Five french mother sauces

Taco bell chapter 06 test 1 the menu is the most

1. The menu is the most important element of a restaurant’s success. — True 2. One benefit of being associated with a chain restaurant is: — The chain can have outlets in various geographical locations. 3. In classical French cuisine, a sauce would be thickened with a flour-based roux, while in nouvelle cuisine, a sauce could be thickened with: — A purée of vegetables 4. Fast casual restaurants, such as Chipotle Mexican Grill or Five Guys Burgers and Fries, combine elements of quick-service restaurants and: — Casual dining 5. Currently, the most popular sandwich restaurant, with more than 42,000 units in over 100 countries, is: — Subway 6. The website healthingdiningfinder.com is a great resource for diners looking to make healthy eating decisions when dining out. — True 7. Most experts agree that the two main categories of restaurants are independent and chain. — True 8. Menu engineering is a sophisticated approach used to set menu prices and con- trol costs and is based on the principle that: — Food cost percentage is not as important as the contribution margin when set- ting prices. 9. In a franchise agreement, the franchisor generally supplies the operational sys- tems, menus and recipe design, and management expertise. — True 10. A key concept behind back-to-basic cooking is: – Evaluate the recipe and look for flavor improvement with each item.

The 5 French Mother Sauces Every Cook Should Know

The five French mother sauces are: Béchamel, Velouté, Espagnole, Hollandaise, and Tomato. Read on to learn how to make each one.

In the 19th century, Marie-Antoine Carême anointed Béchamel, Velouté, Espagnole, and tomato sauce as the building blocks for all other sauces in his work L’Art de la Cuisine Française au Dix-Neuvième Siecle. Later on, Hollandaise got added to the family. Since then, many people consider others sauces—sweet and savory from all around the world—as unofficial extended relatives of these five sauces.

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Though some will argue for the importance of chimichurri and chocolate sauce, it’s a knowledge of the five French mother sauces that will prove essential. They may seem intimidating, but mother sauces will nurture your kitchen confidence. With a few simple ingredients (mostly flour, butter, and a liquid) and a couple easy techniques, these five sauces, all equally important to your cooking repertoire, serve as the starting point for a slew of other classics.

Once you get the feel for these sauces, you’ll be able to whisk them up whenever you want to get fancy. And soon enough, you’ll feel confident enough to break tradition and take that Mother Sauce somewhere she’s never gone before. Here’s what you need to know about the building blocks of sauces:

Beyond flavor, the most important element of any sauce is its ability to smother and cling to whatever it gets drizzled, dolloped, or poured on. That means making the sauce thick and stable, which is accomplished with three techniques: a roux, an emulsifier, and a reduction (liquid that’s slowly cooked down until thick).

Four out of the five mother sauces start with a roux. Roux is a fancy name for flour mixed with fat. Equal parts butter and flour get cooked over medium heat, then a liquid gets added. This mixture then boils, thickens (reduces), and becomes the base of your sauce. Just note, if you’re making a white sauce—like Béchamel or Velouté—do not brown the butter, as it will darken the finished product. The last mother sauce is a product of emulsification, which I’ll explain below.

More: Is it your first time making a roux? Here’s how to do it, step by step.

Here are the basic formulas of the five mother sauces:

Béchamel: Roux + Dairy (traditionally milk or cream)
Velouté: Roux + White Stock (traditionally chicken, but also vegetable or fish)
Espagnole: Roux + Brown Stock (traditionally veal or beef)
Tomato: Roux + Tomatoes (or, go the Italian route by skipping the roux and simply reducing tomatoes over medium-low heat until thick)
Hollandaise: Egg Yolks + Clarified Melted Butter + Acid (like lemon juice or white wine)

Now that you understand the basics, let’s talk about each mother sauce in more detail (and what to pair them with):

1. Béchamel

If you’ve eaten homemade macaroni and cheese, a classic croque madame, or lasagna, chances are you’ve experienced the rich creaminess of Béchamel. It can be made in its most basic form by just combining roux and cream, or it can be mixed with other ingredients to create new sauces: Mornay is made by adding Gruyère or Parmesan, and mustard sauce is made by adding—you guessed it—mustard.

