Magnesium is a mineral that plays a big role in making your body work right. More than 300 chemical reactions inside you depend on the mineral.
Without it, your muscles can’t move the way they’re supposed to. Your nerves won’t send and receive messages. Magnesium also keeps your heart rhythm steady, blood sugar levels balanced, and your joint cartilage healthy. It helps your body make protein, bone, and DNA.
Your body doesn’t make magnesium on its own. The amount you need depends on your age and gender. If you’re a woman age 19 or older, you need 310 milligrams (mg) a day — 350 mg if you’re pregnant. If you’re an adult man under age 30, you need 400 mg a day. After 30, men need 420 mg.
It’s always best to get magnesium from food, but you can also get it from multivitamins and supplements. Too much, though, can cause nausea, stomach cramps, or diarrhea. In extreme cases, it could cause an irregular heartbeat or cardiac arrest.
Don’t take a magnesium supplement if you have certain conditions, such as:
- Heart block
- Kidney failure
- Bowel obstruction
- Myasthenia gravis
If you get too much magnesium from food, your kidneys will remove it through your urine. Your kidneys will also balance out your magnesium levels if you don’t get enough of it for a little while.
Certain conditions like Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, type 2 diabetes, alcoholism, and chronic diarrhea can give your body a long-term shortage of magnesium. Common symptoms include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue.
Leafy green vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts, and fish are the best ways to keep healthy levels of magnesium in your body. Shop with these specifics in mind:
- Magnesium in the Diet: The Bad News about Magnesium Food Sources
- Foods High In Magnesium
- % Daily Value in Magnesium Containing Foods
- The Problem With Dietary Magnesium
- Processed Foods and the Magnesium Rich Diet
- Where Do Foods Containing Magnesium Come From? …From Soil Containing Magnesium
- Bottom Line: An Adequate Magnesium Diet Goes Beyond Food Sources
- Chart of Magnesium Rich Foods
- 28 Best Foods to Eat for Magnesium
- Nuts High in Magnesium
- Vegetables High in Magnesium
- Beans High in Magnesium
- Seeds, Cereals, and Grains High in Magnesium
- Fruits High in Magnesium
- Fish, Meat & Dairy Products High in Magnesium
- Top 10 Foods Highest in Magnesium
- Data Sources and References
- Most recent
- Amount of Magnesium in Dark chocolate
- Top three dark chocolate products high in magnesium
- Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids – Nutritional Content and Chart
- Comparing magnesium in dark chocolate vs spinach
- Amount of magnesium per 100 Calories
- Content per Typical Serving Size 1 oz (or 28.35 g)
- Macronutrients in Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids
- Milligrams of magnesium in dark chocolate (per 100g)
- Average Content for dark chocolate
- Median Amount
- Highest magnesium Content per 100g
- Highest Amount of magnesium per Serving
- Nutritional Information Summary
- 8 Foods High in Magnesium
- The Best Magnesium-Rich Foods For Optimal Health
- Dark Chocolate – 327 mg
- Halibut – 170 mg
- Cooked Spinach – 157 mg
- Pumpkin and Squash Seeds – 151 mg
- Black Beans – 120 mg
- Fish: Mackerel, Pollock and Tuna – 97 mg
- Okra – 94 mg
- Beans and Lentils – 68 mg
- Almonds – 80 mg
- Dark Leafy Greens: Spinach, Chard and Kale – 79 mg
- Dried Fruit: Prunes, Apricots and Dates – 68 mg
- Plantain – 66 mg
- Nuts, Peanuts – 64 mg
- Avocado – 58 mg
- Cooked Whole Grain Cereal – 56 mg
- Scallops – 55 mg
- Rockfish – 51 mg
- Figs – 50 mg
- Oysters 49 mg
- Soy Milk – 47 mg
- Whole Grains: Brown Rice, Quinoa and Bulgur – 44 mg
- Tofu – 37 mg
- Bananas – 27 mg
- Whole Wheat Bread and Whole Grain Cereal – 24 mg
- Raw Broccoli – 22 mg
- New Bone-HealthySmoothies!
- Orange’s Potential Protection against Cardiovascular Disease
- Long-Acting Liminoids in Citrus Add to Their Ability to Promote Optimal Health
- Oranges’ Possible Cholesterol-Lowering Benefits
- Compounds in Orange Peel May Lower Cholesterol as Effectively as Statin Drugs
- Oranges are a Very Good Source of Fiber
- Oranges Possible Prevention of Kidney Stones
- Oranges May Prevent Ulcers and Reduce Risk for Stomach Cancer
- Oranges May Protect Respiratory Health
- Oranges May Offer Protection Against Rheumatoid Arthritis
- How to Select and Store
- Tips for Preparing and Cooking
- How to Enjoy
- Nutritional Profile
- Introduction to Food Rating System Chart
- In-Depth Nutritional Profile
- Amount of Magnesium in Salmon
- Top twenty salmon products high in magnesium
- Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat – Nutritional Content and Chart
- Comparing magnesium in salmon vs spinach
- Content per Typical Serving Size .5 fillet (or 178 g)
- Milligrams of magnesium in salmon (per 100g)
- Effect of Preparation and Storage on magnesium
- Average Content for salmon
- Center for Magnesium Education & Research, LLC
Magnesium in the Diet: The Bad News about Magnesium Food Sources
With magnesium deficiencies on the rise, a common question is, “How do you get enough magnesium in your diet?”
Magnesium content in vegetables has seen declines from 25-80%.
Yet — while it’s always important to seek out magnesium rich foods — many are unaware of the drastic declines in food-based nutrient sources that have occurred over the last century. These factors, coupled with poor food choices, now cause many health professionals to question the ability to get sufficient magnesium exclusively from food.
Magnesium content in vegetables has seen declines from 25-80% since pre-1950 figures, and typical grain refining processes for bread and pasta remove 80-95% of total magnesium.
What is happening to our food sources, and how is it shaping the rise of chronic diseases such as hypertension and metabolic disorder?
Foods High In Magnesium
Magnesium food sources were once commonly consumed, but have diminished in the last century due to industrialized agriculture and changing diets.
The average American diet contains barely over 50% of the conservative US recommended daily allowance (RDA) for magnesium 1 2, and roughly three quarters of the population consumes a magnesium insufficient diet. 3 4 5 6
The foods magnesium is found in include:
- Beans and nuts
- Whole grains such as brown rice and whole wheat bread
- Green leafy vegetables
Given current food preferences, however, it’s easy to see how it’s hard to achieve 100% of RDAs for magnesium.
% Daily Value in Magnesium Containing Foods
The majority of good magnesium sources contain only about 10% or less of recommended daily amounts, as seen in a list of the magnesium content in common food sources of magnesium. Those that do contain more, such as certain nuts, fish and whole grains, are often eaten in too small quantities by the average person.
But, in fact, percent daily value figures are just averages. For every individual:
- Absorption rates can vary, and according to studies can sometimes be as low as 20%. 7 8
- Factors can interfere with magnesium absorption, including phytic and oxalic acid found in certain foods, prescription drugs, age, and genetic factors.
- Read about magnesium absorption and bioavailability.
- Learn about risk factors for magnesium deficiency.
The Problem With Dietary Magnesium
Why is a high magnesium diet harder to achieve today? What is changing our vitamin and mineral food sources?
There three basic reasons we can’t get enough magnesium in the diet:
- Reduced levels due to processing.
- Reduced levels due to soil conditions.
- Changes in eating habits.
Processed Foods and the Magnesium Rich Diet
Food processing essentially separates plant food sources into components, both for ease of use and to reduce spoilage.
In processing grain into white flour, the bran and the germ are removed. In processing seeds and nuts into refined oils, the oils are super-heated and the magnesium content is strained out or removed through the use of chemical additives.
It is these removed portions of the plant that often contain the highest amount of minerals such as magnesium.
- Refined oils remove all magnesium. The result of oil refining is a zero magnesium product. Safflower seeds, for example, contain 680 mg of magnesium per 1,000 calories. Safflower oil lacks magnesium entirely. 9
- Refined grains remove 80-97 percent of magnesium. 10 At least twenty nutrients are removed in refining flour. And only five are put back in when refined flours are “enriched”. 11 Magnesium is not one of them.
- Refined sugar removes all magnesium. Molasses, which is removed from the sugar cane in refinement, contains up to 25% of the RDA for magnesium in one tablespoon. Sugar has none.
An unfortunate additional side effect of the processing of these foods is, in fact, an increase in calories by volume. For example, when wheat is refined into white flour, calories are increased by about 7 percent. 12
The typical American convenience food diet of fast food, pizzas, pastries, cookies and fried foods consists almost exclusively of refined grains, oils and sugars. Over time, excess consumption of these foods can lead to both obesity and magnesium deficiency, a potentially fatal combination.
Dr. Mildred Seelig, author of The Magnesium Factor, spells it out clearly:
If restaurant, homemade, or store-bought food contains fat, refined flour, and/or sugar as one or more of the major ingredients, it is a low-magnesium, and quite possibly a high-calorie, food. A steady diet of such foods, year after year, can produce magnesium deficit and, with it, metabolic syndrome X—a major factor in heart disease.” 13
Where Do Foods Containing Magnesium Come From? …From Soil Containing Magnesium
It is well known among experts that the quality of our crops is decreasing. In 2004, the Journal of the American College of Nutrition released a study which compared nutrient content of crops at that time with 1950 levels. Declines were found as high as 40%. 14
Dr. Donald Davis, lead researcher for the study, offers one explanation for the dramatic declines:
During those 50 years, there have been intensive efforts to breed new varieties that have greater yield, or resistance to pests, or adaptability to different climates. But the dominant effort is for higher yields. Emerging evidence suggests that when you select for yield, crops grow bigger and faster, but they don’t necessarily have the ability to make or uptake nutrients at the same, faster rate.” 15
Several similar studies have been done using food tables from the USDA in the US, and Food Standards Agency in the UK. Declines found for magnesium were significant:
|Magnesium Content|| Percentage Decline
U.S. 1963 – 1992 16 17 18
| Percentage Decline
U.K. 1936-1997 19 20
|Average across fruits and vegetables studied||21%||35%|
|Collard Greens||84%||not available|
These declines are not limited to vegetable crops. A study by David Thomas published in Nutrition and Health examined average nutritional content of foods across food categories using the UK government’s Composition of Food tables.
Thomas found consistent declines in magnesium content:
- Vegetables declined by 24% between 1940 and 1991.
- Fruit declined by 17%.
- Meat declined by 15%.
- Cheeses declined by 26%. 21
Government agencies and food industry organizations have questioned the reliability of these results, citing the possibility that changes in measurement techniques may account for the differences. But Dr. Joel Wallach of the Longevity Institute refutes this claim.
