Ginkgo biloba how long does it take to work for ed

Journal of Sex Education and Therapy

Ginkgo biloba extract derives from the leaves of the Ginkgo tree, grown in Korea, Japan, and France. It contains a reproduceable composition of flavonoids and terpenoids with complex effects on blood viscosity, prostanoid production, platelets, and endothelial functions. Fifty patients with proved arterial erectile impotence were treated with 240 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract by oral application for 9 months. In contrast to previous studies on oral treatment regimens for erectile failure, objective response criteria were added to subjective success parameters: All patients who had achieved sufficient erections with intracavernous drug application before treatment regained spontaneous erections after 6 months of treatment and demonstrated improved penile flow rates and rigidity. Of 30 patients who could not achieve sufficient erections with high-dose intracavernous drug applications, 19 regained pharmacologically induced erections under therapy; 11 remained impotent. All patients in this group showed improved objective response parameters.

Can Ginkgo Biloba Treat ED?

The seeds of the ginkgo biloba tree have been used to treat various health problems for at least four thousand years, and it is still one of the most popular remedies in the world as a natural treatment for erectile dysfunction. But does ginkgo biloba for ED work?

Ginkgo Biloba for ED

Ginkgo biloba possesses a component called terpenoids, which improve blood flow and therefore are important for treating erectile dysfunction. Some scientific studies backup claims that ginkgo biloba helps treat erectile dysfunction, including a study published in Human Psychopharmacology, in which the investigators reported that ginkgo had produced “some spectacular individual responses.” (Wheatley)

A review article noted that there was “some degree of evidence” that the herb benefited men who had erectile dysfunction. (McKay) A typical dose for erectile dysfunction is 120 to 240 mg daily, standardized to contain 24 to 32 percent glycosides and 6 to 12 percent terpenoids.

Learn about more Supplements for Erectile Dysfunction as well as Supplements for ED and Sexual Health.


McKay D. Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence. Altern Med Rev 2004 Mar; 9(1): 4-16

Wheatley D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004 Dec 19(8): 545-48

Beware of erectile dysfunction scams

Spotting possible health fraud

Here is a roundup of some ingredients frequently used in top-selling natural products, and what the researchers in the 2015 review concluded about their effectiveness and safety. Remember: never take any over-the-counter supplement without first checking with your doctor.

  • DHEA. The evidence to support a benefit from this hormone is weak.
  • Fenugreek. One study noted a benefit in improving sexual arousal and orgasm, and other research has shown this herb to be safe over all.
  • Ginkgo biloba. There are no convincing data to support the use of this herb in men with ED—and it has been linked with side effects, such as headaches, seizures, and bleeding.
  • Ginseng. This herb is the most common ingredient in top-selling men’s supplements, but there is no good evidence to show that it works. Moreover, it can cause headaches, upset stomach, constipation, rash, and insomnia and can lower blood sugar levels, so men with diabetes should avoid it.
  • Horny goat weed. In spite of its colorful name, there is no evidence that the herb can improve sexual function, although it does appear safe.
  • L-arginine. This amino acid has the theoretical potential to improve erectile function in some patients. However, a study of the possible benefits of L-arginine to treat heart attack survivors was stopped midway when early data showed six deaths among volunteers assigned to L-arginine, compared with none in the placebo group. Men—especially those at risk for heart disease—should avoid these supplements.
  • Maca. In animal research, use of this root was associated with increased sexual behavior. Side effects like a mild increase in liver enzymes and blood pressure are rare.
  • Tribulus. There is no evidence that this herb has any benefit in humans.
  • Yohimbine. This has shown promise for improving male sexual function in some studies. However, it may cause high blood pressure (hypertension), headaches, agitation, insomnia, and sweating.

– By Matthew Solan
Executive Editor, Harvard Men’s Health Watch

To find the latest in erectile dysfunction treatment, buy the Harvard Special Health Report Erectile Dysfunction.

As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Saw palmetto and testosterone facts

Researchers have looked into a variety of roles that saw palmetto might play in men’s health. Here, we look at eight of the facts and myths surrounding saw palmetto.

1. Fact: Saw palmetto is linked to testosterone levels

Share on PinterestExperts disagree on whether saw palmetto has any effect on testosterone levels.

Scientists have found that saw palmetto can slow down 5-alpha reductase. This enzyme converts testosterone into a potent androgen hormone called dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Androgen hormones regulate the development of male characteristics.

The production of androgen hormones occurs in the testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands. These hormones are also responsible for the development of primary sex organs in the womb and secondary male characteristics in puberty.

By slowing down 5-alpha reductase, saw palmetto could reduce the effects of DHT as men get older.

While proponents of saw palmetto claim that it helps to regulate testosterone levels, there is little evidence confirming this. Much of the research on the connection between saw palmetto and testosterone levels is also very outdated.

One old report of multiple studies on saw palmetto in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition did find that men taking saw palmetto over a 2-week period had higher levels of testosterone than those in the placebo control group.

However, there have not been enough studies since to either counter or confirm these findings.

2. Fact: Saw palmetto may help reduce BPH symptoms

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-cancerous condition that causes an enlarged prostate. The prostate is a small gland that sits just below the bladder. It is part of the male reproductive system.

An enlarged prostate puts pressure on the urethra, the long tube inside the penis that is responsible for draining urine from the bladder. BPH can be uncomfortable as it makes it harder to urinate even when the need is urgent. It can also make it difficult to empty the bladder completely and can cause leaking after urination.

Several small studies investigating saw palmetto as a treatment for the symptoms of BPH have shown modest results. At least one study shows that saw palmetto is beneficial in combination with other natural therapies to treat these symptoms.

A double-blind, randomized study in 2011 divided 369 men into two groups. One group took up to three times the standard daily dose of saw palmetto while the other group took a placebo. The results showed that saw palmetto was no more effective than the placebo in reducing the lower urinary tract symptoms of BPH.

In addition, a 2012 Cochrane review of 32 randomized controlled studies showed that taking a double or triple dose of saw palmetto did not lead to an improvement in prostate size or urinary symptoms in men with BPH.