Here are some other ways to use Béchamel:

  • Swap in Béchamel for some of the cream in a gratin.
  • Pour it over polenta cakes and broil for a few minutes until bubbly and golden brown.

Once you’ve mastered basic Béchamel, here’s how to get more creative: Spike a classic Béchamel with soy and miso for a new take on Trent Pierce’s Miso-Creamed Kale or Nobu’s Fried Asparagus.

2. Velouté

Like good old Béchamel, Velouté begins with a white roux, but then it gets mixed with white stock made from fish, chicken, or veal. Technically not a finished sauce, it’s used as a flavorful starting point for gravies, mushroom sauces (hello chicken pot pie), and shrimp sauce (hello shrimp bisque).

Here are some other ways to use Velouté:

  • Whip up Velouté with veal stock, then use it to make Swedish Meatballs.
  • Smother biscuits with an herby gravy for breakfast.

Once you’ve mastered basic Velouté, here’s how to get more creative: Make velouté vegetarian with a mushroom-based stock for this Vegetarian Mushroom Thyme Gravy.

3. Espagnole

Although some think blond roux have more fun, Espagnole proves that dark roux know how to party, too. Also known as brown sauce, Espagnole begins with a mirepoix (carrots, celery, and onions), beef stock, and deglazed brown bits (fond) from beef bones. From there, tomato paste and spices may be added.

To make a demi-glace, a rich French brown sauce, combine the Espagnole with more beef stock; to create Bordelaise, a red wine sauce that pairs well with steak and mushrooms, mix the demi-glace with red wine and herbs. Serve this with filet mignon for an excellent dinner.

Here are some other ways to use Espagnole and its variations:

  • Pair roast lamb with a demi-glace.
  • Drizzle a little Bordelaise over mushroom risotto.

Once you’ve mastered basic Espagnole, here’s how to get more creative: Take Espagnole somewhere new by adding tamarind paste and making Dan Barber’s Braised Short Ribs.

4. Tomato

Probably the first mother sauce you ever tasted (over a heaping bowl of spaghetti), tomato sauce is often a mixture of just onions, garlic, and tomatoes. Although some traditionalists may start with a roux, most tomato sauces merely rely on a tomato reduction to build flavor and create thickness.

Here are some other ways to use tomato sauce:

  • One word: pizza.
  • Turn tomato sauce into breakfast with shakshuka.

Once you’ve mastered basic tomato sauce, here’s how to get more creative: Marcella Hazan’s tomato sauce can’t be beat, but if you want to think outside of Italy, use your tomato sauce to make Lentil Cakes with Tikka Masala instead.

5. Hollandaise

Think of Hollandaise as a fancy mayonnaise that uses clarified butter in place of oil and gets drizzled over asparagus and eggs without judgment. Instead of using a roux or a reduction, Hollandaise uses the method of emulsification: the act of using a binding agent (in this case, an egg yolk) to force two ingredients that don’t mix well together (here, butter and lemon juice) to like each other immensely. Hollandaise takes patience, as you’ll need to temper the mixture so that the eggs do not curdle. The sauce can break easily, but you can patch things back together by adding a little heavy cream and whisking until the sauce returns to its smooth state; or use Amanda’s trick for fixing broken aioli—a close relative of Hollandaise sauce—by using the broken emulsification to start your next batch. Sound like a lot of hard work? This Fried Green Tomato Benedict makes it all worth the trouble.

When mixed with unsweetened whipped cream, Hollandaise suddenly becomes airy Mousseline that can be poured over fish or vegetables.

Béarnaise is another close relative to Hollandaise. But unlike Hollandaise, which has lemon juice in it, Béarnaise is perfumed with tarragon, shallots, and white wine vinegar.

Here are some other ways to use Hollandaise:

  • Drizzle it over crab cakes, or use it as a dipping sauce.
  • Substitute it for mayo in roasted potato salad.

Once you’ve mastered basic Hollandaise, here’s how to get more creative: Let another breakfast staple enjoy the creaminess of Hollandaise with this Savory Oatmeal recipe. Or take your next Caramelized Pork Bahn Mi to new heights by replacing the mayonnaise with a Sriracha-spiked Hollandaise sauce.