Were these differences the result of errors in measurement, explains Dr. Wallach, such errors would be present consistently across food types and categories. Yet when comparing USDA food tables between 1963 and 1998, Wallach reports that:
- Crops whose harvesting practices have not changed historically showed stable vitamin and mineral content over the years.
- By contrast, significant reductions in vitamin and mineral content were consistently present in crops that are produced by more intensive, industrialized farming practices. 22
Our crops’ lack of magnesium and other nutrients has a direct impact on the ability to achieve sufficient magnesium in the diet.
Ultimately, even those who seek out a balanced high magnesium diet with magnesium-rich vegetables and whole grains may not be able to rely upon food alone to provide sufficient magnesium levels.
- Read about types of magnesium supplements and how to choose what’s best for you.
- Natural magnesium from the sea: Learn what makes magnesium chloride a different kind of supplement.
Pesticides Destroy Organisms That Provide Nutrients to Plants
Experts link vitamin and mineral depletion in the soil to use of pesticides and fertilizers.
Today’s soils produce vegetation with dramatically reduced vitamin and mineral content.
Though it was believed initially that pesticides would work simply to rid farmland of unwanted weeds and pests, it was soon learned that their use was causing irreversible damage. Vitamin-fixing bacteria in the soil, as well as earthworms, natural soil aerators and fertilizers, were being first reduced and then extinguished from American crop land.
Without this living environment, soils produce vegetation with dramatically reduced vitamin and mineral content.
For example, vegetarians are commonly advised to supplement their diet with certain B vitamins, especially B12, as an all-vegetable diet has been shown to be deficient in these vitamins. What is less commonly known is that in the past these vitamins were in fact found commonly in root vegetables due to the action of living, beneficial bacteria in the soil.
Today’s soils, which have essentially eradicated these bacteria populations, cannot now be relied upon to provide B12 in any significant amount. However, Swiss researchers with the Institute of Plant Sciences in Zurich have demonstrably shown that a return to organic farming practices can reintroduce B12 content. The long term use of organic fertilizers (rather than synthetic) more than doubled the B12 content of spinach and tripled the B12 content of barley. 23
Fertilizers Diminish Mineral Absorption
Modern fertilizers are a convenient substitute for centuries old crop rotation practices which prevented farmland from becoming depleted through repetitive use. Yet they do little to improve the vitamin and mineral content of crops, and in many cases actually worsen it.
In fact, minerals are even more susceptible to the reductions in soil quality than vitamins. Whereas many vitamins can actually be produced by growing plants themselves, if minerals are not first present in the soil they will not be present in the produce grown there. 24
And because mineral content of crops is in no way regulated, modern industrialized farming practices typically do not concern themselves with this standard of quality when choosing fertilizers.
Potash, a commonly-used potassium fertilizer easily taken up by plants, actually reduces the amount of both magnesium and calcium absorbed by the plant. And modern nitrogen-based fertilizers have a tendency to make crops bulkier, yet nutrient poor. Mother Earth News recently interviewed agricultural expert Charles Benbrook, Ph.D., who explained the phenomenon:
High nitrogen levels make plants grow fast and bulk up with carbohydrates and water. While the fruits these plants produce may be big, they suffer in nutritional quality. 25
The effect is one which is beneficial to the producer, but not the consumer. Consumers pay more for heavier, water-laden produce that contains less vitamins and minerals.
Bottom Line: An Adequate Magnesium Diet Goes Beyond Food Sources
Agricultural industry emphasizes those fertilizers that improve the “look” of the harvest, and not the actual nutritional value of the produce itself.
- It’s possible to produce healthy-looking plants with low content of vitamins and minerals.
- The actual magnesium content of produce grown today is drastically lower than in pre-industrial times, and varies widely depending on farming practices, quality of soil, and storage and transportation methods.
- Food tables are at best averages, and no current regulations require testing or monitoring of nutritional content of produce or meat sources.
The wide variability in the vitamin and mineral content of foods debunks the myth that you can get all the nutrients you need through a balanced healthy diet. Unfortunately for the majority of people in industrialized nations, the old adage, “You can get all your vitamins and minerals from food” is longer true.
In fact, the average American today is deficient in at least three vital nutrients. 26
Noted magnesium researchers Burton and Bella Altura have linked ongoing declines in magnesium intake with increased incidence of life-threatening disease. In their 2006 report to the International Magnesium Symposium held in Osaka Japan, they state:
The data accumulated so far indicate that magnesium deficiency caused either by a poor diet or errors in magnesium metabolism may be a missing link between diverse cardiovascular risk factors and atherogenesis.” 27
The body is equipped to absorb dietary magnesium sources, and even in cases of mild or severe deficiencies it is always recommended that you include magnesium-rich foods in your diet. Yet with the state of modern agri-business today and the increasing risks to health and longevity, relying upon magnesium food sources alone can be a risky proposition.
Chart of Magnesium Rich Foods
The following a list of the magnesium content in common food sources of magnesium is sorted by milligrams magnesium per gram of food content.
28 Best Foods to Eat for Magnesium
We all know that our bodies need a steady supply of nutrients, but beyond the weight loss trifecta—fiber, protein and healthy fats—did you realize you needed to eat more foods high in magnesium?
Why magnesium is an important nutrient in your diet.
The frequently overlooked mineral, magnesium, helps with muscle contraction and relaxation. Magnesium is one of the common electrolytes along with sodium, potassium, and calcium.
Magnesium is involved in over 300 reactions in the body including:
- Supporting the absorption and retention of other electrolytes
- Blood sugar regulation
- Cellular energy metabolism
- Muscle and nerve function
- Protein synthesis—which, in turn, increases lean muscle mass
- Immune system support
How much magnesium do you need per day?
The daily value of magnesium is 400 milligrams; however, this DV will change with the adoption of the new nutrition label on January 1, 2020. The updated magnesium DV will be 420 milligrams.
For this article, we are using the 420-milligram number to calculate percent DV.
Signs you’re not getting enough magnesium in your diet.
Sixty-eight percent of Americans don’t meet the recommended levels of dietary magnesium. Inadequate magnesium intake is linked to numerous negative health outcomes including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and type II diabetes.
Chances are, if your groceries come with a printed nutrition label—instead of coming from the ground—you’re lacking in this important nutrient. Ultra-processed foods that are commonplace in the typical American diet tend to be poor sources of magnesium, which reduces the amount available for your body to use.
Health symptoms associated with low magnesium intake and magnesium deficiency, also known as “hypomagnesemia”, include:
- Feeling moody, stressed, depressed, or anxious
- Irritability and agitation
- Migraine headaches
- Fatigue, lethargy, and low energy
- Loss of appetite
What are the best food sources of magnesium?
“The amount of magnesium in food is dependent largely on the amount of nutrients in the soil in which the food is grown,” says Isabel Smith, MS, RD, CDN, registered dietitian and founder of Isabel Smith Nutrition. “Typically, the greatest sources of magnesium include nuts and green leafy vegetables,” she adds.
There are few foods that are considered “excellent” sources of magnesium, meaning one serving contains more than 20% DV of the nutrient. The best food sources of magnesium are:
To round out your diet and ensure you’re getting enough of this essential nutrient, add more of these foods high in magnesium as well as the following good sources of magnesium into your meal plan now.
Nuts High in Magnesium
Almonds, cashews, and peanuts are healthy snacks that also happen to be foods with magnesium. They all contain between 10 and 20 percent of your daily value, making nuts a “good” source of magnesium.
Whole nuts aren’t the only way you can get magnesium. The nut butter form of theses nuts high in magnesium is an equivalent and convenient source of the electrolyte.
89 mg magnesium (21% DV) per 2 tablespoons almond butter
Almonds are snack time royalty, lavishly praised as one of the top healthy snacks — but are you eating them? They’re not only packed with vital nutrients like magnesium, but also contain a decent amount of healthy unsaturated fats. Due to its nutrient content, a small handful of almonds per day can help protect your heart, fight inflammation, support your immune system and could reduce your cancer risk. Not to mention, studies have also linked the consumption of nuts, like almonds, to weight loss. So get snackin’!
83 mg magnesium (20% DV) per 2 tablespoons cashew butter
These naturally sweet nuts boast a who’s who of vital minerals, including copper, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, iron, potassium, selenium and calcium—and that’s in addition to being one of the best foods high in magnesium. Necessary minerals like these help your body function at its optimal level. Like almonds, cashews are also a great source of healthy fats that will help you feel satisfied and lower your risk for heart disease. Just be sure to stick to a serving size (one ounce or about one small handful) — those healthy fats come with a high-calorie price tag.
54 mg magnesium (13% DV) per 2 tablespoons peanut butter
Good old peanuts are a worthy source of magnesium that are affordable and easy to find. Because not many of us snack on peanuts regularly, peanut butter might be your go-to preparation method to get in your magnesium dose. Spread a couple of tablespoons on a slice of whole-grain toast, add a spoonful to a smoothie, or blend a healthy portion with some soy sauce, Sriracha, rice wine vinegar, ginger, garlic, and a touch of sugar to use as a dressing on noodles or crisp lettuce.
Vegetables High in Magnesium
Most of the magnesium in vegetables comes from the soil in which they’re grown. Magnesium is a key element in chlorophyll (the pigment that gives plants their green color), which is why leafy greens are some of the best magnesium-rich foods.
To get the most magnesium for your buck, make sure to cook your greens. This increases the amount of magnesium you get per serving by up to 6 times. In addition to leafy greens, other vegetables high in magnesium include potatoes, broccoli, and carrots.
157 mg magnesium (37% DV) per 1 cup, boiled
Spinach has definitely earned some bragging rights when it comes to healthy foods. Aside from being a great source of magnesium, this leafy green boasts an impressive amount of vitamin K—more than most sources—a nutrient vital for blood clotting and bone health. Oh, and we mustn’t forget why Popeye loves this green so much—for the protein. On average, spinach contains about one gram of protein and only seven calories per cup raw and 5 grams of protein for 41 calories per boiled cup.
150 mg magnesium (36% DV) per 1 cup, boiled, chopped
Chard is the leafy green that’s as beautiful as its name is ugly; the big leaf with the vibrant red stem running through it packs plenty of magnesium, as well as antioxidants and other vitamins. These nutrients work together to promote healthy vision, boost immunity and even protect against cancer. It’s also a good source of fiber (like most greens), so it will help beef up your salad, not your waistline.
Other vegetables besides leafy greens with good levels of magnesium include:
Beans High in Magnesium
Beans aren’t a group of foods highest in magnesium, but a half-cup serving of many types of beans can be good sources of the nutrient.