A 2014 randomized study of 225 men looked at the effectiveness of using a combination of saw palmetto, lycopene, selenium and tamsulosin to treat symptoms of BPH. The combination therapy was more effective than the single treatments and did not cause any adverse events.

3. Fact: It can improve sex drive

Share on PinterestA person’s sex drive may improve as a result of saw palmetto.

Low testosterone reduces sex drive, or libido, in both men and women. Some people believe that saw palmetto can improve libido by reducing testosterone breakdown, and there is some evidence to support this.

One study reported in the journal Urologia Internationalis found that men using saw palmetto were experiencing improved sexual function.

In the study, which involved 120 men with enlarged prostate glands, researchers monitored the following over a 2-year period:

  • urine flow
  • blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
  • prostate symptoms
  • erectile function
  • quality of life

They found that saw palmetto improved prostate symptoms and sexual function after 2 years. This improvement was significant, especially in the first year.

4. Fact: Saw palmetto can help prevent prostate cancer

Prostate cancer affects 1 in 9 men in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society. The American Cancer Society estimate that there will be around 29,430 deaths from prostate cancer in 2018.

Research has suggested that DHT may contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Therefore, it is possible that saw palmetto might help to prevent this disease by slowing down the conversion of DHT.

Prescription medications can also slow down this conversion, but they often have severe side effects. Saw palmetto may inhibit DHT without serious side effects.

5. Myth: Saw palmetto improves fertility

Some couples who are unable to conceive have tried taking saw palmetto to improve the likelihood of conception.

The common belief is that saw palmetto increases the sperm count in men and promotes healthier eggs in women.

However, there is no substantial evidence to suggest that saw palmetto can improve fertility.

6. Fact: Saw palmetto can reduce male hair loss

It is normal for hair to fall out and grow back. However, high levels of DHT can reduce hair growth. As a result, some people believe that saw palmetto extracts and supplements may help to prevent hair loss.

The research on saw palmetto and hair growth is varied and somewhat limited, but there are studies indicating that the plant extract might show some promise as a treatment.

One study in mouse models found that saw palmetto promotes hair regeneration and repairs hair loss by activating the signaling pathways responsible for hair growth.

A small 2014 study of 25 men showed positive results when men used topical saw palmetto and 10-percent trichogen as a treatment. The study showed an 11.9 percent hair count increase after 4 months.

A second small study of 50 men confirmed the effectiveness of topical saw palmetto for treating male baldness. Hair count increased at weeks 12 and 24 compared to the baseline.

7. Myth: It does nothing for women

Saw palmetto research often focuses on men’s health, so many people believe that it cannot benefit women.

However, there is some evidence to suggest that saw palmetto may help to regulate specific female hormones. It may have an estrogen-like effect and balance out the effects of testosterone in women.

Saw palmetto may also help to reduce high levels of androgens and prolactin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS have elevated levels of male hormones. This causes a specific set of symptoms, including irregular and heavy menstrual periods, excess body and facial hair, and acne.

Many of the studies are on animals so they cannot confirm a link between PCOS and saw palmetto in humans. However, they are still helpful as they show that saw palmetto can block prolactin receptors on ovarian cells that are over-expressing them. The regulation of these receptors may reduce the symptoms of PCOS.

8. Myth: Saw palmetto has no side effects because it is a plant

Share on PinterestTaking saw palmetto can cause stomach pains and nausea.

Many people believe that because saw palmetto is a plant, it will not cause side effects. Saw palmetto can cause side effects, including:

  • a headache
  • stomach pain
  • bad breath
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • heartburn
  • constipation
  • diarrhea

Saw palmetto may also cause adverse effects in people taking anticoagulants, oral contraceptives, and iron supplements.

Much of the information on saw palmetto safety comes from studies on men. Researchers know little about the side effects of saw palmetto in women and children.

Can Saw Palmetto Improve Erectile Dysfunction?

Men with an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH) who take saw palmetto may experience an unexpected benefit from this natural remedy. A new study found that saw palmetto not only improved urinary symptoms in men with BPH, but also helped with erectile dysfunction.

Numerous studies have shown that saw palmetto works for prostate conditions and in particular can improve urinary tract symptoms in men who have BPH.

This is important because one benefit of using saw palmetto for BPH rather than the conventional medications, such as alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, is that the herbal remedy is not associated with erectile dysfunction whereas the drugs have been shown to disrupt sexual function.

In this new study, 82 men with moderate to severe symptoms of BPH plus sexual problems (e.g., erectile dysfunction or loss of libido) were assigned to take 320 mg daily of saw palmetto extract daily for eight weeks. At the end of the eight weeks, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was significantly reduced by 51% and erectile dysfunction, libido, and other sexual functions had improved by an average of nearly 40%.


According to Dr. Eugen Riedi, MD, a urologist in Switzerland and the study’s lead researcher, “This is one of the first therapies ever to show an improvement of BPH symptoms and of sexual dysfunctions at the same time.” Saw palmetto also was well tolerated and patient compliance was “excellent.”

Reprinted with the kind permission of Dr. Mercola.

By Dr. Mercola

There’s a plethora of research on the effectiveness of certain plant-based supplements, and saw palmetto is one of them. Fanlike fronds identify this palm tree (Serenoa repens) that grows from sandy coastal areas to pine forests in the Southeastern U.S. Extracts of saw palmetto have been used by Native Americans as a traditional medicine for centuries.

As a supplement, saw palmetto has myriad uses, but some are controversial due to the (alleged) absence of scientific evidence. One of them is how it may be able to impact testosterone; another is its effect, for men, on reproductive health, including the prostate, a small gland located just below the bladder that’s part of the male reproductive system; most studies on saw palmetto come from studies on men.1

Saw palmetto inhibits an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase, which converts testosterone to a powerful androgen hormone known as dihydrotestosterone, or DHT. As such, it may reduce the effects of DHT as men age. A hormone that regulates the development of primary sex organs, particularly for male development in puberty, DHT production takes place in both ovaries and testes, as well as the adrenal glands.

