Fish oil chest pain

Fish Oil

Generic Name: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (oh MAY ga 3 POL ee un SAT yoo ray ted FAT ee AS ids)
Brand Names: Animi-3, Cardio Omega Benefits, Divista, Dry Eye Omega Benefits, EPA Fish Oil, Fish Oil, Fish Oil Ultra, Flex Omega Benefits, Icar Prenatal Essential Omega-3, Lovaza, Marine Lipid Concentrate, MaxEPA, MaxiTears Dry Eye Formula, MaxiVision Omega-3 Formula, Mi-Omega NF, Mom’s Omega Advantage, Omega Essentials, Sea-Omega, Sea-Omega 30, TheraTears Nutrition, TherOmega, Vascazen

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jun 25, 2019.

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What is Fish Oil?

Fish Oil capsules contain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in oils from certain types of fish, vegetables, and other plant sources. These fatty acids are not made by the body and must be consumed in the diet. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids work by lowering the body’s production of triglycerides. High levels of triglycerides can lead to coronary artery disease, heart disease, and stroke.

Fish Oil are used together with diet and exercise to help lower triglyceride levels in the blood.

Fish Oil may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Important information

Take Fish Oil exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take it in larger amounts or for longer than recommended.

Swallow the Fish Oil capsule whole. Do not puncture or open the capsule.

Fish Oil is only part of a complete program of treatment that also includes diet, exercise, and weight control. Follow your diet, medication, and exercise routines very closely.

There may be other drugs that can interact with Fish Oil. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Stop using Fish Oil and get emergency medical help if you think you have used too much medicine, or if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Less serious side effects are more likely, and you may have none at all. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or is especially bothersome.

Before taking this medicine

Do not use Fish Oil if you are allergic to fish or soybeans.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist about using this medicine if you have:

  • diabetes;

  • liver disease;

  • a pancreas disorder;

  • underactive thyroid;

  • if you drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages per day.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether Fish Oil will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using Fish Oil. It is not known whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids pass into breast milk or if this could harm a nursing baby. Do not use Fish Oil without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. Do not give this medication to anyone under 18 years old.

How should I take Fish Oil?

Use Fish Oil exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Swallow the Fish Oil capsule whole. Do not puncture or open the capsule. Fish Oil works best if you take it with food.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition, your blood may need to be tested often. Visit your doctor regularly.

Fish Oil is only part of a complete program of treatment that also includes diet, exercise, and weight control. Follow your diet, medication, and exercise routines very closely.

Store Fish Oil at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not freeze.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What should I avoid?

Avoid eating foods that are high in fat or cholesterol. Fish Oil will not be as effective in lowering your triglycerides if you do not follow the diet plan recommended by your doctor.

Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase triglycerides and may make your condition worse.

Fish Oil side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to Fish Oil: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using Fish Oil and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;

  • chest pain; or

  • uneven heartbeats.

Less serious Fish Oil side effects may include:

  • back pain;

  • unusual or unpleasant taste in your mouth;

  • upset stomach, belching; or

  • mild skin rash.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect Fish Oil?

Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with Fish Oil. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Further information

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Copyright 1996-2020 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 6.04.

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Consumer resources

Other brands: Lovaza, Omacor, Dry Eye Omega Benefits, Epanova, … +2 more

Professional resources

  • Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters (AHFS Monograph)
  • … +1 more

Related treatment guides

  • Dietary Supplementation
  • Hypertriglyceridemia

The truth about fish oil

In the United States, sales of fish oil, commonly sold as the nutritional supplement omega-3 fatty acids, reached $2.25 billion in 2014. Touted for its ability to do just about everything but leap tall buildings, fish oil has become one of the trendiest supplements out there. It’s the third most widely used dietary supplement, after vitamins and minerals.

According to the National Institutes of Health, people use fish oil to help with heart disease, stroke, depression, psychosis, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, dry eyes, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, painful periods, breast pain, miscarriage, high blood pressure in pregnancy, diabetes, asthma, developmental coordination disorders, movement disorders, dyslexia, obesity, kidney disease, osteoporosis, certain diseases related to pain and swelling, psoriasis, preventing weight loss, and preventing high blood pressure and kidney damage, among other things. Somewhere along the line, popular opinion deemed fish oil a miracle panacea.

