High highs and low lows

How Manic Depression Differs From Depression

Everyone has mood swings. These are the normal highs and lows that we all go through at times. But if you have manic depression, these mood swings are extreme and are symptoms of a serious but treatable illness. Today, manic depression is usually called bipolar disorder. The word “bipolar” is used because a person with manic depression experiences moods that swing uncontrollably between two extremes, a “pole” of depression and a “pole” of excitement.

Manic depression is a long-term illness that usually starts before age 25. It affects about six million adult Americans, but can also be seen in childhood. People with typical depression, or what’s called clinical or major depression, have similar depressive symptoms, but they don’t experience the highs that people with manic depression have.

Manic Depression and Depression: Shared Symptoms

Symptoms of clinical depression and manic depression that are similar include:

  • Feeling sad for a long time
  • Crying for no reason
  • Feeling worthless
  • Having very little energy
  • Losing interest in pleasurable activities

Because the low periods are so similar, about 10 to 25 percent of people with manic depression are first diagnosed with clinical depression.

Manic Depression and Depression: Different Symptoms

The “manic” symptoms of bipolar disorder that make it different from clinical depression include:

  • Feeling overly happy, excited, and, confident
  • Feeling irritable, aggressive, and “wired”
  • Having uncontrollable racing thoughts or speech
  • Thinking of yourself as very important, gifted, or special
  • Making poor judgments
  • Engaging in risky behavior

Children or adolescents with manic depression may display hyperactive behavior. Teenagers are likely to engage in anti-social or risky behaviors involving sex, alcohol, or drugs. Unlike people with major depression, those with manic depression are less likely to be able to go about their normal activities and are more likely to think about suicide.

Manic Depression: Bipolar Disorder Classifications

The low periods of manic depression are sometimes referred to as “unipolar depression.” The high periods are usually experienced less frequently than the low periods, and people are more likely to seek help to get out of a low period. Types of manic depression include:

  • Bipolar I disorder. This term refers to manic depression that includes high or mixed periods that last at least seven days or are extremely severe. These people usually have depressive periods that last about two weeks.
  • Bipolar II disorder. In this type of manic depression the person has depression, but the high periods are less extreme.
  • Cyclothymic disorder. This term refers to a form of manic depression in which both the high and the low mood swings are milder than in the other types of manic depression.

Manic Depression: Getting Help

If you have any symptoms of manic depression, the best place to start is with your doctor. Although there is no blood test or brain scan that can tell if you have manic depression, it’s important for your doctor to make sure your symptoms are not caused by another medical condition. Other diseases and problems that are commonly seen with manic depression include:

  • Substance abuse
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Hyperactivity disorder
  • Thyroid disease
  • Headache
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes

Whether it’s called manic depression or bipolar disorder, this condition is a lifelong, recurrent illness. If you have bipolar disorder, you will need long-term treatment to help you control your mood swings. The good news is that some combination of psychotherapy and medication is usually effective.

The most important thing to know is that manic depression is not a character weakness — it is a treatable illness. If you think you might have manic depression, the first step is to ask for help.

Jump to: Signs & Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatments Lifestyle

What is Cyclothymia?

Most people have heard of bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder), where individuals experience cycles of highs and lows (mania and depression). But, what is cyclothymia (cyclothymic disorder)? Cyclothymia is a rare mood disorder which has similar characteristics of bipolar disorder, just in a milder and more chronic form. If you are suffering from cyclothymia, you experience cyclic highs and lows that are persistent for at least two years or more. With cyclothymic disorder, your lows are a mild depression – not characteristic of full major depression. Your highs are classified as symptomatic of hypomania – a less severe form of mania. During your highs, your mood elevates for a time before returning to its baseline. During your lows you feel mildly depressed. In between your elevated and depressed moods, you are likely to feel like yourself.