Short rib photo by Sarah Shatz; last photo by Marta Greber; all others by James Ransom. This article originally ran in February of 2015; we’re re-running it now to revisit the classics—and just in case you don’t know them yet.

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In the 19th century, Marie-Antoine Carême anointed Béchamel, Velouté, Espagnole, and tomato sauce as the building blocks for all other sauces in his work L’Art de la Cuisine Française au Dix-Neuvième Siecle. Later on, Hollandaise got added to the family. Since then, many people consider others sauces — sweet and savory from all around the world — as unofficial extended relatives of these five sauces.

Though some will argue for the importance of chimichurri and chocolate sauce, it’s a knowledge of the five French mother sauces that will prove essential. They may seem intimidating, but mother sauces will nurture your kitchen confidence. With a few simple ingredients (mostly flour, butter, and a liquid) and a couple easy techniques, these five sauces, all equally important to your cooking repertoire, serve as the starting point for a slew of other classics.

Once you get the feel for these sauces, you’ll be able to whisk them up whenever you want to get fancy. And soon enough, you’ll feel confident enough to break tradition and take that Mother Sauce somewhere she’s never gone before. Here’s what you need to know about the building blocks of sauces:

Beyond flavor, the most important element of any sauce is its ability to smother and cling to whatever it gets drizzled, dolloped, or poured on. That means making the sauce thick and stable, which is accomplished with three techniques: a roux, an emulsifier, and a reduction (liquid that’s slowly cooked down until thick).

Four out of the five mother sauces start with a roux. Roux is a fancy name for flour mixed with fat. Equal parts butter and flour get cooked over medium heat, then a liquid gets added. This mixture then boils, thickens (reduces), and becomes the base of your sauce. Just note, if you’re making a white sauce — like Béchamel or Velouté — do not brown the butter, as it will darken the finished product. The last mother sauce is a product of emulsification, which I’ll explain below.

Here are the basic formulas of the five mother sauces:

Béchamel: Roux + Dairy (traditionally milk or cream)
Véloute: Roux + White Stock (traditionally chicken, but also vegetable or fish)
Espagnole: Roux + Brown Stock (traditionally veal or beef)
Tomato: Roux + Tomatoes (or, go the Italian route by skipping the roux and simply reducing tomatoes over medium-low heat until thick)
Hollandaise: Egg Yolks + Clarified Melted Butter + Acid (like lemon juice or white wine)

Now that you understand the basics, let’s talk about each Mother Sauce in more detail (and what to pair them with):

Béchamel

If you’ve eaten homemade macaroni and cheese, a classic croque madame, or lasagna, chances are you’ve experienced the rich creaminess of Béchamel. It can be made in its most basic form by just combining roux and cream, or it can be mixed with other ingredients to create new sauces: Mornay is made by adding Gruyère or Parmesan, and mustard sauce is made by adding — you guessed it — mustard.

Here are some other ways to use Béchamel:

  • Swap in Béchamel for some of the cream in a gratin.
  • Pour it over polenta cakes and broil for a few minutes until bubbly and golden brown.

Once you’ve mastered basic Béchamel, here’s how to get more creative: Spike a classic Béchamel with soy and miso for a new take on Trent Pierce’s miso-creamed kale or Nobu’s fried asparagus.

Velouté

Like good old Béchamel, Velouté begins with a white roux, but then it gets mixed with white stock made from fish, chicken, or veal. Technically not a finished sauce, it’s used as a flavorful starting point for gravies, mushroom sauces (hello chicken pot pie), and shrimp sauce (hello shrimp bisque).

Here are some other ways to use Velouté:

  • Whip up Velouté with veal stock, then use it to make Swedish meatballs.
  • Smother biscuits with an herby gravy for breakfast.

Once you’ve mastered basic Velouté, here’s how to get more creative: Make velouté vegetarian with a mushroom-based stock for this Vegetarian Mushroom Thyme Gravy.