However, some scientists don’t recognize studies on saw palmetto in regard to its ability to regulate testosterone levels, refuting a review of studies published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, during which men taking the supplement for two weeks had higher testosterone levels than those given a placebo.2 Naysayers say the evidence comes from outdated studies.

There does seem to be an association between saw palmetto in regard to its influence on testosterone, as there are many more studies indicating there’s much more to this plant than previously known. One benefit that’s been getting much more attention lately has to do with hair loss. (Anagen, incidentally, refers to the state of active hair growth, versus telogen, which is the “resting” phase during which your hair falls out.)

Saw Palmetto for Alopecia

Although it’s common in both men and women, androgenetic alopecia (aka hair loss) can cause balding more so in men than women, because men have more testosterone than women. Usually androgenetic alopecia begins with a receding hairline in men, eventually forming the classic male pattern baldness “M” shape. Women’s hair, on the other hand, generally presents as an all-over thinning on the scalp; it’s rare for women to lose their hair completely.3

While it’s normal for healthy people to lose hair and have it grow back, one interesting study shows that high DHT levels can prevent regrowth, due to the way DHT binds to the androgen receptors and increases their expression, encouraging the “miniaturization” of the hair follicles and preventing new growth from occurring.4

A different type of hair loss, alopecia areata, produces balding in circular patches.5 Alopecia areata affects around 6.8 million people in the U.S., and refers to a common autoimmune disorder that often results in unpredictable hair loss, with no known cure.6 It affects both sexes, usually before age 30.

A more serious form is known as alopecia totalis, where all the hair on the head goes. Alopecia universalis is the most serious case, when the hair loss involves the entire body. Medical News Today also reported the results of an animal study in China7 that investigated the effects of saw palmetto:

“The research on saw palmetto and hair growth is varied and somewhat limited, but there are studies indicating that the plant extract might show some promise as a treatment. One study in mouse models found that saw palmetto promotes hair regeneration and repairs hair loss by activating the signaling pathways responsible for hair growth.”8

More specifically, the study demonstrated that transforming growth factor β2 (or TGF-β2) signaling and mitochondrial signaling pathway was how hair growth was regenerated. According to the study, saw palmetto significantly increased human keratinocyte cells incubated with DHT, which resulted in increased hair density, weight and thickness.

It significantly triggered follicle growth and decreased inflammatory response even better than finasteride (Propecia),9 a drug used to treat an enlarged prostate and/or scalp hair loss in men. A clinical trial in 201610 noted that when saw palmetto was applied topically, men with male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) had increased hair count at weeks 12 and 24 compared to baseline. However, study authors added that “concentrated S. repens product beyond four weeks may be necessary for sustained efficacy.”

A study11 conducted in 2014 also yielded positive results. Twenty-five male participants experienced an 11.9 percent increase of their hair count after using saw palmetto along with a treatment of 10 percent trichogen veg complex12 (an herbal agent said to stimulate the scalp and subsequent hair growth, according to one site) topically for four months.

Saw Palmetto May Also Help Enlarged Prostate and Prevent Prostate Cancer

According to another study conducted in 2002,13 AGA is the “structural miniaturization of androgen-sensitive hair follicles in susceptible individuals, and is anatomically defined within a given pattern of the scalp.”

Again, biochemically, one of the contributing factors of AGA is the conversion of testosterone to DHT via the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. This conversion or metabolism is also key to the onset and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), aka prostate gland enlargement, which can block urine flow from the bladder and cause other symptoms.

Randomized, controlled and double-blind studies in 201114 and 201215 show that when given increased dosages of saw palmetto for BPH, its effectiveness was quite lackluster. However, another study in 201416 combining it with lycopene, selenium and tamsulosin proved more effective.

Getting back to the 2002 study that looked at saw palmetto for AGA, 10 men between the ages of 23 and 64 years of age and in good health, with “mild to moderate” AGA, joined the study, which involved testing saw palmetto extracts and beta-Sitosterol (another plant-based extract linked to relieving BPH symptoms) to treat it.

The authors noted “highly positive” responses to treatment, as after the final visit, six out of the 10 participants were rated as improved, a conclusion the authors said established the treatment and justified larger trials. However, in addition, researchers found another benefit for saw palmetto in relation to its ability to slow testosterone conversion: the prevention of prostate cancer, which strikes 1 in 9 men in the U.S. alone.17

“Research has suggested that DHT may contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Therefore, it is possible that saw palmetto might help to prevent this disease by slowing down the conversion of DHT. Prescription medications can also slow down this conversion, but they often have severe side effects. Saw palmetto may inhibit DHT without serious side effects.”18

What You Didn’t Know Might Help You: Saw Palmetto Can ‘Up’ Your Sex Drive

It’s a fact: Saw palmetto really can improve the libido of men with low testosterone. In one study, improvement for men was fivefold, the journal Urologia Internationalis asserted after the 120 men with prostate problems reported better working order in the areas of:

  • Enlarged prostate symptoms
  • Erectile function
  • Urine flow
  • Blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
  • Quality of life

The study involved men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) brought on by BPH, which the study authors say affects around 60 percent of males by the time they reach 60 years of age. The comprehensive study19 revealed “statistically significant improvements” in the men who took saw palmetto over a two-year period.

All five of the above improvements were noted during the study period, during which time the participants were treated with 320 milligrams (mg) of saw palmetto extract. In terms of erectile dysfunction, the men who filled out the 15-question International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Questionnaire20 at the end of the study related “improved sexual function” as well. But what does saw palmetto do for women?