Everyone has their ups and downs, right? What distinguishes cyclothymia from regular mood swings? Cyclothymia can increase your chances of developing bipolar disorder (estimates vary widely from a 15% to 50% increased risk of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder if suffering from cyclothymia) and your highs and lows interfere with your daily life functions and relationships – so it’s essential to seek treatment to get a handle on the disorder before it becomes fully disruptive.

It is estimated that the rate of occurrence of cyclothymia in the general population is between 0.4% to 1%, with it equally affecting men and women. Women, however, are more likely to seek treatment. While typical onset of the disorder occurs during adolescence, its onset is consistently hard to identify. Risk of suffering from Attention-Deficient/Hyperactivity Disorder, substance abuse, and sleep disorders are elevated among individuals suffering from cyclothymic disorder.

What are the Symptoms?

The standard diagnostic criteria from the American Psychiatric Association states that to be diagnosed with cyclothymia, you must meet all of the following:

  • Multiple periods of hypomanic symptoms that do not meet criteria for a hypomanic episode and multiple periods of depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for a major depressive episode for at least two years (one year for children and adolescents)
  • Throughout the two year (one for children and adolescents) time frame, symptoms of hypomania and depression have been present for at least half the time, with no more than two consecutive months showing no symptoms
  • Criteria for a major depressive episode, manic episode, or hypomanic episode have never been met
  • Other mental disorders (e.g., schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, delusional disorder) have been ruled as the contributing factor to hypomanic and depressive symptoms
  • Hypomanic and depressive symptoms are not related to medications, substance abuse, or other medical conditions
  • Hypomanic and depressive symptoms cause significant disruption in social, occupational, or other functional areas

If you or someone you know is suffering from cyclothymia, depressive signs and symptoms may include the following:

  • Feelings of sadness, emptiness, and hopelessness
  • Irritability
  • Feeling tearful
  • Sleep disturbances – sleeping much more or much less than usual
  • Restlessness
  • Feelings of worthlessness and guilt
  • Fatigue
  • Concentration problems
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Loss of interest in activities once considered pleasurable
  • Weight changes – due to eating much more or much less than usual
  • Lack of motivation
  • Impaired judgment, planning, or problem-solving abilities
  • Low self-esteem
  • Pessimism
  • Loneliness
  • Submissiveness
  • Social withdrawal
  • Difficulty handling conflict
  • Lacking meaning and purpose in life

If you or someone you know is suffering from cyclothymia, hypomanic signs and symptoms may include the following:

  • Euphoric state – exaggerated sense of well-being and happiness
  • Inflated self-esteem
  • Inflated optimism
  • Irritability and agitation
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • Racing thoughts
  • Poor judgment resulting in risky behaviors
  • Talking more than usual
  • Excessive physical activity
  • Easily distracted
  • Concentration problems
  • Increased drive to perform or reach goals
  • Hyperactivity – inability to sit still
  • Emotional instability – overreacting to events
  • Reckless thrill seeking (e.g., gambling, sports)
  • Impulsivity
  • Irresponsibility

What are the Causes and Risk Factors?

Like most mental health disorders, the exact cause of cyclothymia is unknown. However, the genetic component of cyclothymia is strong. For cyclothymia, major depression, and bipolar mood disorders, a family history indicates a greater risk of development. Twin studies suggest that the risk of developing cyclothymia is 2-3 times more likely if an identical twin is diagnosed with the disorder, pointing to the strong genetic component of the mood disorder.

Environmental factors are also a likely contributing factor to being diagnosed with cyclothymia. As with bipolar disorder and major depression, certain life events may increase your chances of developing cyclothymia. These include things like physical or sexual abuse or other traumatic experiences and prolonged periods of stress.

Cyclothymia Tests and Diagnoses

If you think you might be suffering from cyclothymia, seek the help of your medical doctor or mental health provider. Your doctor will likely perform a series of tests to make sure the causes of your depressive and hypomanic symptoms are not due to an underlying medical condition or medication you are taking.