Espagnole

Although some think blond roux have more fun, Espagnole proves that dark roux know how to party, too. Also known as brown sauce, Espagnole begins with a mirepoix (carrots, celery, and onions), beef stock, and deglazed brown bits (fond) from beef bones. From there, tomato paste and spices may be added.

To make a demi-glace, a rich French brown sauce, combine the Espagnole with more beef stock; to create Bordelaise, a red wine sauce that pairs well with steak and mushrooms, mix the demi-glace with red wine and herbs. Serve this with filet mignon for an excellent dinner.

Here are some other ways to use Espagnole and its variations:

  • Pair roast lamb with a demi-glace.
  • Drizzle a little Bordelaise over mushroom risotto.

Once you’ve mastered basic Espagnole, here’s how to get more creative: Take Espagnole somewhere new by adding tamarind paste and making Dan Barber’s braised short ribs.

Tomato

Probably the first mother sauce you ever tasted (over a heaping bowl of spaghetti), tomato sauce is often a mixture of just onions, garlic, and tomatoes. Although some traditionalists may start with a roux, most tomato sauces merely rely on a tomato reduction to build flavor and create thickness.

Here are some other ways to use tomato sauce:

  • One word: pizza.
  • Turn tomato sauce into breakfast with shakshuka.

Once you’ve mastered basic tomato sauce, here’s how to get more creative: Marcella Hazan’s tomato sauce can’t be beat, but if you want to think outside of Italy, use your tomato sauce to make lentil cakes with tikka masala instead.

Hollandaise

Think of Hollandaise as a fancy mayonnaise that uses clarified butter in place of oil and gets drizzled over asparagus and eggs without judgment. Instead of using a roux or a reduction, Hollandaise uses the method of emulsification: the act of using a binding agent (in this case, an egg yolk) to force two ingredients that don’t mix well together (here, butter and lemon juice) to like each other immensely. Hollandaise takes patience, as you’ll need to temper the mixture so that the eggs do not curdle. The sauce can break easily, but you can patch things back together by adding a little heavy cream and whisking until the sauce returns to its smooth state; or use Amanda’s trick for fixing broken aioli — a close relative of Hollandaise sauce — by using the broken emulsification to start your next batch. Sound like a lot of hard work? This fried green tomato benedict makes it all worth the trouble.

When mixed with unsweetened whipped cream, Hollandaise suddenly becomes airy Mousseline that can be poured over fish or vegetables.

Here are some other ways to use Hollandaise:

  • Drizzle it over crab cakes, or use it as a dipping sauce.
  • Substitute it for mayo in roasted potato salad.

Once you’ve mastered basic Hollandaise, here’s how to get more creative: Let another breakfast staple enjoy the creaminess of Hollandaise with this savory oatmeal recipe. Or take your next caramelized pork bahn mi to new heights by replacing the mayonnaise with a Sriracha-spiked Hollandaise sauce.

Short rib photo by Sarah Shatz; last photo by Marta Greber; all others by James Ransom

This story was originally published on Food52.com: The five mother sauces every cook should know

Classic French cooking techniques shouldn’t intimidate the everyday cook. French cuisine is world renowned and therefore might seem like a monumental task to take on in the kitchen, but learning the basics can make cooking a fine meal easy as pie. There are five French mother sauces, and learning how to make each of them will have you feeling like a professional chef in no time.

History of French mother sauces
Originally, there were four basic French mother sauces developed by Antonin Careme in the 19th century. Careme created a myriad of signature sauces, but the base came down to four main recipes, hence the name mother sauce. These four sauces are Sauce Tomat, Bechamel, Veloute and Espagnole. Careme is considered one of the godfathers of haute cuisine. In the early 20th century, renowned chef Auguste Escoffier added Hollandaise, the fifth mother sauce. Escoffier’s recipe books boasted hundreds of daughter sauces as well. ​He in many ways modernized French cooking, and his legendary career as a chef, restaurateur and food writer transformed him into a culinary icon.

What is sauce?
Okay, so we might all be able to identify a sauce when we see it, but let’s delve into a more technical definition. A sauce is a liquid with the addition of a thickening agent and other flavors, such as herbs and spices. Making a great sauce then depends on developing a strong flavor profile and the right consistency. Giving your sauce the right density relies on the thickening agent.