50 mg magnesium (12% DV) per 1/2 cup, frozen, prepared
These soybean pods are a great anytime snack because they’re an excellent source of magnesium, folate, and potassium. These nutrients can help lower blood pressure and support heart health, reducing your risk for heart disease. This popular appetizer also boasts a whopping 9 grams of protein per half-cup. Spring for fresh edamame in the summer months because it’s in season, and frozen edamame is sure to do the trick year-round.
Other beans and bean products that contain magnesium include:
Seeds, Cereals, and Grains High in Magnesium
When looking to consume grains and cereals as food sources of magnesium, it’s best to opt for less-processed versions. Refining grains removes the nutrient-rich germ and bran, which lowers the magnesium content substantially. However, some refined grains (like processed breakfast cereals) may be fortified with magnesium, so be sure to check the nutrition label.
- Pumpkin Seeds: 156 mg magnesium (37% DV) per 1 ounce, roasted
Pumpkin seeds are by far one of the best food sources of magnesium. Add these on top of salads, throw into trail mixes, top your yogurt, toss into homemade granola, or add to smoothies.
- Amaranth: 80 mg magnesium (19% DV) per 1/2 cup, cooked
- Shredded Wheat Cereal: 65 mg magnesium (15% DV) per 1 cup
- Oatmeal: 63 mg magnesium (15% DV) per 1 cup
- Quinoa: 59 mg magnesium (14% DV) per 1/2 cup, cooked
- Flaxseed: 55 mg magnesium (13% DV) per 2 tbsp, ground
- Whole Wheat Bread: 48 mg magnesium (11% DV) per 2 slices
- Brown Rice: 43 mg magnesium (10% DV) per 1/2 cup, cooked
Fruits High in Magnesium
Like with vegetables, fruits get their magnesium from the soil in which they’re grown. If you’re looking to increase your magnesium intake, fruits can help you get there but don’t rely on them as your main source of the mineral.
- Banana: 32 mg magnesium (8% DV) per 1 medium banana
- Avocado: 29 mg magnesium (7% DV) per 1/2 avocado
Fish, Meat & Dairy Products High in Magnesium
Animal products—beef, chicken, and fish—are all low sources of magnesium. Low magnesium concentrations are found in some dairy products. The following are the best sources of animal-based magnesium.
- Atlantic Mackerel: 82 mg magnesium (20% DV) per 3 ounces, cooked
Mackerel is the only item in this section that is considered to be an excellent source of magnesium, containing 20% of your daily value. This white fish is best cooked in parchment paper with butter, lemon, white wine, and a medley of veggies.
- Chicken Breast: 35 mg magnesium (8% DV) per 1 cup
- 2% Milk: 27 mg magnesium (6% DV) per 1 cup
- Farmed Atlantic Salmon: 26 mg magnesium (6% DV) per 3 ounces, cooked
- Halibut: 24 mg magnesium (6% DV) per 3 ounces, cooked
- Low-fat Greek Yogurt: 22 mg magnesium (5% DV) per 7 ounces
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Top 10 Foods Highest in Magnesium
Data Sources and References
- U.S. Agricultural Research Service Food Data Central
- Office Of Dietary Supplements Fact Sheet on Magnesium
- Appel LJ. Nonpharmacologic therapies that reduce blood pressure: A fresh perspective. Clin Cardiol 1999;22:1111-5.
- Simopoulos AP. The nutritional aspects of hypertension. Compr Ther 1999;25:95-100.
- Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Sacks FM, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, Lin PH, Karanja N. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1117-24.
- Saris NE, Mervaala E, Karppanen H, Khawaja JA, Lewenstam A. Magnesium: an update on physiological, clinical, and analytical aspects. Clinica Chimica Acta 2000;294:1-26.
- Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 1999.
- Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Gambardella A, Pizza G, Tesauro P, Varricchio H, D’Onofrio F. Daily magnesium supplements improve glucose handling in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:1161-7.
- Altura BM and Altura BT. Magnesium and cardiovascular biology: Cell Mol Biol Res 1995;41:347-59.
- Ford ES. Serum magnesium and ischaemic heart disease: Findings from a national sample of US adults. Intl J of Epidem 1999;28:645-51.
- Liao F, Folsom A, Brancati F. Is low magnesium concentration a risk factor for coronary heart disease? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J 1998;136:480-90.
- Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, Giovannucci EL, Kawachi I, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 1998;98:1198-204.
- Elisaf M, Milionis H, Siamopoulos K.Hypomagnesemic hypokalemia and hypocalcemia: Clinical and laboratory characteristics. Mineral Electrolyte Metab 1997;23:105-12.
- Mauskop A, Altura BM. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraines. Clin Neurosci. 1998;5(1):24-27.
- Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16(4):257-263.
- Pfaffenrath V, Wessely P, Meyer C, et al. Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine–a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16(6):436-440.
- Wang F, Van Den Eeden SK, Ackerson LM, Salk SE, Reince RH, Elin RJ. Oral magnesium oxide prophylaxis of frequent migrainous headache in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 2003;43(6):601-610.
- Bendich A. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(1):3-12.
- Rude RK. Magnesium deficiency: A cause of heterogeneous disease in humans. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:749-58.
- Rude KR. Magnesium metabolism and deficiency. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1993;22:377-95.
- Kelepouris E and Agus ZS. Hypomagnesemia: Renal magnesium handling. Semin Nephrol 1998;18:58-73.
- Ramsay LE, Yeo WW, Jackson PR. Metabolic effects of diuretics. Cardiology 1994;84 Suppl 2:48-56.
- R. A. McCance, E. M. Widdowson, and H. Lehmann. The effect of protein intake on the absorption of calcium and magnesium. Biochem J. 1942 September; 36(7-9): 686-691.
- FDA Drug Safety Communication: Low magnesium levels can be associated with long-term use of Proton Pump Inhibitor drugs (PPIs)
- Lajer H and Daugaard G. Cisplatin and hypomagnesemia. Ca Treat Rev 1999;25:47-58.
- Spencer H, Norris C, Williams D.Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Oct;13(5):479-84.
- Charles Coudray, Christian Demigne, and Yves Rayssiguier. Effects of Dietary Fibers on Magnesium Absorption in Animals and Humans. J. Nutr. January 1, 2003 vol. 133 no. 1 1-4.
- Torsten Bohn, Lena Davidsson, Thomas Walczyk and Richard F. Hurrel Fractional magnesium absorption is significantly lower in human subjects from a meal served with an oxalate-rich vegetable, spinach, as compared with a meal served with kale, a vegetable with a low oxalate content. Laboratory for Human Nutrition, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland (Received 27 May 2003 – Revised 7 November 2003 – Accepted 28 November 2003
Magnesium is an extremely important mineral. It’s involved in hundreds of chemical reactions in your body and helps you maintain good health.
Unfortunately, many people don’t reach the recommended daily intake of 400 mg (1).
However, eating foods high in magnesium can help you meet the daily requirement.
Dark chocolate is as healthy as it is delicious. It’s very rich in magnesium.
Magnesium-rich foods include dark chocolate, avocados, nuts, legumes, tofu, seeds, whole grains, fatty fish, bananas and leafy greens.
Here are 10 healthy foods that are high in magnesium:
1. Dark Chocolate
Dark chocolate is as healthy as it is delicious.
Dark chocolate is also in high in iron, copper and manganese and it contains prebiotic fiber that feeds the friendly bacteria in your gut (3).
It’s also loaded with beneficial antioxidants. These are nutrients that neutralize free radicals, harmful molecules that can damage your cells and lead to disease (4).
It’s especially beneficial for heart health because it protects the cells lining your arteries and keeps your LDL cholesterol from becoming damaged (5, 6).
To make the most of these benefits, choose chocolate that contains at least 70 percent cocoa solids. A higher percentage is even better.
Bottom Line: A serving of dark chocolate provides 16 percent of the RDI for magnesium. It is also beneficial for gut health and heart health and is loaded with antioxidants.
The avocado is an incredibly nutritious fruit and a tasty source of magnesium. One medium avocado provides 58 mg of magnesium, which is 15 percent of the RDI (7).
Avocados are also high in potassium, B-vitamins and vitamin K. And unlike most fruits, they’re high in fat—especially heart-healthy monounsaturated fat.
In addition, avocado is an excellent source of fiber. In fact, 13 of the 17 grams of carbs in an avocado come from fiber, making it very low in digestible carbs.
Studies have shown that consuming avocados can reduce inflammation, improve cholesterol levels and increase feelings of fullness after meals (8, 9, 10).
Bottom Line: A medium avocado provides 15 percent of the RDI for magnesium. Avocados fight inflammation, improve cholesterol levels, increase fullness and are packed with several other nutrients.
Nuts are nutritious, tasty and versatile.
Several types are high in magnesium, including almonds, cashews and Brazil nuts.
For instance, a 1-oz (28-gram) serving of cashews contains 82 mg of magnesium or 20 percent of the RDI (11).
Most nuts are also a good source of fiber and monounsaturated fat and have been shown to improve blood sugar and cholesterol levels in diabetics (12).
Brazil nuts are also extremely high in selenium. In fact, just two Brazil nuts provide more than 100 percent of the RDI for selenium (13).
Additionally, nuts are anti-inflammatory foods, are beneficial for heart health and can reduce appetite when eaten as snacks (14, 15, 16).
Bottom Line: Cashews, almonds and Brazil nuts are high in magnesium. A single serving of cashews provides 20 percent of the recommended daily intake.
Legumes are a family of nutrient-dense plants that include lentils, beans, chickpeas, peas and soybeans.
They’re very rich in many different nutrients, including magnesium.
For instance, a 1-cup serving of cooked black beans contains an impressive 120 mg of magnesium, which is 30 percent of the RDI (17).
Legumes are also high in potassium and iron and they’re a major source of protein for vegetarians (18).
Because legumes are rich in fiber and have a low glycemic index, they may lower cholesterol, improve blood sugar control and decrease heart disease risk (19, 20).
A fermented soybean product known as natto is considered the best source of vitamin K2, which is important for bone health (21).
Bottom Line: Legumes are magnesium-rich foods. For example, a 1-cup serving of black beans contains 30 percent of the RDI.
Tofu is often a staple food in vegetarian diets due to its high protein content. It’s made by pressing soybean milk into soft white curds and is also known as “bean curd.”
A 3.5-oz (100-gram) serving has 53 mg of magnesium, which is 13 percent of the RDI (22).
One serving also provides 10 grams of protein and 10 percent or more of the RDI for calcium, iron, manganese and selenium.
Additionally, some studies suggest that eating tofu may protect the cells lining your arteries and reduce your risk of stomach cancer (23, 24).