Saw Palmetto and PCOS — Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

While low testosterone can also lower women’s sex drive, there’s evidence that supplements or extracts of the palm plant may have some very valuable benefits in this regard. According to Medical News Today, saw palmetto may help regulate certain female hormones; it may have an estrogen-like effect and balance out the effects of excess testosterone in women, which is often seen in a condition known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS):

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“Women with PCOS have elevated levels of male hormones. This causes a specific set of symptoms, including irregular and heavy menstrual periods, excess body and facial hair, and acne.”21

In fact, women who have PCOS may find that it can also make the arrival of menstrual periods hard to predict or even bring them to a stop. It may also alter women’s ability to have a child. (It should be noted that one thing saw palmetto does not do is improve fertility, something that’s been claimed in some cultures for many years.) WebMD22 lists symptoms of PCOS, which often takes years to diagnose:

  • Weight gain
  • Hair loss
  • Oily skin/acne
  • Infertility
  • Insomnia
  • Sleep apnea
  • Headaches
  • Difficult menstrual periods

Some scientists say a substantive link between saw palmetto and PCOS in women is hard to pin down because most of the studies have been on animals. However, one study shows that saw palmetto can block prolactin receptors on ovarian cells that are overexpressing them and reduce high levels of androgens and prolactin in women with PCOS.23

Adverse Reactions and Possible Side Effects

In the clinical trial on the 120 men with enlarged prostates, scientists concluded there were no adverse effects from taking saw palmetto. That’s not to say there are none, however, even though it’s plant based. Possible side effects include:

  • Stomach pain
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Heartburn
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Bad breath
  • Vomiting

Additionally, experts warn it may cause reactions in people taking certain medications, including oral contraceptives, aspirin, anticoagulants, blood thinners or prescriptions such as warfarin, and iron supplements. Saw palmetto generally comes in four basic forms: tablets, powdered capsules, liquid extracts and whole dried berries. People have tried making tea from the berries, but since the compounds aren’t water soluble, it’s not a good way to “get the goods.”

Tablets and capsules are the easiest to find and the easiest to ingest, and it’s interesting to note that they’re also what some researchers have used in their studies. In regard to how much to take, you should consult your doctor (or integrative doctor) first about safe dosages, but for prostate problems or PCOS, a journal article on the topic recommends 160 mg twice a day.24

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Sources and References

1 National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) December 1, 2016

2 J Int Soc Sport Nutr. August 12, 2008 2008; 5: 12

3 Genetics Home Reference July 24, 2018

4 Experimental Gerontoogy June 18, 2002

5 July 24, 2018

6, 8, 18, 21 Medical News Today December 22, 2017

7 Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018 June;22(12):4000-4008

9 WebMD 2005-2018

10 Australas J Dermatol. 2016 Aug;57(3):e76-82

11 Turk J Dermatol 2014; 4:210-5

12 Healthy Hair Plus 2018

13 J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):143-52

14 JAMA. 2011 Sep 28;306(12):1344-51

15 Cochrane December 12, 2012

16 Prostate. 2014 November;74(15):1471-80

17 American Cancer Society 2018

19 Urologia Internationalis February 8, 2011


22 WebMD March 25, 2017

23 Journal of Restorative Medicine August 4, 2016

24 Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery Jan-Jun 2009

Sexy Supplements: What Really Works?

“The problem with alternative treatments for any medical problem, including erectile dysfunction, is that until you have about 20 well-controlled studies over several years, you really don’t know what you are working with,” cautions Richard Harris, MD, a urologist at Gottlieb Memorial Hospital, part of the Loyola University Health System in Chicago.

Ginkgo biloba. Ginkgo is an herb that is used in Chinese medicine that’s thought to improve blood flow. “Any ED treatment that improves blood flow may help,” explains Dr. Harris. “An erection is just blood in and blood out.” However, the evidence that ginkgo can improve blood flow in ED is limited, and most experts say the jury is still out. In addition, ginkgo can increase the risk for bleeding problems if combined with certain medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin).

Bottom line: It may help, but talk to your doctor before trying it.

L-arginine. L-arginine is an important amino acid that the body needs to build proteins. Because L-arginine has been shown to improve blood flow, some alternative practitioners have recommended that the supplements be used to treat ED. The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, which is a reliable authority on alternative medicines, says L-arginine is possibly effective for treating erectile dysfunction. But Harris warns that “although this supplement could improve blood flow, side effects can be dangerous.” L-arginine can cause an allergic reaction or worsen asthma in some people; it can also lower blood pressure.

Bottom line: Just like ginkgo biloba, you should speak with your doctor before trying this alternative treatment.

Acupuncture. Acupuncture has been used for centuries to treat ED and impotence in China. A recent review of studies on acupuncture for erectile dysfunction was published in the British Journal of Urology International. After reviewing four studies, the authors concluded that there was not sufficient evidence to say that acupuncture worked. However, some experts believe it’s worth trying. “Acupuncture can work,” says Gilbert. “It probably works best to treat the psychological component of ED. There is very little downside to trying it.”

Bottom line: Give it a shot.

Saw palmetto. Saw palmetto comes from the fruit of a small palm tree. It has been used to treat symptoms in men with an enlarged prostate gland, such as difficulty urinating, and it has been recommended to treat ED caused by an enlarged prostate. However, several recent clinical trials did not show that saw palmetto works any better on an enlarged prostate than a placebo does. “There is no evidence that saw palmetto should be used to treat erectile dysfunction,” says Dr. Gilbert. Like ginkgo biloba, saw palmetto can interact with some prescription medications.

Bottom line: You may not see the results you were hoping for.

DHEA. DHEA, or dehydroepiandrosterone, is a natural hormone that the body uses to make the male hormone testosterone. DHEA and testosterone decrease with age, just as ED increases with age, so it seems that taking DHEA might protect against ED. But Harris says that “it is unlikely that taking DHEA would raise your testosterone enough to make much difference.” DHEA should not be used by people with liver problems; it also has many side effects.

Bottom line: Don’t try this one unless your doctor is willing to supervise.

Yohimbine. This chemical is found in the bark of an African tree called yohimbe. It has been used as a male aphrodisiac in Africa, and under medical supervision it has been used as a prescription drug to treat ED. Supplements made from yohimbe bark are also available without a prescription, but they can be life-threatening if used at high doses, according to the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. The supplement can interact in a harmful way with certain drugs, such as blood pressure medications, and should be avoided by anyone with liver, kidney, heart, or diabetes problems or problems with anxiety or depression. Like DHEA, yohimbine should not be taken without a doctor’s supervision.