The answer is more friend than foe, if the fish oil comes from food sources rather than supplements.

Omega-3s in balance

What’s so special about fish oil? It’s loaded with omega-3 fatty acids. These must come from food, since our bodies can’t make them.

The two key omega-3 fatty acids are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fatty fish like salmon, mackerel, and sardines are rich in these omega-3s. Some plants are rich in another type of omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid, which the body can convert to DHA and EPA. Good sources of these are flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, and canola oil.

Omega-3 fatty acids play important roles in brain function, normal growth and development, and inflammation. Deficiencies have been linked to a variety of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, some cancers, mood disorders, arthritis, and more. But that doesn’t mean taking high doses translates to better health and disease prevention.

Fish oil supplements have been promoted as easy way to protect the heart, ease inflammation, improve mental health, and lengthen life. Such claims are one reason why Americans spend more than $1 billion a year on over-the-counter fish oil. And food companies are adding it to milk, yogurt, cereal, chocolate, cookies, juice, and hundreds of other foods.

But the evidence for improving heart health is mixed. In November 2018, a study reported in the New England Journal of Medicine found that omega-3 fatty acid supplements did nothing to reduce heart attacks, strokes, or deaths from heart disease in middle-age men and women without any known risk factors for heart disease. Earlier research reported in the same journal in 2013 also reported no benefit in people with risk factors for heart disease.

However, when researchers looked at subgroups of people who don’t eat any fish, the results suggested they may reduce their cardiovascular risk by taking a fish oil supplement.

Evidence linking fish oil and cancer has been all over the map. Most research, including the 2018 study cited above, has not shown any decreased risk of cancer. However, some earlier research suggested diets high in fatty fish or fish oil supplements might reduce the risk of certain cancers.

Take home message

How food, and its component molecules, affect the body is largely a mystery. That makes the use of supplements for anything other than treating a deficiency questionable.

Despite this one study, you should still consider eating fish and other seafood as a healthy strategy. If we could absolutely, positively say that the benefits of eating seafood comes entirely from omega-3 fats, then downing fish oil pills would be an alternative to eating fish. But it’s more than likely that you need the entire orchestra of fish fats, vitamins, minerals, and supporting molecules, rather than the lone notes of EPA and DHA.

The same holds true of other foods. Taking even a handful of supplements is no substitute for wealth of nutrients you get from eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

What should you do if you currently take fish oil? If your doctor prescribed them—they are an approved and effective treatment for people with high blood triglyceride levels—follow his or her instructions until you can have a conversation about fish oil.

If you are taking them on your own because you believe they are good for you, it’s time to rethink that strategy. If you don’t eat fish or other seafood, you might benefit from a fish oil supplement. Also you can get omega-3s from ground flaxseed or flaxseed oil, chia seeds, walnuts, canola oil, and soy oil. One to two servings per day can help you avoid a deficiency of omega-3s.

Following food author Michael Pollan’s simple advice about choosing a diet may be the best way forward: “Eat food. Not too much. Mainly plants.”

Fish Oil Side Effects – What You Need to Know

The omega 3 fatty acids found in fish oil and fish oil supplements have loudly been touted as a crucial factor for the normal, healthy functioning of our bodies, right down to the cellular level.

The omega 3 fatty acids found in fish oil and fish oil supplements have loudly been touted as a crucial factor for the normal, healthy functioning of our bodies, right down to the cellular level. Omega 3s are necessary for normal brain development and functioning and help keep at bay numerous diseases, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, depression, neurological issues, skin disorders, psychological disorders, diabetes, immune disorders and arthritis. The benefits of fish oil are obvious, but are there any downsides to using fish oil supplements?

What are the most common fish oil side effects?

There are very few downsides to using supplementing with fish oil, and high quality fish oil capsules is generally safe for average healthy people.

The limited number of fish oil side effects that do occur usually only occur over time and with large doses. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, taking up to three grams of omega 3 fatty acids a day from fish is generally regarded as safe.

Diabetics, people at risk for bleeding, people with high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), people with fish allergies, young children and women who are breast-feeding or pregnant, however, should be careful because they may be at a higher risk when supplementing with fish oil.