Bottom Line: A serving of tofu provides 13 percent of the RDI for magnesium. It is also a good source of protein and several other nutrients.
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Seeds are incredibly healthy.
Many contain high amounts of magnesium, including flax, pumpkin and chia seeds.
Pumpkin seeds are a particularly good source, with 150 mg in a 1-oz (28-gram) serving (25).
This amounts to a whopping 37 percent of the recommended daily intake.
In addition, seeds are rich in iron, monounsaturated fat and omega-3 fatty acids.
What’s more, they’re extremely high in fiber. In fact, nearly all of the carbs in seeds come from fiber.
They also contain antioxidants, which protect your cells from harmful free radicals produced during metabolism (26, 27).
Flaxseeds have also been shown to reduce cholesterol and may have benefits against breast cancer (28, 29).
Bottom Line: Most seeds are rich in magnesium. A 1-ounce serving of pumpkin seeds contains a whopping 37 percent of the RDI.
7. Whole Grains
Grains include wheat, oats and barley, plus pseudocereals like buckwheat and quinoa.
When grains are whole, they are excellent sources of many nutrients, including magnesium.
A 1-oz serving of dry buckwheat contains 65 mg of magnesium, which is 16 percent of the RDI (30).
Many whole grains are also high in B vitamins, selenium, manganese and fiber.
In controlled studies, whole grains have been shown to reduce inflammation and decrease the risk of heart disease (31, 32).
Pseudocereals like buckwheat and quinoa are higher in protein and antioxidants than traditional grains like corn and wheat (33, 34).
What’s more, they do not contain gluten, so people who have celiac disease or gluten sensitivity can enjoy them too.
Bottom Line: Whole grains are high in many nutrients. A 1-oz serving of dry buckwheat provides 16 percent of the RDI for magnesium.
8. Some Fatty Fish
Fish, especially fatty fish, is incredibly nutritious.
Many types of fish are high in magnesium. These include salmon, mackerel and halibut.
Half a fillet (178 grams) of salmon contains 53 mg of magnesium, which is 13 percent of the RDI (35).
It also provides an impressive 39 grams of high-quality protein.
Fish is also rich in potassium, selenium, B-vitamins and various other nutrients.
A high intake of fatty fish has been linked to a decreased risk of several chronic diseases, particularly heart disease (36, 37, 38, 39).
These benefits have been attributed to the high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids.
Bottom Line: Fatty fish is exceptionally nutritious and a great source of magnesium and other nutrients. Half a fillet of salmon provides 13 percent of the recommended daily intake of magnesium.
Bananas are among the most popular fruits in the world.
They are best known for their high potassium content, which can lower blood pressure and is linked to a reduced risk of heart disease (40).
But you may not have heard that bananas are also very high in magnesium. One large banana contains 37 mg or 9 percent of the RDI (41).
Bananas also provide vitamin C, vitamin B6, manganese and fiber.
Ripe bananas are higher in sugar and carbs than most other fruits, so they may not be suitable for people with diabetes.
However, when bananas are unripe, a large portion of their carbs are resistant starch, which doesn’t get digested and absorbed.
Instead of raising blood sugar levels, resistant starch may actually lower them and may also reduce inflammation and improve gut health (42, 43).
Bottom Line: Bananas are a good source of several nutrients. One large banana has 9 percent of the recommended daily intake of magnesium.
10. Leafy Greens
Leafy greens are extremely healthy and many are rich in magnesium.
Greens with significant amounts of magnesium include kale, spinach, collard greens, turnip greens and mustard greens.
For instance, a 1-cup serving of cooked spinach has 157 mg of magnesium or 39 percent of the RDI (44).
In addition, they’re an excellent source of several nutrients, including vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, iron and manganese.
Leafy greens also contain all sorts of beneficial plant compounds, which help protect your cells from damage and may reduce cancer risk (45, 46, 47).
Bottom Line: Leafy greens are a very good source of many nutrients, including magnesium. A 1-cup serving of cooked spinach provides 39 percent of the RDI, which is very high.
Take Home Message
Magnesium is an important mineral that you may not be getting enough of.
Thankfully, there are lots of delicious foods you can add to your diet that will give you all the magnesium you need.
If you regularly eat foods that are high in magnesium, you’ll improve your health and reduce your risk of disease.
This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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Amount of Magnesium in Dark chocolate
Welcome to the nutritional magnesium content in 4 different types of dark chocolate, ranging from 228 mg to 146 mg per 100g. The basic type of dark chocolate is Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids, where the amount of magnesium in 100g is 176 mg.
176 mg of magnesium per 100g, from Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids corresponds to 44% of the magnesium RDA. For a typical serving size of 1 oz (or 28.35 g) the amount of Magnesium is 49.9 mg. This corresponds to an RDA percentage of 12%.
The percentage of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for magnesium is based on a 400 mg RDA level for a mature adult.
Top three dark chocolate products high in magnesium
Below is a summary list for the top three dark chocolate items ranked by the amount or level of magnesium in 100g.
Following on from the three top dark chocolate items or products containing magnesium we have a more comprehensive break down of Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids, and the highest item containing magnesium which is Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids. We also give a comparison of average values, median values and lowest values along with a comparison with other food groups and assess the effects of storage and preparation on the 4 types of dark chocolate.
At the bottom of the page is the full list for the 4 different types of dark chocolate based on the content in different servings in grams and oz (and other serving sizes), providing a comprehensive analysis of the magnesium content in dark chocolate.
Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids – Nutritional Content and Chart
The full nutrition content, RDA percentages and levels for Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids should be considered along with the magnesium content. This food profile is part of our list of food and drinks under the general group Sweets.Other important and magnesium related nutrients are Calories, Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate. For this 100g serving in your diet, the amount of Calories is 579 kcal (29% RDA), the amount of Protein is 6.12 g (11% RDA), the amount of Fat is 38.31 g (59% RDA) and the amount of Carbohydrate is 52.42 g (40% RDA). The nutritional content and facts for 100g, which includes Calories, Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate is shown in the RDA chart below as percentages of the recommended daily allowance along with the magnesium levels in dark chocolate.
Our proprietary nutritional density score gives a nutritional value out of 100 based on 9 different vitamins, minerals and macro nutrients. Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids has a nutritional value score of 14 out of 100.Comparing the magnesium content and the nutritional density in 100g for Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids; We class this as a high magnesium content item.In terms of overall nutritional value we class this as an item with a medium nutritional density value.
Comparing magnesium in dark chocolate vs spinach
The amount of magnesium in spinach is 79 mg per 100g.As magnesium percentage of the RDA this is 20 %. Comparing with Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids, in 100g contains 176 mg of magnesium. As a percentage of the RDA this is 44 %. Therefore, Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids has 97 mg more magnesium than spinach. In terms of magnesium percentage this is 123 % more magnesium. Spinach has an overall nutritional value score of 68 out of 100, whereas Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids has a nutritional value score of 14 out of 100.
The highest content of magnesium in the food items under the general description or type of dark chocolate, is Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids with 228 mg of magnesium per 100g. Comparing spinach with Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids; Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids has 149 mg more magnesium than spinach. In terms of magnesium percentage this is 189 % more magnesium.
Amount of magnesium per 100 Calories
100 calories of chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids is a serving size of 0.17 g, and the amount of Magnesium is 30.4 mg (7.6% RDA). Other important and related nutrients and macronutrients such as Fat, in 100 Calories are as follows; Protein 1.06 g (1.9% RDA), Fat 6.62 g (10.19% RDA), Carbohydrate 9.05 g (6.91% RDA). This is shown in the magnesium RDA percentage chart below, based on 100 Calories, along with the other important nutrients and macro nutrients.
Content per Typical Serving Size 1 oz (or 28.35 g)
For the food Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids the typical serving size is 1 oz (or 28.35 g) which contains 49.9 mg of Magnesium. The magnesium percentage of the recommended daily value for this serving is 12 %.
To give 100% of the RDA, 8.3 servings of the typical serving size 1 oz (or 28.35 g) give the complete RDA. In terms of the gram weight and total content for this serving the Calories content is 164.15 kcal, the Protein content is 1.74 g, the Fat content is 10.86 g and the Carbohydrate content is 14.86 g. The percentages are shown below in the magnesium chart, for the typical serving of magnesium and the related and important nutritional values.
Macronutrients in Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids
The amount of protein, fat and carbs from this food described above is measured in grams per 100g and grams in a typical serving size (in this case 1 oz or 28.35 g), although it is also useful to give the number of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate which are the most important macronutrients. For this serving in your diet here are the macronutrient calories. From protein the number of calories is 7.0 (kcal).The number of calories from Fat is 97.7 (kcal).The total calories from carbohydrate is 59.4 (kcal).
Milligrams of magnesium in dark chocolate (per 100g)
This list of 4 types of dark chocolate, is brought to you by www.dietandfitnesstoday.com and ranges from Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids through to Chocolate, dark, 45- 59% cacao solids where all food items are ranked by the content or amount per 100g. The nutritional magnesium content can be scaled by the amount in grams, oz or typical serving sizes. Simply click on a food item or beverage from the list at the bottom of the page to give a full dietary nutritional breakdown to answer the question how much magnesium in dark chocolate.
The list below gives the total magnesium content in the 4 items from the general description ‘dark chocolate’ each of which show the magnesium amount as well as Calories, Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate. Below, is the top 4 food items shown in the magnesium chart. This gives a quick and easy dietary comparison for the different items, where each item is listed at the bottom of the page with a nutritional summary.
The corresponding nutritional value for dark chocolate based on our density score out of 100 (ranked by the amount of magnesium per 100g) is shown in the below nutritional density chart.
The corresponding Calories for dark chocolate ranked by the amount of magnesium per 100g is shown below in the dark chocolate calories chart.
Average Content for dark chocolate
The average (or more correctly the arithmetic mean) amount of magnesium contained in 100g of dark chocolate, based on the list below of 4 different items under the general description of dark chocolate, is 175.50 mg of magnesium. This average value corresponds to 43.88 % of the recommended dietary allowance (or RDA) in your diet. The averages for the different nutrients are as follows; the average amount of Calories is 568.25 kcal, the average amount of Protein is 5.97 g, the average amount of Fat is 36.11 g and the average amount of Carbohydrate is g.
The median value of Magnesium is found in Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids which in 100g contains 176 mg of Magnesium. This corresponds to 44 % of the recommended daily allowance. For this serving the amount of Calories is 579 kcal, the amount of Protein is 6.12 g, the amount of Fat is 38.31 g and the amount of Carbohydrate is 52.42 g.