Bottom line: “The latest studies on yohimbine show that it is probably no better than a placebo,” says Gilbert.

“Most of these alternative treatments have been around for a long time,” says Harris. “If any of them really worked well for ED, doctors would be using them.” Therapy and counseling may also help men whose erectile dysfunction may be linked to psychological issues such as stress, anxiety, or relationship problems.



  • Ginkgo, one of the oldest living tree species in the world, has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Members of the royal court were given ginkgo nuts for senility. Other historical uses for ginkgo were for asthma, bronchitis, and kidney and bladder disorders.
  • Today, the extract from ginkgo leaves is used as a dietary supplement for many conditions, including dementia, eye problems, intermittent claudication (leg pain caused by narrowing arteries), tinnitus, and other health problems.
  • Ginkgo is made into tablets, capsules, extracts, tea, and cosmetics.

How Much Do We Know?

  • There have been a lot of studies on the possible health effects and risks of people using ginkgo.

What Have We Learned?

  • There’s no conclusive evidence that ginkgo is helpful for any health condition.
  • Ginkgo doesn’t help prevent or slow dementia or cognitive decline, according to studies, including the long-term Ginkgo Evaluation Memory Study, which enrolled more than 3,000 older adults and was funded in part by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH).
  • There’s no strong evidence that ginkgo helps with memory enhancement in healthy people, blood pressure, intermittent claudication, tinnitus, age-related macular degeneration, the risk of having a heart attack or stroke, or with other conditions.
  • Ongoing NCCIH-funded research is looking at whether a compound in ginkgo may help with diabetes.

What Do We Know About Safety?

  • For many healthy adults, ginkgo appears to be safe when taken by mouth in moderate amounts.
  • Side effects of ginkgo may include headache, stomach upset, and allergic skin reactions. If you’re older, have a known bleeding risk, or are pregnant you should be cautious about ginkgo possibly increasing your risk of bleeding.
  • In a 2013 research study, rodents given ginkgo had an increased risk of developing liver and thyroid cancer at the end of the 2-year tests.
  • Ginkgo may interact with some conventional medications, including anticoagulants (blood thinners), research reviews show.
  • Eating fresh (raw) or roasted ginkgo seeds can be poisonous and have serious side effects.

Keep in Mind

  • Tell all your health care providers about any complementary or integrative health approaches you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.



There is no FDA approved indication, and there is insufficient evidence to support non-FDA approved use of Ginkgo biloba.

Dementia/ Cognitive Impairment:

In terms of treatment for existing dementia, data has been contradictory regarding the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb). A 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study of 309 patients in 1997 concluded that EGb was safe and though modestly, it appeared to stabilize and improve the cognitive performance as well as social functioning of dementia patients for six months to 1 year. Similarly, another 24-week randomized controlled trial with 410 outpatients found that treatment with EGb 761 using a once-daily dose of 240 mg was safe and demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in cognition, psychopathology, functional status and quality of life of patients and caregivers. On the other hand, a randomized control trial of 513 outpatients with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer type did not support the efficacy of Ginkgo extract. A systematic review of 36 trials in 2009 and another review of 38 trials in 2018, though demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba was relatively safe, but did not support its clinical benefit for patients with cognitive impairment and dementia. Conversely, a 2015 systematic review of 9 trials concluded that EGb761 at 240 mg/day was able to decelerate decline in cognition, function, behavior, and global change at 22 to 26 weeks in patients with dementia, especially for those with neuropsychiatric symptoms. A 2017 study of 12 systematic reviews also suggested that at doses greater than 200mg/day for at least five months, EGb had potentially beneficial effects for patients with dementia.

In terms of preventing dementia, there is also insufficient evidence to support the use of ginkgo. The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) Study showed that Ginkgo biloba at 120 mg twice a day was not effective in reducing both all-cause dementia incidence and Alzheimer dementia incidence in elderly patients with normal cognition or with mild cognitive impairment. Similarly, the GuidAge clinical trial conducted in patients aged 70 years or older who spontaneously reported memory complaints to their primary care physician in France. This trial randomized patients with either 120 mg standardized Ginkgo biloba extract or matching placebo and did not support the benefit of long-term use of standardized EGb in reducing the risk of progression to Alzheimer disease throughout five years. A meta-analysis of two trials involving 5889 participants showed no significant difference in the rate of developing dementia between Ginkgo biloba and the placebo in late-life. A 2012 meta-analysis did not find support for the use of Ginkgo biloba in enhancing cognitive function in healthy adults.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD)/ Cardiovascular Risk Factors Reduction

Effects of Ginkgo on cardiovascular disease and risk factors, including hypertension and diabetes, have been the topic of many studies, though there has been a lack of large evidence-based, well-designed randomized controlled trials/studies to support its use in treating or preventing the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Though Ginkgo biloba extract has often been an option in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in China, a systemic review in 2005 did not show the benefit of improving mortality or neurological recovery in the post-stroke period. On the other hand, a randomized, open-label, blinded, controlled clinical trial in 2018 suggested that Ginkgo, in combination with aspirin treatment lessened cognitive and neurological impairment after acute ischemic stroke without increasing the incidence of vascular events. A small randomized controlled trial of eighty patients with coronary artery disease showed that the use of EGb correlated with an increase in blood flow of left anterior descending coronary artery as measured by Doppler echocardiography as well as an increase in nitric oxide and a decrease in endothelin-1 level.