People with congestive heart failure (or any other condition where the heart is receiving insufficient blood flow), people taking insulin, people who bruise easily, people who have disorders involving bleeding and people who take blood thinners should get a doctor’s approval before taking fish oil supplements or increasing their intake of omega 3s if it’s already a part of their diets.

The most common side effects from overconsumption of fish oil include:
– Increased risk of bleeding. There’s little evidence of risk if you don’t take much fish oil, but if you take extremely large amounts (like eskimos have been known to do), there is an increased chance of hemorrhagic stroke, blood in the urine and nosebleeds. Why? Because fish oil seems to increase the breaking down of blood clots and decrease blood platelets from clumping together.
– High intake of toxins (from fish meat). Contaminants like methylmercury, PCBs and dioxin can be found in some types of fish. Fish oil supplements, however, are usually filtered and don’t have these toxins. Babies are most susceptible to these toxins and that’s why young children and women who are pregnant or nursing should avoid eating too much fish – though supplementing with molecularly distilled EPA/DHA supplements from fish oil is recommended.
–Vitamin toxicity. Fish liver and fish liver oils (like cod liver oil) contain high amounts of vitamins D and A. Fish oil, however, does not contain too much vitamin A or D. Also, vitamin E is sometimes added to fish oil products to make up for the vitamin E deficiency caused by taking fish oil over long periods of time (vitamin E is used to metabolize omega 3s and vitamin E supplies can go down with high intake of omega 3s).
– Small reduction in blood pressure. The more omega 3s you take, the greater the reduction in blood pressure, so people that take blood pressure lowering medications or those with low blood pressure should be careful.
– Slight increases in fasting blood glucose for type-2 diabetics. It seems, however, that scientific evidence doesn’t show any long-term side effects on diabetics from taking fish oil.
– 5 – 10% increase in bad cholesterol levels. Studies show that LDL levels increase with the more fish oil you take. But the amount is very small and insignificant when compared with the benefits of fish oil.
– Swelling of upper respiratory tract. This has only been found in some patients who consume fish oil.
– Allergic reactions — skin rashes, itching, hives, swelling, difficulty breathing, swelling of the throat. This will only happen with people who have allergies to fish.
– Stomach and gastrointestinal upset. Some people get diarrhea from fish oil and it only gets worse for them with higher amounts. Some people also claim symptoms like heartburn, bad breath, fishy aftertaste, burping, stomach pain and bloating, acid reflux, indigestion. These are the most common side effects of fish oil. (To reduce or eliminate these issues, store your fish oil in the freezer, take fish oil with meals, start taking a small dosage and slowly increase the amount you take.)
– Too much DHA in infants and small children. Fish oil supplements may not be suitable for infants and small children because the brain doesn’t need EPA and in trying to get DHA gets too much EPA.

Rare fish oil side effects that have been claimed include mania in people with bipolar disorder or major depression, restlessness and the sensation of ants crawling on the skin.

Fish Oil Symptom Action Items

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of allergic reaction, including:
– hives
– difficulty breathing
– swelling of your throat, tongue, lips or face

Call your doctor and stop taking fish oil if you have any of these side effects:
– uneven heart beats
– flu symptoms, like fever, body aches or chills
– chest pain

Consult your doctor before taking fish oil supplements if you:
– have congestive heart failure (or any other condition where the heart is receiving insufficient blood flow)
– people taking insulin,
– bruise easily,
– have a disorder involving bleeding
– take blood thinners

Be careful when starting fish oil supplements if you:
– are diabetic
– are at risk for bleeding
– have high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
– have fish allergies
– are breast-feeding or pregnant
– give fish oil to young children, especially those under the age of five

Avoid any side effects fish oil may have and reap the benefits of fish oil instead

Since fish oil has so many benefits — promoting a healthy brain, immune system, vision, complexion, mental state and heart, to name a few, it’s clear that getting a sufficient dose of fish oil is imperative if you want a healthy body and to live a healthy life. So how can you take advantage of these fish oil pros and stay clear of any potential fish oil side effects?
– Don’t overdo it. Simply take the recommended amount of fish oil instead.
– Get your fish oil in with a meal to avoid any of the potential fishy stomach side effects.
– Keep your fish oil in the freezer to help with any gastrointestinal issues, at least at first.
– Take fish oil supplements instead of wild fish to avoid toxic levels of contaminants.
– Take fish oil capsules to avoid unsafe levels of vitamins A and D. (Fish oils from the flesh of the fish do not typically contain vitamin A like oils taken from the liver.)
– Take fish oil supplements in recommended amounts to avoid unsafe levels of vitamin E.
– Choose high quality fish oil supplements. High quality fish oil removes the toxins and has higher concentrations of omega 3s per mg so you don’t have to take as much. They also generally don’t have any other unnecessary fillers or other harmful ingredients, like preservatives. (Go to our Best Fish Oil article for a checklist on how to pick the best fish oil for you.
– Try unrefined flaxseed oil or raw flaxseeds if you’re allergic to fish.