Roux
Roux (pronounced roo) is the thickening agent used in three of the five French mother sauces: Espagnole, Bechamel and Veloute. The roux is cooked for a different amount of time for each sauce to vary the color. Roux is made from equal parts fat and flour by weight, traditionally calling for clarified butter as the fat in French cuisine. The fat is heated until it is a frothy liquid, then the flour is stirred in to create a thick paste. A white roux is used for Bechamel sauce, and this variation requires the shortest cooking time. As roux is cooked for longer periods of time, it goes from white to gold to brown. When using brown roux in a dark sauce, cook the paste slowly over low heat so it doesn’t burn. Remember when waiting for your roux to brown that it might take longer to make your sauce, so plan your meal accordingly.

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List of six basic mother sauces:- 1. Béchamel 2. Velouté 3. Espagnole 4. Tomato Sauce 5. Hollandaise Sauce 6. Mayonnaise Sauce.

Mother Sauce # 1. Béchamel (White Sauce):

The sauce consists of milk and is thickened with white roux containing equal parts of flour and butter. Marquis Louis de Béchamel (1603-1703), a seventeenth century financier who held the honorary post of chief steward of King Louis XIV’s (1643-1715) household, is also said to have invented béchamel sauce when trying to come up with a way of eating dried cod. There are no historical records to verify that he was a gourmet, a cook, or the inventor of béchamel sauce.

Mother Sauce # 2. Velouté:

It literally means velvet. It is a very light blond coloured sauce, made from chicken, fish, or veal stock thickened with a blond roux. In the last chapter we also saw a soup by this name. The procedure is same and that is the reason it was mentioned in the beginning of this chapter that soups and sauces are interlinked to each other in a certain way. Velouté is specifically designed to accompany certain dishes and their recipes indicate a specific stock.

Mother Sauce # 3. Espagnole (Brown Sauce):

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Espagnok, meaning ‘Spanish’ in French was the original brown sauce and still is one of the glories of the French kitchen. The name dates to the eighteenth century and it is believed that the finest ham and tomato, an essential ingredient of espagnole, was said to come from Spain. Thickening rich brown stock with brown roux makes the brown sauce.

Mother Sauce # 4. Tomato Sauce:

The traditional French tomato sauce is thickened with a butter roux. However, tomato sauce is more commonly associated with Italian cuisine, and in particular as an accompa­niment for pasta. The traditional French recipe included pork, tomato concasse, tomato puree, vegetables, and seasonings that are thickened with roux. The other versions, however, do not contain roux and is based on tomato chunks and puree.

Mother Sauce # 5. Hollandaise Sauce (Dutch Sauce):

A warm emulsified sauce is based on egg yolks and clarified butter. Hollandaise is a French word meaning ‘Dutch style’. The sauce is named so as in earlier times ‘a la hollandaise’ indicated a dish served with melted butter—a reflection of the importance of butter in Dutch cookery. It is thickened with the emulsification of a warm sabayon of egg yolk with the melted clarified butter.

This sauce is a versatile sauce and is served as a topping on a dish and gratinated to give colour, for example, poached fish is served with gratinated hollandaise and also the famous ‘egg Benedict’ popularly relished in breakfast has hollandaise as the main ingredient. This sauce is served in less quantity as it is a heavy sauce and hence, served as topping rather than a dipping sauce.

Mother Sauce # 6. Mayonnaise Sauce:

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The invention of the sauce or the name is possibly derived from three different sources- ‘mahon’, ‘manier’ (meaning to stir), and ‘moyeu’ (referred to the middle of the egg). Mayonnaise is a cold emulsified sauce based on egg yolks. If it is not handled carefully, it will separate giving a curdled appearance. It constitutes oil, egg yolk, and vinegar or lemon juice.

The key is to keep the ingredients at room temperature and not chilled. A cold bowl, or eggs taken straight from the refrigerator, will prevent the mayonnaise from thickening. This sauce is always served cold and thus forms a base for most of the salads and sandwich fillings. Mayonnaise is mostly served as the dipping sauce with snacks.

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