A randomized controlled trial in 2010 that monitor CVD as a preplanned secondary outcome of the GEM study showed no evidence that Ginkgo reduced CV mortality or CVD events though it reported a smaller number of peripheral vascular disease events in Ginkgo arm. A systemic review, however, suggested that that Ginkgo biloba had no statistical or clinically significant benefit for patients with peripheral arterial disease. Data from the GEM study also demonstrated that EGb did not reduce blood pressure or the incidence of hypertension in elderly patients with a mean age of 79 years old. Ginkgo biloba has also been shown to decrease plasma lipoprotein(a) level – a known risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases. A small randomized controlled trial in 2018 showed that adjunct use of EGb along with metformin was more effective than metformin alone in improving outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as measured by blood HbA1c, fasting glucose, insulin level, BMI, waist circumference and visceral adiposity index without negatively affecting the liver, kidney, or hematopoietic functions.

Overall, due to the lack of strong evidence, the use of Ginkgo biloba extract is not indicated at this point for treatment or prevention of CVD.

Psychiatric disorders:

Studies have examined the role of Ginkgo biloba in treating depression and other psychiatric disorders. A small randomized controlled trial with 136 subjects suggested that EGb, as an adjunctive treatment along with citalopram, could improve depressive symptoms and cognitive function as measured by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Wisconsin Card Classification Test (WCST), respectively; it was also shown to decrease the expression of serum S100B, a marker of brain injury. A randomized controlled trial of 157 patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed schizophrenia and tardive dyskinesia (TD) suggested EGb could help reduce the symptoms of TD. A meta-analysis of four trials involving 1628 patients showed treatment with EGb improved behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and also caregiver distress associated with such symptoms.

Sexual Dysfunction

Many small studies have explored the role of EGb in treating sexual dysfunction. A triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 24 patients with sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs showed no statistically significant differences in responses and side-effect profiles between the EGb group and the placebo group. A randomized control trial of 108 patients showed that a nutritional supplement containing L-arginine, ginseng, ginkgo, damiana, multivitamins, and minerals, helped increase the level of sexual desire in premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women compared to placebo.


A multicenter double-blinded randomized control trial that followed 70 patients throughout 3 months showed that Ginkgo biloba extract could reduce the intensity, frequency, and duration of vertiginous syndrome compared (47% in the EGb group compared to 18% in the placebo group). Another randomized controlled trial in 2014 showed that there was no statistically significant difference in vertigo treatment outcomes between Ginkgo biloba versus betahistine group though EGb had a better tolerance profile. Again due to the lack of strength of the evidence, more studies are needed to establish the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba in treating vertigo.


A Cochrane review in 2013, which included four trials with a total of 1543 participants, demonstrated that there was no evidence that Gingko biloba was effective in patients with a primary complaint of tinnitus. Similarly, a 2018 study that extracted data from systematic reviews concluded the use of Ginkgo biloba did not alleviate the severity of tinnitus or improve the quality of life of patients.


A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 52 vitiligo patients showed that treatment with Ginkgo biloba correlated with a statistically significant cessation of active progression of depigmentation. Despite such a promising result, more studies are warranted to validate Ginkgo’s role as a potential therapy of choice for vitiligo.

Macular Degeneration

A 2012 systematic review identified one study of 20 patients with macular degeneration conducted in France, randomly allocated to Gingko Biloba extract EGb 761 80 mg twice daily or placebo and another study of 99 patients performed in Germany randomly allocated to two different doses of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (240 mg per day and 60 mg per day). Researchers followed the patients for six months in both trials. Their results could not be pooled, but both experiments demonstrated some beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba on vision.


A 2019 systematic review suggested that flavonoids, often found in Ginkgo biloba, had a beneficial effect in glaucoma, particularly in terms of increasing ocular blood flow and potentially halting the progression of visual field loss. More quality research is warranted to determine the role of Gingko biloba in treating glaucoma.

Altitude Sickness

The Prevention of High Altitude Illness Trial (PHAIT) that followed 614 healthy western trekkers showed that ginkgo was not effective at preventing acute mountain sickness when compared to placebo. Besides, a 2017 systematic review demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba alone, neither used alone or as an adjunct to acetazolamide, was beneficial for altitude sickness.


4. Discussion

The main focus of this study was to test whether a six-week supplementation with Ginkgo biloba extract would modify aerobic performance, improve blood antioxidant capacity, and enhance BDNF expression in healthy, physically active young men. Previous human studies reported a positive correlation between the increase in endurance capacity (VO2max) and the consumption of selected herbal supplements rich in polyphenols (i.e., quercetin or epigallocatechin-3-gallate) in healthy, untrained volunteers . Flavonoids and terpenes contained in Ginkgo biloba extract can stimulate the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), which may increase muscle tissue blood flow through improved microcirculation and can thus improve aerobic endurance by enhancing muscular energy production . Of note, some improvement of exercise performance evaluated by pain-free walking distance was reported in Ginkgo biloba-treated patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease (POAD) , although the efficacy of this treatment is still discussed . Statistically significant, although trivial improvements in VO2max ranging from 2.3 to 7.5% were reported after five days of supplementation with quercetin (500 to 1000 mg/d) in untrained, active, or moderately-trained individuals with VO2max levels comparable to those reported in our study . It seems that the dosage of herbal supplement may be a factor determining aerobic power. Mahady showed that recommended dose of EGb standardized extract to achieve beneficial effects is located in a dose between 40 and 60 mg of EGb 3–4 times daily. In our study, subjects consumed 160 mg of EGb extract once a day for six weeks, which may explain only a marginal (6% vs. 1%) increase in the relative percentage VO2max change (baseline to intervention) scores in individuals receiving, respectively, the EGb or the placebo capsules.

The multifaceted activities of Ginkgo biloba extract may also derive from other mechanisms of action, such as their antioxidant potential. Antioxidant effects are connected with a capacity of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a possibility of increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and heme-oxygenase-1 by upregulating the expression of antioxidant genes encoding these enzymes .