Your mental health provider will perform a series of assessments to diagnose the occurrence of cyclothymia, with the ultimate diagnosis being made on your mood history. During your psychological evaluation, the doctor will ask about your family history of mood disorders and might ask you to complete a daily diary of your moods to indicate mood swings that occur during a typical day.

Treatment Options

Medications and psychotherapy are the common treatment options prescribed to patients living with cyclothymia. Treatment is usually a chronic, lifelong process, with the aim to decrease your depressive and hypomanic symptoms and to decrease your risk of developing bipolar disorder.

Currently, there are no known medications that can effectively treat cyclothymia, though, your doctor may prescribe commonly used medications known to treat bipolar disorder to ease your symptoms and reduce their frequency. Commonly prescribed drug treatments include the use of anticonvulsants and atypical antipsychotics – such as Lithium and Quetiapine. Antidepressants have not been shown to be effective in the treatment of cyclothymia.

More research is needed to successfully conclude the benefits of psychotherapy, or talk therapy, in the treatment of cyclothymia. However, some of the common methods used to treat bipolar disorder are also used in the treatment of cyclothymia, including:

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) – a focus on changing negative thoughts and beliefs into positive ones; stress management techniques; identification of trigger points
  • Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) – teaches awareness, distress tolerance, and emotional regulation
  • Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT) – a focus on the stabilization of daily rhythms – especially related to sleep, wake, and mealtimes; routines being indicative of helping stabilize moods

Living with Cyclothymia

Less than half of individuals living with cyclothymia develop bipolar disorder. In most, cyclothymia is a chronic disorder that remains prevalent throughout the lifetime. In others, cyclothymia seems to dissipate and resolve itself over time.

The effects of cyclothymia can be detrimental to social, family, work, and romantic relationships. In addition, the impulsivity associated with hypomanic symptoms can lead to poor life choices, legal issues, and financial difficulties. Research has also shown that if you are suffering from cyclothymic disorder, you are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol.

To decrease the negative effects of cyclothymia on your daily life, take your medications as directed, do not use alcohol or take recreational drugs, track your moods to provide helpful information to your mental health provider about the effectiveness of treatment, get plenty of sleep, and exercise regularly.

Last Updated: Mar 5, 2019

Bipolar Disorder

Most people feel anxious at times and have their ups and downs. It is natural for a mood to change or anxiety level to rise when a stressful or difficult event occurs.

But some people experience feelings of anxiety or depression or suffer mood swings that are so severe and overwhelming that they interfere with personal relationships, job responsibilities, and daily functioning. These people may be suffering from an anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, or both.

It is not uncommon for someone with an anxiety disorder to also suffer from bipolar disorder. Many people with bipolar disorder will suffer from at least one anxiety disorder at some point in their lives.

The good news is that the disorders are treatable separately and together.

  • General Info
  • Co-Occuring Anxiety Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
  • The Course of Bipolar Disorder
  • Treatment
  • Getting Help
  • MoodNetwork
  • More Steps to Reduce Anxiety and Regulate Mood
  • Helping Others
  • Helping Your Child
  • Find Out More

General Info

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person’s mood, energy, and ability to function.

The mood episodes associated with the disorder persist from days to weeks or longer, and can be dramatic, with periods of being overly high and/or irritable to periods of persistent sadness and hopelessness.

Severe changes in behavior go along with the mood changes. These periods of highs and lows, called episodes of mania and depression, can be distinct episodes often recurring over time, or they may occur together in a so-called mixed state. Often people with bipolar disorder experience periods of normal mood in between mood episodes.

A manic episode is diagnosed if an elevated mood occurs with three or more primary symptoms most of the day, nearly every day, for at least one week. With an irritable mood, four additional symptoms must be present for a diagnosis.