Highest magnesium Content per 100g
Using the list below for the 4 different dark chocolate nutrition entries in our database, the highest amount of magnesium is found in Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids which contains 228 mg of magnesium per 100g. The associated percentage of RDA is 57 %. For this 100g serving the Calories content is 598 kcal, the Protein content is 7.79 g, the Fat content is 42.63 g, the Carbohydrate content is 45.9 g.
The lowest amount of magnesium in 100g is in Chocolate, dark, 45- 59% cacao solids which contains 146 mg. This gives as percentage of the recommended daily allowance 37 % of the RDA. For this 100g serving the amount of Calories is 546 kcal, the amount of Protein is 4.88 g, the amount of Fat is 31.28 g, the amount of Carbohydrate is 61.17 g.
The difference between the highest and lowest values gives a magnesium range of 82 mg per 100g. The range for the other nutrients are as follows; 52 kcal for Calories, 2.91 g for Protein, 11.35 g for Fat, 0 g for Carbohydrate.
Highest Amount of magnesium per Serving
Please remember that the above gives an accurate value in 100g for high magnesium foods in your diet. For example 100g of Chocolate, dark, 60-69% cacao solids contains 176 mg of magnesium. However, there are other factors to consider when you are assessing your nutritional requirements. You should also take into account portion sizes when you are considering the magnesium nutritional content.
The food with the highest magnesium content per typical serving is Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids which contains 64.64 mg in 1 oz (or 28.35 g). The percentage of the recommended daily value for this serving is 16 %. For this serving the Calories content is 169.53 kcal, the Protein content is 2.21 g, the Fat content is 12.09 g and the Carbohydrate content is 13.01 g.
Nutritional Information Summary
From the list below you can find a full nutrition facts breakdown for all foods containing magnesium which can be scaled for different servings and quantities. We have also sorted our complete nutritional information and vitamin database of over 7000 foods, to give a list of foods high in magnesium.
8 Foods High in Magnesium
Time to make some dietary changes to boost energy and build a healthy immune system? While magnesium is considered a minor nutrient, magnesium superfoods play a significant role in your overall health and are essential to every function and tissue in the body.
In general, to provide magnesium foods to your body, look for those packed with dietary fiber, including:
- Black beans
- Bran cereal
- Brown rice
- Cereal (shredded wheat)
- Kidney beans
- Peanut butter
- Potato with skin
- Whole grain bread
Not only do magnesium foods support a healthy immune system and improve bone health, they may help prevent the inflammation associated with certain cancers, according to a study published in June 2017 in the European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. Magnesium-rich foods have been found to increase heart health, help prevent stroke, and could even cut your risk of dying from a heart attack. Additionally, magnesium foods help to support normal nerve and muscle function and keep your heartbeat in sync.
A study published in October 2017 in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research found that a nutritionally balanced vegan diet filled with fresh fruits and vegetables lowered triglycerides, insulin, and cholesterol in study participants when compared with a healthy, controlled omnivorous diet (both plant and animal foods). A plant-based diet includes magnesium-rich fruits, vegetables, beans and peas, grains, soy, seeds, and nuts. A vegetarian diet is plant-based, but a vegan diet excludes all meat, dairy, and animal products.
Some findings from Harvard University reveal that a high daily magnesium intake reduces the risk of diabetes by up to 33 percent; still other studies conclude that magnesium rich foods help ward off depression and migraines.
Magnesium supplements are available over-the-counter at most supermarkets and pharmacies, but experts say it is preferable to eat whole foods containing magnesium naturally to prevent a magnesium deficiency. While about 30 to 40 percent of the dietary magnesium consumed is usually absorbed by your body, low intakes or extreme losses of magnesium because of health conditions, alcoholism, or some medication use may lead to a magnesium deficiency.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), an American adult should get 380 milligrams (mg) of magnesium daily. Check out the following foods high in the macromineral magnesium, including dark leafy greens, nuts and seeds, fish, soybeans, avocados, bananas, dark chocolate, and fat-free or low-fat yogurt.
The Best Magnesium-Rich Foods For Optimal Health
Dark Chocolate – 327 mg
You crave dark chocolate because it’s the ultimate happiness food. Its cocoa fat and sugar increase serotonin, your “good mood” neurotransmitter; chocolate’s phenylethylamine is a natural “love drug” that releases endorphins similar to when you’re in love, and its caffeine offers a stimulating boost. The cocoa is also good for you: it is super high in magnesium: 80 grams (one-quarter bar) provides 25% of daily magnesium needs. It’s also well known for its polyphenol antioxidants that lower LDL cholesterol and boost heart health.
Halibut – 170 mg
Halibut is a low-fat fish, so it doesn’t have as much of the heart-healthy omega 3 fatty acids as high-fat fish like salmon. However, it is an excellent source of lean, quality protein, and it’s chock-full of vitamins and minerals. A 3-ounce filet has 170 mg of magnesium– over half of your daily needs! It is also a source of calcium, iron, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, vitamin D, and vitamin A.
Cooked Spinach – 157 mg
Spinach is packed with magnesium, especially when it’s cooked! It provides 157 mg in one cup, which is almost half of what you need in a day. This green superfood is also known for its high iron content. Remember to eat it with food that contains vitamin C to increase absorption of iron, and therefore gain more benefits. Also add healthy oil like extra virgin olive oil to the meal to increase absorption of spinach’s high amounts of vitamins A, E, and K.
Pumpkin and Squash Seeds – 151 mg
Pumpkin seeds are a nutritious snack that helps you sleep! Pumpkin seeds are exceptionally high in magnesium: 2 tablespoons contain 74 mg, 25% of your recommended daily intake (RDI). They also offer 8 grams of protein and 8% of your daily iron needs. And because pumpkin seeds have high levels of the amino acid called tryptophan (that is more easily absorbed than in turkey), eating a handful at night will calm you. They will also increase melatonin levels– a hormone which helps induce sleep.
Black Beans – 120 mg
Like other legumes, black beans are a favorite vegetarian staple because of their high protein and fiber content, and low fat and cholesterol. They’re a rich source of magnesium: 1/2 cup = 60 mg. Black beans help strengthen bones because their magnesium is also combined with high calcium and phosphorus. They help manage diabetes because their fiber has been shown to improve blood sugar levels; and their antioxidants quercetin and saponins are said to be heart-healing. Try cooking them yourself by soaking overnight and then boiling. This reduces salt and increases flavor compared to canned beans.
Fish: Mackerel, Pollock and Tuna – 97 mg
In addition to being mega-sources of omega 3 fats and vitamin D, fatty fish like mackerel add more magnesium to your menu. They offer up to 1 mg of magnesium for every gram of fish. Therefore, a 3-ounce serving (85 grams) provides 85 mg of magnesium, about ¼ of daily requirements. According to the USDA, mackerel are among the top fish for omega 3; and like tuna, mackerel is also an important source of vitamin B12, the hard-to-get B vitamin often associated with red meat. Don’t disregard canned mackerel— it offers the same amounts of minerals and vitamins as fresh fish.
Okra – 94 mg
Have you tried okra? This sometimes overlooked veggie is said to aid your heart and eyesight, and reduce diabetes. It also boasts a long list of vitamins including A, C, K, and most B vitamins. Plus, minerals like calcium, potassium, manganese, and copper. And what about magnesium? One serving (1 cup, lightly steamed) has 94 mg of magnesium, almost 1/3 of your day’s needs. Add it as a side dish for a healthy boost of protein and fiber, too. Toss the pods in oil and seasonings and grill them until slightly charred, or coat with seasoned flour and fry them.
Beans and Lentils – 68 mg
Legumes (beans, peas, and lentils) are excellent sources of magnesium, fiber, and folate. Top picks for magnesium (per ¾ cup) are soybeans, (111 mg), navy beans (72 mg) and pinto beans (64 mg). Don’t forget lentils; they deliver the most folate (which is used to make red blood cells) and are a great source of iron. Eating legumes four times a week helps lower high blood pressure and risks of breast cancer, weight gain, heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Almonds – 80 mg
A small handful of almonds (1 ounce) contains 20% of your daily requirements for magnesium. If you’re avoiding nuts because you are watching your weight, almonds are among the lowest-calorie nuts (160 calories/ounce), and 10% of an almond’s calories are not absorbed by the body because the fat is too difficult to break down. There’s a lot of calcium in almonds too– in fact, almonds have more calcium than any other nut. Plus, almonds provide lots of protein and heart-healthy monounsaturated fats. They also score high in vitamin E and manganese (that same handful of almonds offers over 1/3 of daily requirements for each).
Dark Leafy Greens: Spinach, Chard and Kale – 79 mg
We all know that dark leafy greens are a superfood, and one of the reasons is their magnesium content. Because of their high magnesium and low glycemic index, leafy vegetables are especially good for type 2 diabetics. Eating one serving per day is associated with a 9% lower risk of diabetes. Their high vitamin K is important to make osteocalcin, a protein essential for bone health; in studies, the risk of hip fracture in middle-aged women was decreased 45% when greens were eaten daily.
Dried Fruit: Prunes, Apricots and Dates – 68 mg
Nature’s candy? Since dehydrated fruit has its water removed, the concentrated version is extremely energy-dense and has increased nutrients compared to fresh fruit. Although some nutrients like vitamin C are lost during drying, magnesium remains high: for example, dates have 32 mg of magnesium per ½ cup. Meanwhile, dates are impressive, with more antioxidants than most fruits, and lots of iron and potassium. Even though they’re sweet, they’re low glycemic (due to high fiber) so they don’t spike blood sugar. They’re also high in phytoestrogen and are said to help pregnant women dilate during labor. Dried apricots are healthy too, offering 47% of vitamin A needs, while prunes have 13% of iron required per day (per ½ cup). Prunes have also been shown to benefit bone health, too. For more, check out our post on Prunes and Osteoporosis.
Note: Watch for added sugar and sulfur dioxide preservative.
Plantain – 66 mg
Add this treat to your cart when you see it in the supermarket. Plantains are delicious sliced and pan-fried (only eaten cooked). They’re a staple food for millions of people in tropical countries due to their super dense source of starchy energy. In addition to magnesium (half a plantain offers 1/5 daily magnesium requirements), plantains also have iron and more potassium than bananas. Plantains also have more vitamin A than bananas (accounting for 37.5% of daily requirements/100 g). And they’re rich in B vitamins, particularly B6, which not only reduces stress symptoms but heart attack and stroke risks.
Nuts, Peanuts – 64 mg
Although peanuts have gotten a bad reputation due to their allergenic tendencies, roasted peanuts rival the antioxidant content of blackberries and pomegranate. What’s more, they are richer in antioxidants than carrots and beets! One of those antioxidants is resveratrol, the famous phenol found in red wine. These tasty legumes (yes, they’re considered a legume!) also have lots of magnesium (64 mg/100 gram serving) and are an excellent source of B vitamins, copper, and heart-healthy monounsaturated fats.