First, we decided to evaluate the activities of the main antioxidant enzymes, i.e., SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR, in the blood. Although the statistical analysis did not reveal significant changes in antioxidant enzymes between the first and the second trials, a 20% rise in resting SOD activity was observed after EGb supplementation (reflected by significant trial effect), compared with an 8% increase found in the placebo group. Superoxide dismutase is the most important antioxidant enzyme, as it catalyzes the dismutation reaction resulting in the elimination of superoxide anion radicals, thus preventing the formation of other reactive oxygen species . The product of SOD-catalyzed reaction, hydrogen peroxide, is enzymatically decomposed to water and oxygen by catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), the latter with higher affinity to H2O2 than CAT . Since the actions of enzymatic antioxidant defense systems are coordinated, compensatory changes in enzymatic activity might be expected, i.e., a change in the activity of one enzyme may affect the activity of another one. This might particularly concern the competition between GPx and CAT. Our study showed a marginal increase in resting CAT activity and a decrease in GPx in both EGb-supplemented and PLA control groups.

Several non-enzymatic antioxidants were also assessed, including reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), and total phenolics. Supplementation with Ginkgo biloba extract did not significantly affect concentrations of total phenolics and UA. Only in the case of GSH, which presented slightly higher levels in the second trial (reflected by significant trial effect) in the EGb group, support the previous finding of Moskaug et al. , that dietary polyphenols can modulate the expression of the γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-enzyme involved in GSH synthesis. Of note, significantly higher UA, but lower total phenolics levels, were observed in both groups (EGb and PLA) during the recovery post-graded exercise test. With respect to uric acid, a final product of the degradation of purine nucleosides under conditions of energy stress, when the rate of ATP utilization in skeletal muscle exceeds that of its resynthesis , and one of the main antioxidants in human plasma , its high levels are characteristic for body fluids, tissues, and cells under severe oxidative stress. As found in our study, neither a six-week EGb supplementation nor a graded exercise test affected the plasma uric acid level recorded immediately post-completion of this test, but in both experimental groups, its significant increase was observed during the recovery period; the main time-effect appeared highly significant. These results are consistent with those reported by Dudzińska et al. and Hellsten-Westing et al. , who found that plasma uric acid reached its peak value within an hour after completing a maximal effort, i.e., under the ischemia/reperfusion condition.

It is worth mentioning that the health effects of polyphenols derived from the dietary sources depend on their bioavailability. Importantly, blood samples for biochemical analyses in our study were taken one day after ingesting the last EGb or PLA capsule, which may explain the lack of marked between-group differences in plasma total phenolics levels under resting conditions. We may also refer to the recent report on the dietary intakes estimated for the representative population of Polish adults, in which the calculated daily total polyphenol intake was 989 mg, with phenolic acids and flavonoids as the main contributors . This may explain that the dose contained in Ginkgo biloba capsule had little impact on plasma level of total phenolics assessed one day after ingestion of the last EGb capsule. In the present study, independent of the subjects’ group and trial, plasma total phenolics were significantly decreased 3 min after completion of the graded exercise test, as reflected by a highly significant time-effect. These results may imply that the plasma polyphenols have been used for scavenging free radicals produced during the exercise test.

It should be stressed, however, that although the antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols has been well documented in vitro, there is much more doubt about their antioxidant action in vivo. Therefore, considering that polyphenols derived from the diet are present in the circulation and tissues only in low micromolar ranges, it is far more likely that they may activate signaling pathways for the production of cytoprotective enzymes or metabolites . Of note, a major mechanism of action for certain nutritional antioxidant phytochemicals found naturally in plants is the paradoxical oxidative activation of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, which maintains protective antioxidant enzymes against oxidative damage and nucleophilic components of the antioxidant defense (such as GSH) in a reduced state . This presumption is supported by our finding of some increases in SOD activity and GSH content (revealed by significant trial effects: F = 4.49, p < 0.05 and F = 11.38, p < 0.001, respectively) in EGb-supplemented individuals.

The adverse effects of exercise-induced oxidative stress were evaluated based on lipid peroxidation assessed by TBARS assay. As predicted, the post-exercise rise in lipid peroxidation levels, expressed as TBARS, was recorded in both groups, but apparently lower increases were found in the EGb-supplemented individuals. Our results appear to be similar to those reported by Jówko et al. and Kuo et al. , who also found a decrease in post-exercise lipid peroxidation, expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA), following supplementation with natural polyphenol-rich extracts. It is noteworthy that dietary polyphenols may be incorporated into cell membranes, which results in a change in cell structure stability and better protection of cell membranes against lipid peroxidation . The beneficial effect of EGb supplementation on antioxidant capacity was also supported by significant negative correlation between SOD and TBARS (R = −0.57, p < 0.01) in EGb-supplemented individuals. When interpreting these data, one should realize that the commonly used levels of TBARS or MDA as markers of lipid peroxidation are now considered somewhat controversial, although they are still usable with cautious interpretation .

It is well known that the coordination of antioxidant defense systems presents higher antioxidant potential than a separate antioxidant molecule or antioxidant enzyme. To solve this problem, we evaluated the plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed by the FRAP assay, which provides much more information on free radical scavenging capacity than the concentrations of individual antioxidants . Our study revealed a moderate increase in resting and post-exercise FRAP levels after EGb supplementation, reflected by significant effects of group, trial, and time. The observed increases in FRAP levels during recovery may be attributed to a concurrent rise in plasma uric acid, which is the main contributor to total antioxidant capacity expressed as a FRAP value . It should be emphasized that only in the EGb-supplemented group was FRAP highly significantly correlated with UA levels (R = 0.83, p < 0.0001).

Finally, we have to recall that polyphenols contained in Ginkgo biloba extract may provide other health benefits, such as neuroprotection regulated by neurotrophic factors, among which the best studied are nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The effect of regular physical activity on the structure and cognitive functions of the brain has been well documented by experimental and observational studies . Regular physical exercise of moderate intensity has a favorable influence on brain vascularization and blood flow, thus improving oxygen and nutrient supply. Physical effort may enhance memory through neurogenesis, changes in the levels of neurotransmitters, and neurotrophic factors, primarily in the brain regions of the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum . Potential synergy between dietary polyphenol consumption and physical activity may also involve signaling pathways regulating different stages of neurogenesis, cell fate, synaptic plasticity, cognitive performance, and blood vessel function . Hence, a combination of active lifestyle and dietary supplements of natural origin seems to be an optimal strategy for improving or maintaining brain function.