Signs and symptoms of a manic episode can include the following:

  • Increased energy, activity, and restlessness
  • Excessively high, overly good, euphoric mood
  • Extreme irritability
  • Racing thoughts and talking very fast, jumping from one idea to another
  • Distractibility, inability to concentrate well
  • Little sleep needed
  • Unrealistic beliefs in one’s abilities and powers
  • Poor judgment
  • Spending sprees
  • A lasting period of behavior that is different from usual
  • Increased sexual drive
  • Abuse of drugs, particularly cocaine, alcohol, and sleeping medications
  • Provocative, intrusive, or aggressive behavior
  • Denial that anything is wrong

A depressive episode is diagnosed if five or more primary depressive symptoms last most of the day, nearly every day, for a period of two weeks or longer.

Signs and symptoms of a depressive episode can include the following:

  • Lasting sad or empty mood
  • Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed, including sex
  • Decreased energy, a feeling of fatigue or of being “slowed down”
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions
  • Restlessness or irritability
  • Sleeping too much, or having trouble sleeping
  • Change in appetite or unintended weight loss or gain
  • Thoughts of death or suicide, or
  • Suicide attempts

It can be helpful to think of bipolar disorder as a spectrum of moods.

At one end is severe depression, above which is moderate depression, and then mild low mood, which may be called the blues when it is short-lived and dysthymia when it is chronic.

Next is normal or balanced mood, then hypomania (mild mania that may feel good and be relatively brief and less severe), and then severe mania, which can include hallucinations, delusions, or other symptoms of psychosis.

Some people may experience symptoms of mania and depression together in what is called a mixed bipolar state. Symptoms often include agitation, trouble sleeping, significant change in appetite, psychosis, and suicidal thinking. A person may have a very sad hopeless mood even while feeling extremely energized.

Read more about bipolar disorder in adults and find out about the illness in children and teens.

ADAA Resources

  • My Child Has Mood Swings: How Do I Know if It’s Bipolar Disorder, and What Do I Do? Diagnosis and Treatments for Bipolar Children & Adolescents – ADAA public webinar
  • Bipolar Disorder: Psychosocial Treatment Strategies – ADAA professional webinar

Co-Occurring Anxiety Disorder and Bipolar Disorder

According to Naomi M. Simon, MD, Associate Director of the Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders at Massachusetts General Hospital and Assistant Professor in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, making a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder plus bipolar disorder can be confusing, and it is best to seek help from a mental health professional.

But, Dr. Simon says, a few clues may suggest the presence of both an anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder:

  • The presence of panic attacks, significant anxiety, nervousness, worry, or fearful avoidance of activities in addition to periods of depression and mania or hypomania.
  • The development of symptoms as a child or young adult, which people with both disorders are more likely to report.
  • Significant problems with sleep and persistent anxiety even when not in a manic state, and lack of response to initial treatment.
  • Increased sensitivity to initial side effects of medication, and sometimes a longer time frame for finding the right medication combination and dosing.

Suffering from an anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder has been associated with decreased functioning and quality of life and an increased likelihood of substance abuse and suicide attempts. Insomnia, a common anxiety disorder symptom, is a significant trigger for manic episodes.

Many children with bipolar disorder also suffer from at least one co-occurring anxiety disorder. The age of onset for an anxiety disorder often precedes the age of onset for bipolar disorder. The co-occurrence of an anxiety disorder with bipolar disorder can worsen the symptoms and course of each disorder, so it’s essential that both are treated.

Sometimes severe mood episodes, extreme irritability, and other pronounced symptoms of bipolar disorder mask underlying obsessive thoughts, compulsions, worries, or other anxiety symptoms. It’s recommended that children with bipolar disorder are also assessed for an anxiety disorder.

Additional Resources

Bipolar Disorder Stories on The Mighty
I Had a Black Dog, His Name Was Depression
Major Depression: The Impact on Overall Health

Highs and lows: Understanding bipolar disorder

When you have bipolar disorder, you experience frequent mood swings—from extreme lows to extreme highs. Sometimes you feel both at the same time.