Avocado – 58 mg
This rich, creamy fruit is hard not to love! Add a sliced avocado to your salad or sandwich, and you’ll consume 15% of the magnesium you need in your day. Avocados are famous for their healthy monounsaturated fats, including oleic acid that protects against inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. This super smooth treat is also very high in fiber, which accounts for 79% of the carbs in avocados; half an avocado has 4.5 grams of fiber, which can regulate appetite, feed friendly gut bacteria, and reduce diabetes risk. Avocados are also rich in vitamins B, C, E, and K.
Cooked Whole Grain Cereal – 56 mg
We all know that whole grain cereals are far better than processed ones, not only for their nutritious fiber and protein-rich germ but for their higher mineral content– including magnesium. Eat whole grains in their least-refined form in hot cereal. For example, a typical 7-grain hot cereal offers a wholesome, satisfying blend of milled grains like red wheat, rye, oats, triticale, barley, and flaxseed. Just a 1/4 cup of this cereal offers 25 mg of magnesium, 6 grams of protein, plus over 20% of your day’s fiber and iron needs.
Scallops – 55 mg
Scallops are a favorite shellfish for good reason— these delicious delicacies are more than 80% protein. A 3-ounce serving provides 20 grams of protein, but just 95 calories. They’re also a good source of magnesium (50 mg/3-ounce serving) and potassium. Scallops offer a generous amount of selenium, an antioxidant mineral that activates enzymes linked to cancer prevention and thyroid function; 3 ounces has 18.5 mcg of selenium, 34% of your daily requirements. Scallops are also packed with vitamin B12. NOTE: Scallops contain a lot of natural salt: 1,134 mg per 6-ounce serving, about half of your daily maximum intake.
Rockfish – 51 mg
Also called Pacific red snapper and black bass, rockfish is a meaty white fish that’s quite rich in omega 3 fats (3 ounces has 1.5 grams fat), which adds to its taste. All types of rockfish are good sources of magnesium (45 mg per 3-ounce serving), and thyroid-boosting selenium; a 3-ounce serving contains 65 mcg of selenium, a full day’s requirements. Rockfish is also high in vitamin D. Lack of vitamin D leads to weak bones because your body can’t absorb and use calcium without it— so even in sunny months eating vitamin D-rich foods is important. You get 156 IU of vitamin D from a 3-ounce serving of rockfish.
Figs – 50 mg
Figs are just as well-liked eaten fresh as dried, yet dried figs offer unusual texture and sweet flavor, unlike any other fruit. Similar to the other dried fruits mentioned earlier, dehydrated figs are super-high in fiber, and are a good source of several minerals including magnesium. Four or five Mission figs, which equal one serving, offer 20 mg of magnesium. (Just two of the larger Calimyrna figs make one serving.) Figs also contain manganese, calcium, copper, potassium, and vitamins K and B6
Oysters 49 mg
We’re not sure why oysters have been used as aphrodisiacs for centuries. Maybe it’s because these mollusks are so rich in several vitamins and minerals that they boost energy for lovemaking. Oysters boast high amounts of protein, iron, magnesium (80 mg/6-ounce serving), omega 3 fats, calcium, zinc and vitamin C. A 6-ounce portion of oysters contains significantly more zinc and selenium than you need in an entire day. (Because of their extremely high zinc content, consume oysters in moderation to prevent an overdose.) Selenium and zinc are important for healthy cell function, and they boost your immunity. Plus, the vitamin B12 in oysters supports nerve function, energy, and might help combat cancer. And there’s a lot of it– one serving provides 10 times your daily requirement of vitamin B12.
Soy Milk – 47 mg
Soy milk, as a lactose-free, saturated fat-free alternative to cow’s milk, is rich in protein. It is usually fortified with some of the same nutrients found in cow’s milk like calcium carbonate (traditional, rock-based calcium), vitamins A and D and riboflavin. It doesn’t need to be artificially fortified with magnesium, however, since it is naturally high in the mineral (noted earlier in “Legumes”). Soy milk, simply made by combining water and ground soybeans, is also a source of alpha-linolenic acid, a healthy omega 3 fat. This milk alternative has lost much of its popularity partly due to its estrogen content, which may or may not be linked to female cancers and reduced male fertility. And also, due to changing food trends, with nut milks topping sales today.
Whole Grains: Brown Rice, Quinoa and Bulgur – 44 mg
The popular Central American grain called quinoa (actually a fruit, not a grain) is an excellent source of magnesium, with 118 mg per cup, cooked. Once just a vegetarian’s staple, quinoa salads, and burgers are now found on menus in mainstream restaurants. A cup of cooked quinoa is fairly high in calories (220), but offers 8 grams of complete protein, with all nine essential amino acids, rare for non-animal protein. It also has 3.5 grams of healthy fat and 5 grams of fiber. Quinoa is slightly higher in fat than brown rice but edges out brown rice in protein, fiber, and iron (one cup = 2.8 mg of iron, or 15% of RDI, compared to brown rice at 5%). However, brown rice also has a wealth of fiber and magnesium.
Tofu – 37 mg
Tofu is the most versatile and well-known source of vegan protein. It’s also a great way to get minerals including calcium, iron, manganese, selenium, copper, phosphorus, and yes, magnesium. Tofu takes on the flavor of whatever you cook it in. Add some to a creamy chocolate smoothie; marinade and toss into Thai curry; or pan fry with a crunchy coating as faux chicken strips. Other good reasons to eat it: The latest research shows that consuming tofu daily is associated with improved survival rates and lower recurrence of breast cancer. Its antioxidants also prevent stomach cancer, according to long-term Chinese studies. Fermented types of tofu provide double the free radical-scavenging activity of unfermented tofu– to better ward off disease.
Bananas – 27 mg
This portable pick-me-up is good for your desk, gym bag or car because it works hard to increase your energy levels and ward off hunger. This is due to its quick-acting carb effect. Bananas are great sources of minerals including potassium and magnesium; in fact, they’re one of the richest sources of potassium on the planet. Potassium acts as an electrolyte and promotes circulation, helping oxygen reach cells. Bananas contain tryptophan, which boosts your mood by helping to make your “happiness chemical” serotonin. One banana gives you: 8% of magnesium needed in a day; 12% potassium; 25% of vitamin B6; 16% of manganese; 14% of vitamin C; and 12% of fiber. Bananas are high in sugar and carbs, though.
Whole Wheat Bread and Whole Grain Cereal – 24 mg
It’s been a staple in the Western world for centuries. And for good reason too. In addition to its high iron and protein, one slice of whole wheat bread provides 2 grams of fiber, almost 10% of daily needs. High fiber may reduce heart disease risk, encourage proper bowel function, and help with weight management. Whole wheat bread is also a good source of magnesium (24 mg per slice) and selenium. However, make sure that the ingredients list on bread, crackers or cereal says “whole,” not just “wheat flour,” or “enriched flour” or you won’t be getting whole grain. Processed grains are low in magnesium because the magnesium-rich germ is removed. However, there are some people who should avoid wheat, particularly those who are gluten intolerant or sensitive. Gluten is a family of proteins found in grains like wheat and can affect your health and bones. For more, read “How Osteoporosis and Gluten Sensitivity are Linked.”
Raw Broccoli – 22 mg
Broccoli has been called one of the world’s healthiest foods. Its phytochemicals are known for reducing tumors and preventing many forms of cancer including colon and bladder cancer. It is said to have more calcium than cow’s milk and contains more vitamin C than oranges. And for those with joint pain, cruciferous veggies like broccoli are high in carotenoids (a form of vitamin A), which protect cells from inflammatory cytokines that break down collagen in joints. Broccoli is also a very good source of fiber, vitamins B, E and A, omega 3 fatty acids, and minerals including magnesium.
As you can see, many of your favorite foods have magnesium! If you’re wondering how you can easily add the other magnesium-rich foods to your diet, we have put together a free smoothie eBook to show you exactly how.
Try 10 scrumptious smoothies you can make in minutes… and nourish your bones while you’re at it!
Orange’s Potential Protection against Cardiovascular Disease
A 248-page report, “The Health Benefits of Citrus Fruits,” released December 2003 by Australian research group, CSIRO (The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research), reviews 48 studies that show a diet high in citrus fruit provides a statistically significant protective effect against some types of cancer, plus another 21 studies showing a non-significant trend towards protection.
Citrus appears to offer the most significant protection against esophageal, oro-phayngeal/laryngeal (mouth, larynx and pharynx), and stomach cancers. For these cancers, studies showed risk reductions of 40-50%.
The World Health Organization’s recent draft report, “Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Disease,” concludes that a diet that features citrus fruits also offers protection against cardiovascular disease due to citrus fruits—folate, which is necessary for lowering levels of the cardiovascular risk factor, homocysteine; their, potassium, which helps lower blood pressure, protecting against stroke and cardiac arrhythmias; and the vitamin C, carotenoids and flavonoids found in citrus fruits, all of which have been identified as having protective cardiovascular effects.
One large US study reviewed in the CSIRO report showed that one extra serving of fruit and vegetables a day reduced the risk of stroke by 4%, and this increased by 5-6 times for citrus fruits, reaching a 19% reduction of risk for stroke from consuming one extra serving of citrus fruit a day.
The CSIRO Report also includes evidence of positive effects associated with citrus consumption in studies for arthritis, asthma, Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive impairment, Parkinson’s disease, macular degeneration, diabetes, gallstones, multiple sclerosis, cholera, gingivitis, optimal lung function, cataracts, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
Finally, the CSIRO Report notes that as low fat, nutrient-rich foods with a low glycemic index, citrus fruits are protective against overweight and obesity, conditions which increase the risk of heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, high blood pressure and stroke, and add to symptoms of other conditions like arthritis.
An orange has over 170 different phytonutrients and more than 60 flavonoids, many of which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and blood clot inhibiting properties, as well as strong antioxidant effects.
Phytonutrients, specifically, the class of polyphenols, are high in citrus with oranges containing 84mg Gallic Acid equivalents/100mg. The polyphenols so abundant in oranges have been shown to have a wide range of antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-carcinogenic effects. Although most of the research has centered on citrus polyphenols—possible role in cancer and heart disease, more recently, scientists have begun to look at their role in brain functions such as learning and memory.
An increasing number of studies have also shown a greater absorption of the nutrients in citrus when taken not as singly as supplements, but when consumed within the fruit in which they naturally appear along with all the other biologically active phytonutrients that citrus fruits contain.