Our results have evidenced that a six-week consumption of Ginkgo biloba extract did not result in an increase in basal BDNF content. However, during the incremental test to exhaustion, significant increases in serum BDNF concentration immediately post-test and its rapid decline to basal values were observed in both groups (EGb and PLA), although higher post-test BDNF increases were recorded in EGb-supplemented individuals (revealed by significant group × trial interaction). In this context, our data are similar to those reported by Bell et al. and Rojas Vega et al. for male individuals performing a short-duration incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion.

The main limitations of this study were the relatively small number of participants recruited from a population of physically active college-aged males, and the lack of information on their actual food intakes and physical workloads, which limits the generalizability of the research findings to a wider population. Other weakness of this study is that we could not perform more specific and more reliable diagnostic tests for the determination of the plasma total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation.

3 Supplements to Reignite Your Sex Drive

Many people, both men and women, enjoy the benefits of horny goat weed supplements for the libido – increased blood flow to the genital area is beneficial to everyone for sexual health, and it is also thought to have more subtle positive effects, including elevated mood, and increased energy levels.


Arginine is a chemical building block called an amino acid that the body uses for several functions, including immunity and repairing damaged tissues.

L-Arginine is found in red meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products, and can also be taken as a dietary supplement. L-Arginine supplements could help to improve your sex life by increasing your body’s production of nitric oxide, which causes blood vessels to open wider and allow for more blood to flow, which helps to maintain erections.

Insufficient blood flow is a major cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. The benefits of L-Arginine supplements aren’t just for men, either – women may find that it can increase their sexual desire, and makes their genitals more sensitive and responsive to sexual stimulation. People who use L-Arginine for sexual health say that taking it 45 minutes before sex produces optimal results.

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba is an extract taken from the roots and bark of the ginkgo biloba tree, one of the oldest and hardiest living species of tree in the world – the oldest ginkgo tree is currently 3,500 years old.

Ginkgo biloba is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of ailments from memory problems to sexual health. It appears to work by improving blood circulation, especially to the extremities, which is necessary for men to maintain erections.

Ginkgo biloba could also be especially effective for women with low libido – a study into its effects on people with SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction (a common side effect of the anti-depression medication) found that the women who took part in the trial were even more responsive to the effects of ginkgo biloba supplements than the men.

Ginkgo is a common plant originating from China, Korea, and Japan. This tree, sprouting fan-shaped leaves is considered to be one of the oldest trees ever living, dating back more than 200 million years. About 1,000 years ago in China, it was used as traditional Chinese medicine. In Western culture, it’s been known for centuries as herbal therapeutic because of its ability to assist in treating Alzheimer’s disease, fatigue, and memory loss. There are so many benefits of ginkgo biloba that it makes a great natural herbal medicine and here are 8 of the most effective benefits.

1. Natural antioxidants

The strong antioxidant potential of ginkgo biloba provides it with a lot of health benefits. It contains a large number of phytochemicals such as terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenols that provides its strong antioxidant benefits. These phytochemicals neutralize the free radicals produced in the body during normal body processes. Free radicals are normally harmful because they contribute to aging and degenerative changes throughout the body.

2. Improves sexual performance

Sexual dysfunction conditions come naturally with age and other contributing factors which can cause a lot of stress and issues in people’s sex lives. Ginkgo biloba helps to improve blood circulation and dilate the constricted vessels which help in treating the symptoms of sexual performance conditions. Ginkgo bilibo is also a great natural supplement used to treat erectile dysfunction and low libido.

3. Anti-inflammatory potential

Inflammation is a common body response to foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and some mutagens. When these substances enters the living body, they are encountered by our immune system which fights back, causing inflammation. If the immune system is strong, one may not get infection and inflammation, but in the case of weak immunity, inflammation occurs at the site of infection. There are many inflammatory diseases such as irritable bowel disease, arthritis, heart disease, cancer and strokes, and others that can be lethal if remain untreated. Ginkgo is very effective to reduce inflammation which can be helpful in treating these conditions.

4. Improves blood circulation

Ginkgo helps to improve blood circulation and in Chinese traditional medicine, it was used to open the blocked energy channels of different body organs. It contains nitric oxide which opens up the constricted vessels and improves blood flow which can reduce the risk of heart disease. The improved circulation helps the entire body function properly.

5. Helps with mental illnesses

There are many mental and psychiatric disorders, in which ginkgo is very beneficial. It helps to reduce anxiety, depression, stress, and cognitive memory loss. It also helps in improving the memory, which provides its ability to treat brain-related issues and disorders. Many studies show its effectiveness in treating mental issues and improving performance.

6. Treats anxiety & depression

Ginkgo is very effective to reduce stress and anxiety symptoms because of its strong antioxidant potential. It helps to strengthen the person emotionally which can help to not to get influenced by daily pressures. The constant phase of stress and anxiety may lead to depression and other related disorders which are not good for long-term health. The ginkgo anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits help to reduce anxiety and stress related symptoms.

7. Treats migraines and headaches

Due to exhausting routines, headaches and migraines can quickly disturb our daily activities and are sometimes very painful. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefit of ginkgo helps to get rid of anxiety symptoms which prevent headaches and migraines. Along with reducing stress symptoms, ginkgo is also effective to improve circulation that reduces headache and migraine causes.

8. Reduces PMS symptoms

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) badly affects the women due to its painful symptoms such as cramps, pain, and nausea. Ginkgo is very effective to reduce the PMS symptoms by reducing the inflammation in the body and providing comfort.


Ginkgo biloba is a powerful herb used in medicine and natural supplements because of its positive effects on the body and overall health. It is natural and doesn’t have any known side effects, but as always, you should consult with your primary doctor before taking any supplements.

You will find ginkgo biloba, DMAE, and more in our all natural AgelessBRILLIANCE – Memory, Focus, and Clarity supplement.

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