You may brush off these changes as “just being moody.” But, in reality, you or someone you know could have a serious mental illness.

Bipolar disorder can ruin relationships with spouses, family members, friends, or co-workers. People with the disorder may also think about hurting themselves.

While bipolar disorder is a lifelong illness, medication and talk therapy can help people manage it and lead healthy lives.

Who does it affect?

Bipolar disorder affects 1% to 2% of the U.S. population. About 10% to 15% of people with bipolar disorder have a high risk of suicide.

What are the symptoms?

There are four basic types of bipolar disorder. All of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. The moods are known as manic and depressive episodes.

Bipolar disorder is a lifelong disease, but medication and talk therapy can help people manage it.

What is a depressive episode?

People with bipolar disorder experience severe depression or have low energy for several days or weeks. This is known as a depressive episode. Other symptoms include sleeping too much or too little, worrying a lot, forgetting things, and feeling sad or empty. In severe episodes, suicidal thoughts or behavior may arise. Sufferers may also experience psychotic symptoms, such as delusions.

What is a manic episode?

During a manic episode, people with bipolar disorder find it hard to focus at home, school, or work. They may feel like their mind is racing. People may also feel jumpy or “high,” talk fast, and do risky things. Psychotic symptoms are common with manic episodes, and may lead to a misdiagnosis of schizophrenia.

How is bipolar disorder diagnosed?

If you think you or a loved one may have bipolar disorder, speak to your doctor or a mental health care provider. The provider will review your medical history and ask you about your physical and mental health.

How is bipolar disorder treated?

A psychiatrist (doctor who specializes in treating mental illness) can prescribe medication to help you manage your moods and feel like yourself again.

Medications include mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and sleep medicines.

Talk therapy also helps many people with bipolar disorder. You and your provider will decide what treatment plan works best for you.

If you or someone you know is having thoughts about suicide, call the National Suicide Prevention Line at 1-800-273-8255. It is open 24 hours, 7 days a week. Calls are private.

Source: National Institute of Mental Health

Image credit: iStock

August 08, 2019

Managing Bipolar Disorder’s Highs and Lows

Mania, the up side of bipolar disorder, is as destructive as the ensuing depression. (HUBER-STARKE/RADIUS/MASTERFILE)

Mania, the up side of bipolar disorder, is as destructive as the ensuing depression.(HUBER-STARKE/RADIUS/MASTERFILE)

Bipolar disorder, sometimes called manic depression, affects nearly six million American adults, or about 2.5% of the adult population, according to the National Institute of Mental Health. Some patients who eventually get diagnosed spend years, even decades, cycling through institutions and switching therapists before they get the correct treatment.

Mary, a mental health advocate who lives in western Massachusetts, is one of these people. She had episodes of mild depression starting when she was in her late teens.

When these came on, a quick call to her primary care physician got her a prescription for Prozac. Each time she took antidepressants, the medications kicked her into a slightly manic state during which she was often pretty effective in her many roles at work, home, and community. “I survived that way for 20 years,” she says.

Then in 2002, her world crumbled when her son, who had been diagnosed with bipolar disease at age 7, spent more than four months in a hospital while awaiting transfer to a residential mental health facility. Mary became suicidally depressed. This time her doctors reached the conclusion that she, too, had bipolar disorder.

Next Page: Mania can trigger intense creativity

The term bipolar means “two poles,” like the Arctic and Antarctica, and that image describes this disease pretty well. People with bipolar experience periods of depression interspersed with periods of mania, when their thoughts race and they behave impulsively and often irrationally.

“Bipolar disorder gets you to commit acts of excess that nobody outside of Congress can get away with,” says Steven D. Hollon, PhD, professor of psychology at Vanderbilt University in Nashville.