Long-Acting Liminoids in Citrus Add to Their Ability to Promote Optimal Health
In animal studies and laboratory tests with human cells, compounds in citrus fruits, including oranges, called limonoids have been shown to help fight cancers of the mouth, skin, lung, breast, stomach and colon. Now, scientists from the US Agricultural Research Service have shown that our bodies can readily absorb and utilize a very long-acting limonoid called limonin that is present is citrus fruits in about the same amount as vitamin C.
In citrus fruits, limonin is present in the form of limonin glucoside, in which limonin is attached to a sugar (glucose) molecule. Our bodies easily digest this compound, cleaving off the sugar and releasing limonin.
In the ARS study, 16 volunteers were given a dose of limonin glucoside in amounts ranging from those that would be found in from 1 to 7 glasses of orange juice. Blood tests showed that limonin was present in the plasma of all except one of the subjects, with concentrations highest within 6 hours after consumption. Traces of limonin were still present in 5 of the volunteers 24 hours after consumption!
Limonin’s bioavailability and persistence may help explain why citrus limonoids are potent anti-carcinogens that may continuously prevent cancerous cells from proliferating. Other natural anti-carcinogens are available for much less time; for example, the phenols in green tea and chocolate remain active in the body for just 4 to 6 hours.
Oranges’ Possible Cholesterol-Lowering Benefits
The ARS team is now investigating the potential cholesterol-lowering effects of limonin. Lab tests indicate that human liver cells produce less apo B when exposed to limonin. Apo B is a structural protein that is part of the LDL cholesterol molecule and is needed for LDL production, transport and binding, so higher levels of apo B translate to higher levels of LDL cholesterol.
Compounds in Orange Peel May Lower Cholesterol as Effectively as Statin Drugs
A class of compounds found in citrus fruit peels called polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) have the potential to lower cholesterol more effectively than some prescription drugs, and without side effects, according to a study by U.S. and Canadian researchers that was published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
In this study, when laboratory animals with diet-induced high cholesterol were given the same diet containing 1% PMFs (mainly tangeretin), their blood levels of total cholesterol, VLDL and LDL (bad cholesterol) were reduced by 19-27 and 32-40% respectively. Comparable reductions were also seen when the animals were given diets containing a 3% mixture of two other citrus flavonones, hesperidin and naringin.
Treatment with PMFs did not appear to have any effect on levels of beneficial HDL cholesterol, and no negative side effects were seen in the animals fed the PMF-containing diets.
Although a variety of citrus fruits contain PMFs, the most common PMFs, tangeretin and nobiletin, are found in the peels of tangerines and oranges. Juices of these fruits also contain PMFs, but in much smaller amounts. In fact, you’d have to drink about 20 glasses of juice each day to receive an amount of PMFs comparable in humans to that given to the animals. However, grating a tablespoon or so of the peel from a well-scrubbed organic tangerine or orange each day and using it to flavor tea, salads, salad dressings, yogurt, soups, or hot oatmeal, buckwheat or rice may be a practical way of achieving some cholesterol-lowering benefits. The researchers are currently exploring the mechanism of action by which PMFs lower cholesterol. Based on early results in cell and animal studies, they suspect that PMFs work like statin drugs, by inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides inside the liver.
Oranges are a Very Good Source of Fiber
Oranges’ health benefits continue with their fiber, which has been shown to reduce high cholesterol levels thus helping to prevent atherosclerosis. Fiber can also help out by keeping blood sugar levels under control, which may help explain why oranges can be a very healthy snack for people with diabetes. In addition, the natural fruit sugar in oranges, fructose, can help to keep blood sugar levels from rising too high after eating. The fiber in oranges can grab cancer-causing chemicals and keep them away from cells of the colon, providing yet another line of protection from colon cancer. And the fiber in oranges may be helpful for reducing the uncomfortable constipation or diarrhea in those suffering from irritable bowel syndrome.
In addition to oranges’ phytonutrients, vitamin C, and fiber, they are a good source of folate, vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids), vitamin B1, potassium, copper, pantothenic acid, and calcium.
Oranges Possible Prevention of Kidney Stones
Want to reduce your risk of calcium oxalate kidney stones? Drink orange juice. A study published in the British Journal of Nutrition found that when women drank 1/2 to 1 litre of orange, grapefruit or apple juice daily, their urinary pH value and citric acid excretion increased, significantly dropping their risk of forming calcium oxalate stones.
Oranges May Prevent Ulcers and Reduce Risk for Stomach Cancer
An orange a day may help keep ulcers away, according to a study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition. In this study, researchers evaluated data from over 6,000 adults enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Study participants with the highest blood levels of vitamin C had a 25% lower incidence of infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the bacterium responsible for causing peptic ulcers and in turn, an increased risk for stomach cancer. Researchers are uncertain whether H. pylori lowers blood levels of vitamin C or if high blood levels of vitamin C help protect against infection—either way, eating an orange or drinking a glass of orange juice each day may help prevent gastric ulcers. Lead researcher in this study, Dr. Joel A. Simon at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, urges people who have tested positive for H. pylori to increase their consumption of vitamin C-rich foods since this may help them combat H. pylori infection.
Oranges May Protect Respiratory Health
Consuming foods rich in beta-cryptoxanthin, an orange-red carotenoid found in highest amounts in oranges, corn, pumpkin, papaya, red bell peppers, tangerines, and peaches, may significantly lower one’s risk of developing lung cancer. A study published in the September 2003 issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention reviewed dietary and lifestyle data collected from over 60,000 adults in Shanghai, China. Those eating the most crytpoxanthin-rich foods showed a 27% reduction in lung cancer risk. When current smokers were evaluated, those who were also in the group consuming the most cryptoxanthin-rich foods were found to have a 37% lower risk of lung cancer compared to smokers who ate the least of these health-protective foods.
Oranges May Offer Protection Against Rheumatoid Arthritis
New research published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition adds to the evidence that enjoying a daily glass of freshly squeezed orange juice can significantly lower your risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
Data collected by the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer Incidence (EPIC)-Norfolk study, a population-based, prospective study of over 25,000 subjects, showed that study participants with the highest daily intake of the carotenoids, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin, had a much lower risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis compared to individuals consuming the least of these beneficial phytonutrients. Those whose intake of zeaxanthin was highest were 52% less likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis, while those with the highest intake of cryptoxanthin had a 49% reduction in risk. Pretty dramatic benefits for doing something as simple as enjoying a glass of freshly squeezed orange juice each day!
Oranges are one of the most popular fruits around the world. While they are delightful as a snack or as a recipe ingredient, for many Americans, it is their juice that is most associated with good health, having a reputation for being an integral part of a healthy breakfast.
Oranges are round citrus fruits with finely-textured skins that are, of course, orange in color just like their pulpy flesh. They usually range from about two to three inches in diameter.
Oranges are classified into two general categories—sweet and bitter—with the former being the type most commonly consumed. Popular varieties of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) include Valencia, Navel and Jaffa oranges, as well as the blood orange, a hybrid species that is smaller in size, more aromatic in flavor and has red hues running throughout its flesh. Bitter oranges (Citrus aurantium) are oftentimes used to make jam or marmalade, and their zest serves as the flavoring for liqueurs such as Grand Marnier and Cointreau.
Oranges originated thousands of years ago in Asia, in the region from southern China to Indonesia from which they spread to India. Although Renaissance paintings display oranges on the table in paintings of The Last Supper, the assumption that they were grown in this region at this time seems to be erroneous since oranges were not cultivated in the Middle East until sometime around the 9th century. Sweet oranges were introduced into Europe around the 15th century by various groups including the Moors, and the Portuguese as well as the Italian traders and explorers who found them on their voyages to Asia and the Middle East.
Orange trees began to be grown in the Caribbean Islands in the late 15th century after Christopher Columbus brought the seeds there on his second voyage to the New World. Spanish explorers are responsible for bringing oranges to Florida in the 16th century, while Spanish missionaries brought them to California in the 18th century, beginning the cultivation of this citrus fruit in the two states widely known for their oranges.
Before the 20th century, oranges were very expensive and therefore they were not regularly consumed, but rather eaten on special holidays such as Christmas. After more efficient means of transportation were developed, and food processors invented methods for utilizing orange by-products such as citric acid and bioflavonoids, the price of oranges dropped, and they could be consumed on a wide scale, as they are today. Currently, the countries that are some of the largest commercial producers of oranges include the United States, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, China and Israel.
How to Select and Store
Oranges do not necessarily have to have a bright orange color to be good. In fact, the uniform color of non-organic oranges may be due to injection of Citrus Red Number 2 (an artificial dye) into their skins at the level of 2 parts per million. Whether organic or not, oranges that are partially green or have brown russetting may be just as ripe and tasty as those that are solid orange in color. Avoid those that have soft spots or traces of mold. And, because oranges are among the top 20 foods in which pesticide residues are most frequently found, buy organic oranges whenever possible.
Choose oranges that have smoothly textured skin and are firm and heavy for their size. These will have a higher juice content than those that are either spongy or lighter in weight. In general, oranges that are smaller will be juicier than those that are larger in size, as will those that feature thinner skins.
At WHFoods, we encourage the purchase of certified organically grown foods, and oranges are no exception. Repeated research studies on organic foods as a group show that your likelihood of exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals can be greatly reduced through the purchased of certified organic foods, including oranges. In many cases, you may be able to find a local organic grower who sells oranges but has not applied for formal organic certification either through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) or through a state agency. (Examples of states offering state-certified organic foods include California, New York, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington.) However, if you are shopping in a large supermarket, your most reliable source of organically grown oranges is very likely to be oranges that display the USDA organic logo.
Oranges can either be stored at room temperature or in the refrigerator, depending upon your preference. They will generally last the same amount of time, two weeks with either method, and will retain nearly the same level of their vitamin content. The best way to store oranges is loose rather than wrapped in a plastic bag since if exposed to moisture, they can easily develop mold.
Orange juice and zest can also be stored for later use. Place freshly squeezed orange juice in ice cube trays until frozen, and then store them in plastic bags in the freezer. Dried orange zest should be stored in a cool, dry place in an airtight glass container.
Tips for Preparing and Cooking
Tips for Preparing Oranges
Oranges can be eaten as a snack—just peel and enjoy. Before cutting the orange in half horizontally through the center, wash the skin so that any dirt or bacteria residing on the surface will not be transferred to the fruit. Proceed to cut the sections into halves or thirds, depending upon your personal preference.
Thin-skinned oranges can be easily peeled with your fingers. For easy peeling of the thicker skinned varieties, first cut a small section of the peel from the top of the orange. You can then either make four longitudinal cuts from top to bottom and peel away these sections of skin, or starting at the top, peel the orange in a spiral fashion.
