmeal” campaign encourages eaters to inflate the midnight snack into a full-fledged second dinner, complete with its 770-calorie Nachos BellGrande.
Portion control is key: Learn 12 easy ways to estimate serving sizes.
If hunger hits, keep the snack, well, snack-sized. Grab food that’s high in protein or fiber, like beef jerky, nuts, or cottage cheese, and keep your consumption under 200 calories, says Aragon. That way, you’ll keep gut gurgling at bay without packing in a mini-meal. Whatever you do, skip the processed snacks that prime your gut for more, more, more. It’s how a doughnut leads to a growling stomach before lunch. It’s how a drive-thru dinner can lead to Fourthmeal at midnight. And it’s how you can eat all day and never feel full.
BLOCK THAT BINGE
Eat these satiating foods at mealtimes—and two sane snacks in between—to stay satisfied all day long—and avoid overeating
A glass of milk (8 oz), 3 large scrambled eggs, a slice of Cheddar, and a medium apple
Milk: Pour tall: There’s a gram of protein in every ounce. And the fluid aids satiation.
Egg: One egg contains about 7 grams of filling protein.
Apple: This on-the-go breakfast finale has 4 grams of fiber.
Chicken salad (? cup) on whole-wheat bread, and a glass of iced tea (8 oz)
Chicken: It’s an easy way to pack in 22 grams of protein per serving.
Bread: Always pick whole-wheat over white for the extra fiber. Look for at least 3 grams in each slice.
Iced tea: Drink the real, unsweetened stuff, not the sugar-water posers.
Seared meat or fish (8 oz), some steamed broccoli (? cup), a medium baked sweet potato, and a glass of water (12 oz)
Meat/fish: It’s loaded with enough protein to fend off a midnight snack attack.
Broccoli: Vegetables are a low-calorie way to eat more fiber.
Water: H2O may help stop you from scrambling for seconds.