Mania can feel like creativity
Kathleen Brannon, 49, of Herndon, Va., had spent time in a state mental hospital for depression but was reluctant to agree that she was bipolar. “I’d have some periods of intense creativity where I would write for 20 hours,” she says. “I hadn’t thought of it as mania, I just thought I was driven to write.”

Antidepressants can be ineffective or even damaging in people with bipolar disorder. In particular, antidepressants given to a person with bipolar disorder can trigger a manic episode unless the person is also taking a mood-stabilizing drug.

“When antidepressants don’t work, ask your doctor if you have bipolar disorder,” says Michael E. Thase, MD, professor of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia.

Dr. Thase adds that unusual reactions to antidepressants may also signal bipolar disorder. “If you start taking an antidepressant and have racing thoughts, a much stronger sex drive, or insomnia that has developed or worsened during antidepressant therapy, get help from your doctor. These are not symptoms of depression,” he says. Instead of signaling recovery from depression, such symptoms may signal a manic episode that was triggered by an antidepressant.

Managing the Highs and Lows of Bipolar Disorder and Relationships

Do you love a person with bipolar disorder? Do you suffer from this mental health condition yourself? If so, you likely have found that navigating relationships can be a roller coaster ride.

For those who suffer from bipolar disorder, sometimes referred to as manic depression, the cycle of mood fluctuations may include high episodes of “mania” or “hypomania” and low episodes of depression, or even “mixed” episodes where features of both moods are present at the same time. Often when these episodes of extreme “ups” and “downs” occur, they can push the relationships with those closest to the individual to the breaking point.

Relationships in Bipolar Disorder Require Extra Care

Roughly 2.6% of U.S. adults have bipolar disorder, and 82.9% of these cases are classified as severe. For these individuals, one of the most challenging aspects of living with the condition is holding onto friendships and successfully managing long-term relationships. “Bipolar relationships” — where at least one of the partners in the relationship has bipolar disorder — can be difficult.

In some cases, the person with bipolar disorder is trying to manage relationships with friends and partners who do not have the disorder. In other cases, they are trying to manage relationships with people who also have bipolar disorder. In fact, there is a phenomenon known as “assortative mating” which refers to the pattern of people with bipolar marrying each other to a statistically disproportionate degree.

This may explain why studies show that bipolar disorder has a strong genetic component and often runs in families. Therefore, there is a strong possibility that people with bipolar disorder are trying to manage relationships with family members who also have bipolar disorder.

We know that seeking accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment, usually a combination of medication and talk therapy, can help people with bipolar disorder gain better control over their mood swings and other symptoms. However, since this is a lifelong chronic illness (episodes of mania and depression will likely recur throughout the individual’s lifetime) continuous treatment helps to manage the condition over the long term.

Even with treatment, people with bipolar disorder can have trouble with relationships, and I often hear heartbreaking stories of cherished connections that were lost due to some of the most problematic behaviors that stem from their illness. However, with proper education, care and management, healthy relationships are possible, and can be nurturing and rewarding.

3 Tips for Nurturing Healthy Bipolar Relationships

Whether you are trying to repair a broken relationship or manage an ongoing “bipolar relationship” with a loved one, friend or coworker, here are a few tips to help you navigate this tricky terrain:

#1 Get educated about bipolar disorder. My father always said, “It takes two to tango.” In this case, that means that both people in the relationship need to know what to expect in terms of the symptoms of bipolar disorder, behaviors that go along with the condition, and the treatment options available. They should both also be aware of potential triggers for the low and high episodes to help mitigate potential avoidable negative consequences.

In some of the more severe and challenging cases, I may recommend a spouse or significant other and my patient agree to a “treatment contract.” This can help establish healthy boundaries, expectations and communication. This may involve sharing information such as mood charts, a joint formulation of a treatment regime (including medications and individual and couples therapy) and, in some cases, visiting the care providers together.