Oranges are oftentimes called for in recipes in the form of orange juice. As oranges, like most citrus fruits, will produce more juice when warmer, always juice them when they are at room temperature. Rolling the orange under the palm of your hand on a flat surface will also help to extract more juice.
The juice can be extracted in a variety of ways. You could either use a juicer or do it the old fashioned way, squeezing by hand.
If your recipe calls for orange zest, make sure that you use an orange that is organically grown since most conventionally grown fruits will have pesticide residues on their skin and may be artificially colored. After washing and drying the orange, use a zester, paring knife or vegetable peeler to remove the zest, which is the orange part of the peel. Make sure not to remove too much of the peel as the white pith underneath is bitter and should not be used. The zest can then be more finely chopped or diced if necessary.
How to Enjoy
A Few Quick Serving Ideas
- Healthy sauté onions and ginger, and then deglaze the pan with orange juice. Use this liquid as a sauce for salmon or tuna.
- Orange segments, fennel and boiled beets make a delightfully refreshing salad.
- Gently simmer sweet potatoes, winter squash and orange segments in orange juice. Before serving, sprinkle with walnuts.
For some of our favorite recipes, click Recipes.
If you’d like even more recipes and ways to prepare oranges the Nutrient-Rich Way, you may want to explore The World’s Healthiest Foods book.
Oranges are an excellent source of Vitamin C. They are also a very good source of dietary fiber. In addition, oranges are a good source of B vitamins including vitamin B1, pantothenic acid and folate as well as vitamin A, calcium, copper and potassium.
Introduction to Food Rating System Chart
In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn’t contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food’s in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients – not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good – please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you’ll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food’s nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling.” Read more background information and details of our rating system.
| Oranges, fresh
131.00 grams Calories: 62
|vitamin C||69.69 mg||93||27.2||excellent|
|vitamin B1||0.11 mg||9||2.7||good|
|pantothenic acid||0.33 mg||7||1.9||good|
In-Depth Nutritional Profile
In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional profile for Oranges. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.
Amount of Magnesium in Salmon
Welcome to the nutritional magnesium content in 30 different types of salmon, ranging from 122 mg to 18 mg per 100g. The basic type of salmon is Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat, where the amount of magnesium in 100g is 30 mg.
30 mg of magnesium per 100g, from Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat corresponds to 8% of the magnesium RDA. For a typical serving size of .5 fillet (or 178 g) the amount of Magnesium is 53.4 mg. This corresponds to an RDA percentage of 13%.
The percentage of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for magnesium is based on a 400 mg RDA level for a mature adult.
Top twenty salmon products high in magnesium
Below is a summary list for the top twenty salmon items ranked by the amount or level of magnesium in 100g.
Following on from the twenty top salmon items or products containing magnesium we have a more comprehensive break down of Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat, and the highest item containing magnesium which is Fish, salmon, chinook, cooked, dry heat. We also give a comparison of average values, median values and lowest values along with a comparison with other food groups and assess the effects of storage and preparation on the 30 types of salmon.
At the bottom of the page is the full list for the 30 different types of salmon based on the content in different servings in grams and oz (and other serving sizes), providing a comprehensive analysis of the magnesium content in salmon.
Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat – Nutritional Content and Chart
The full nutrition content, RDA percentages and levels for Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat should be considered along with the magnesium content. This food profile is part of our list of food and drinks under the general group Finfish and Shellfish Products.Other important and magnesium related nutrients are Calories, Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate. For this 100g serving in your diet, the amount of Calories is 206 kcal (10% RDA), the amount of Protein is 22.1 g (39% RDA), the amount of Fat is 12.35 g (19% RDA) and the amount of Carbohydrate is 0 g. The nutritional content and facts for 100g, which includes Calories, Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate is shown in the RDA chart below as percentages of the recommended daily allowance along with the magnesium levels in salmon.
Our proprietary nutritional density score gives a nutritional value out of 100 based on 9 different vitamins, minerals and macro nutrients. Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat has a nutritional value score of 15 out of 100.Comparing the magnesium content and the nutritional density in 100g for Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat; We class this as a medium to low magnesium content item.In terms of overall nutritional value we class this as an item with a medium nutritional density value.
Comparing magnesium in salmon vs spinach
The amount of magnesium in spinach is 79 mg per 100g.As magnesium percentage of the RDA this is 20 %. Comparing with Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat, in 100g contains 30 mg of magnesium. As a percentage of the RDA this is 8 %. Therefore, spinach has 49 mg more magnesium than Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat. In terms of magnesium percentage this is 163 % more magnesium. Spinach has an overall nutritional value score of 68 out of 100, whereas Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat has a nutritional value score of 15 out of 100.
The highest content of magnesium in the food items under the general description or type of salmon, is Fish, salmon, chinook, cooked, dry heat with 122 mg of magnesium per 100g. Comparing spinach with Fish, salmon, chinook, cooked, dry heat; Fish, salmon, chinook, cooked, dry heat has 43 mg more magnesium than spinach. In terms of magnesium percentage this is 54 % more magnesium.
Content per Typical Serving Size .5 fillet (or 178 g)
For the food Fish, salmon, Atlantic, farmed, cooked, dry heat the typical serving size is .5 fillet (or 178 g) which contains 53.4 mg of Magnesium. The magnesium percentage of the recommended daily value for this serving is 13 %.
To give 100% of the RDA, 7.7 servings of the typical serving size .5 fillet (or 178 g) give the complete RDA. In terms of the gram weight and total content for this serving the Calories content is 366.68 kcal, the Protein content is 39.34 g, the Fat content is 21.98 g and the Carbohydrate content is 0 g. The percentages are shown below in the magnesium chart, for the typical serving of magnesium and the related and important nutritional values.
Milligrams of magnesium in salmon (per 100g)
This list of 30 types of salmon, is brought to you by www.dietandfitnesstoday.com and ranges from Fish, salmon, chinook, cooked, dry heat through to Fish, salmon, chinook, smoked, (lox), regular where all food items are ranked by the content or amount per 100g. The nutritional magnesium content can be scaled by the amount in grams, oz or typical serving sizes. Simply click on a food item or beverage from the list at the bottom of the page to give a full dietary nutritional breakdown to answer the question how much magnesium in salmon.
The list below gives the total magnesium content in the 30 items from the general description ‘salmon’ each of which show the magnesium amount as well as Calories, Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate. Below, is the top 30 food items shown in the magnesium chart. This gives a quick and easy dietary comparison for the different items, where each item is listed at the bottom of the page with a nutritional summary.
The corresponding nutritional value for salmon based on our density score out of 100 (ranked by the amount of magnesium per 100g) is shown in the below nutritional density chart.
The corresponding Calories for salmon ranked by the amount of magnesium per 100g is shown below in the salmon calories chart.
Effect of Preparation and Storage on magnesium
The level of magnesium can be affected by the method of storage for example canned or frozen and also by the method of preparation for example either raw, cooked or fried. The number of food items classified as canned is 10 items. The highest amount of magnesium from the 10 canned items is in Fish, salmon, pink, canned, without salt, solids with bone and liquid where the level is 34 mg per 100g.The total food items which are raw is 8 items. The highest amount of magnesium from the 8 raw items is in Fish, salmon, chinook, raw where the content is 95 mg per 100g. The number of food items which are cooked are 9 items. The highest amount of magnesium from the 9 cooked items is in Fish, salmon, chinook, cooked, dry heat where the amount is 122 mg per 100g. Comparing raw and cooked salmon shows that cooking can change the levels of magnesium by 27 mg in a 100g serving.
Average Content for salmon
The average (or more correctly the arithmetic mean) amount of magnesium contained in 100g of salmon, based on the list below of 30 different items under the general description of salmon, is 35.57 mg of magnesium. This average value corresponds to 8.89 % of the recommended dietary allowance (or RDA) in your diet. The averages for the different nutrients are as follows; the average amount of Calories is 161.80 kcal, the average amount of Protein is 23.58 g, the average amount of Fat is 6.91 g and the average amount of Carbohydrate is g. The median value of Magnesium is found in Fish, salmon, Atlantic, wild, raw which in 100g contains 29 mg of Magnesium. This corresponds to 7 % of the recommended daily allowance. For this serving the amount of Calories is 142 kcal, the amount of Protein is 19.84 g, the amount of Fat is 6.34 g and the amount of Carbohydrate is 0 g.
Center for Magnesium Education & Research, LLC
Adapted from Seelig, 1964 and Pennington, 1989
In general, magnesium content in each subgroup is listed in descending order.
To increase magnesium in your diet, emphasize items listed in left-hand or center column and at the top of each sub-group.
Very High Magnesium
cocoa and bitter chocolate
whole wheat bread
Nuts & Fruits:
potatoes & skin
lean roast beef
chicken & turkey
Meat & Fish:
lean roast pork
roast beef w/ fat
boiled white rice
white flour products
You Can Add Foods You Eat and Like To This Resource
Can’t find a food on this list? You can add the foods you eat to the proper column in Resource I – part A by looking up the food in the National Agriculture Library Database, free on the internet. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/ The database contains analyses of foods for many nutrients on a per 100 grams basis, or per tablespoon or cup. Look up your food on the “per 100 grams” basis. The foods in column one – high magnesium – are greater than 100 milligrams magnesium per 100 grams. Column two foods – medium magnesium – have between 25 and 100 milligrams magnesium per 100 grams. Column three foods – those low in magnesium – have less than 25 milligrams magnesium per 100 grams.
To get to the database:
Log into the internet.
Go to http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/
Type in the food you want to know about in the search window. You will probably get a list of foods.
Select the food you want.
Select “per 100 g”.
Scroll down to “Minerals” to magnesium
This is the magnesium content of that food in milligrams per 100 grams of food.
If the number is greater than 100, the food goes in column 1 and is a high magnesium food.
If the number is between 25 and 99, the food goes in column 2 and is a medium magnesium food.
If the number is below 25, it is a low magnesium food and goes in column 3.
Note that this database also gives you the calcium content of each food, also in milligrams per 100 grams. From this and the magnesium content you can calculate the magnesium to calcium ratio of that food.
Divide the magnesium value by the calcium value. If the resulting value is greater than 1, the food has more magnesium than calcium, and has a good ratio. If the resulting value is less than 0.5, then there is twice as much calcium as magnesium in that food, at least, and the ratio is beginning to be unbalanced. However, remember that it is the ratio of calcium to magnesium in your total diet, including supplements and water, that is important.
We recommend an overall, total ratio of 2 calcium to 1 magnesium, by weight, as a goal.