#2 Engage in pre-emptive damage control. Manic episodes may lead to destructive and risky behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, gambling, infidelity, extravagant shopping sprees that strain a family’s finances, or other behaviors that have the potential to harm relationships. Knowing when these occur and how to spot the early warning signs are necessary to heading them off. Also, knowing how to better manage them when they do occur can be a boon to the relationship. For example, both parties can learn to identify triggers (i.e., lack of sleep, increased stress, specific times of year, travel, etc.) and where to go for help (psychiatrist or therapist) before the episode becomes severe.

In addition, depressive episodes can lead to isolation, hopelessness, emptiness and thoughts of suicide, among other symptoms, so watching for warning signs of these low episodes can help both partners take early measures (such as contacting a care provider) to avoid distress.

#3 Practice acceptance and forgiveness. If terrible things have been said or done, it can be difficult for both sides to forgive and move on. While a friend or partner should not accept being mistreated by someone with bipolar who is cycling out of control, it can help if they are able to recognize when it is due to the illness and be ready to forgive.

At the same time, the person with bipolar can get into the practice of going back to those they have hurt, being accountable and apologizing for destructive behavior related to their illness, even when they could not “help it.” They must also be prepared to cope with the disappointment and loss of those who cannot handle dealing with the illness — not everyone can. Accepting that the illness is part of them and something they cannot always control allows people with bipolar to move forward in a positive and productive way when there is damage they cannot undo and/or relationships they cannot hold onto or repair, despite how hard they may try.

Resources for those suffering from Bipolar Disorder:

When You’re Married to Someone with Bipolar Disorder. International Bipolar Foundation. Available at:

Maintaining Friendships and Relationships with Bipolar Disorder. Bipolar Manifesto, a blog for bipolar disorder and depression discussion from a person with type 2 bipolar. Available at: http://www.bipolarmanifesto.com/wordpress/2012/01/19/maintaining-friendships-and-relationships-with-bipolar-disorder/

Bipolar Relationships. Bipolar Lives. Available at:

Bipolar Disorder Among Adults. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Available at:

Men and Depression. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA). Available at:

Manic-Depressive Illness: Bipolar Disorders and Recurrent Depression, Vol. 1, 2nd Edition. Frederick K. Goodwin, Kay Redfield Jamison. (Oxford University Press, 2007) Available at:

Stay Tuned!

Dr. Goldenberg
email: [email protected]
On the Web: docgoldenberg.com
Twitter: @docgoldenberg
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The Huffington Post Articles: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/author/mattgoldenberg-950

*Matthew Goldenberg D.O. is an addiction psychiatrist, board certified in General and Addiction Psychiatry and is a mental health and addiction expert. He maintains a private psychiatry practice in Santa Monica, California.

The conditions Dr. Goldenberg treats include depression, (major depressive disorder, MDD), bipolar disorder (mania and hypomania, aka bipolar depression), anxiety disorders (such as panic disorder and panic attacks; obsessive compulsive disorder, OCD; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD); Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD; insomnia and sleep problems; addiction (alcoholism, drug addiction aka substance abuse and substance dependence); behavioral addictions aka process addiction (food addiction, gambling addiction sex addiction etc).

AuthorMatthew Goldenberg, D.O. Matthew Goldenberg D.O. is double Board Certified in Psychiatry and Addiction Psychiatry and is a certified Medical Review Officer (MRO). He is an expert in the evaluation and treatment of mental health disorders and is an addiction specialist for adults in his private practice in Santa Monica, California. Dr. Goldenberg also provides addiction psychiatry consultations to some of the nation’s top residential and outpatient treatment programs in the Los Angeles area and is experienced in the evaluation and treatment of professionals working in safety-sensitive positions. In addition to his clinical work, Dr. Goldenberg is an active author, researcher and invited speaker at local and national conferences. He also volunteers his time as a Clinical Instructor in the Department of Psychiatry at UCLA and is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Cedars Sinai Medical Center.

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