Focus on the “positive side effects” of fish oil omega 3s

By positive side effects of fish oil omega 3s, we really mean the benefits, with the main benefit being that omega 3s keep your cells functioning properly (instead of breaking down and putting your body at risk) and allow you to live a happy, healthy life.

We recommend starting sooner than later with omega 3s because your body really does need them. To make it easy on yourself, you can start with high quality fish oil capsules (http://www.energyfirst.com/omega-3-fish-oil) or liquids (or flax seeds if you’re a vegetarian). Start taking them slowly and then you can build up the dosage once you’re sure you have no issues (which you most likely won’t). You can read our recommended fish oil dosage article to see how much you should be taking.

Once you’re in a fish oil groove, sit back, relax and enjoy feeling great, just as if you’d gone fishing!

Omega-3 Supplements: In Depth

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Do fish oil supplements reduce inflammation?

Ask the doctor


Image: Bigstock

Published: September, 2016

Q. I’ve read that taking doses as high as 3,000 to 6,000 milligrams a day of a fish oil supplement may lower inflammation. If so, I’d like to take it to reduce my risk of cancer and heart disease.

A. Fish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, which are part of a healthy diet that is associated with lower levels of inflammation. Your body can’t manufacture omega-3 fatty acids—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)—so it’s important to get them through your diet. EPA and DHA are primarily found in fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, and anchovies. ALA is found in plants and is available in vegetable oils, nuts, flaxseeds, and flaxseed oil.

Several studies have evaluated fish oil supplements for preventing heart disease, cancer, and other conditions related to inflammation, but there is still no convincing evidence to recommend them—especially at such a high dose. The one exception is if you have very high levels of triglycerides in your blood. Then your doctor may prescribe Lovaza, a fish oil medication containing 465 milligrams (mg) of ALA and 375 mg of DHA, to be taken four times a day.

If your doctor hasn’t prescribed high doses of fish oil, you’d be better advised to add foods containing omega-3s to your diet. Nonprescription fish oils are notoriously prone to spoilage.

— by Hope Ricciotti, M.D., and Hye-Chun Hur, M.D., M.P.H.
Editors in Chief, Harvard Women’s Health Watch

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  • Dr Myers, an expert who holds a doctorate in naturopathic medicine. I am a naturopathic physician with nearly 20 years of experience developing breakthrough nutritional products.I also have extensive television and radio experience and have lectured widely to health professionals, the military and the public on all aspects of natural health.
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As with anything in life, too much can possibly be harmful and of course fish oil is no different. However, on saying that, if you stick to the recommendations on the bottle then it will be very difficult to overdose on fish oil. Even if you do happen to accidentally take too much fish oil then the possibility of suffering severe long term effects are unlikely although if you do overdose it’s important to seek medical attention just to be on the safe side.

So what can you expect if you overdose on fish oil? The symptoms of a fish oil overdose are likely to be similar to the side effects that can be experienced with fish oil only much worse.

What are the side effects associated with Fish Oil?

It has to be said that the risk of severe side effects from taking fish oil is quite rare. The most commonly reported side effect from fish oil are fishy burps, a fishy aftertaste in the mouth and an upset stomach in the form of stomach cramps and possibly accompanied by flatulence and diarrhoea. You can help prevent this by keeping your fish oil in the fridge and only taking it along with meals.

More serious side effects can include easy bruising and an increased risk of bleeding and possibly the more serious internal bleeding which can be difficult to identify. However, there is also a risk from ingesting too much Vitamin A but only if you are taking Cod Liver Oil as Cod Liver Oil contains significant amounts of Vitamin A which can cause Vitamin A toxicity. This is particularly important for pregnant women as too much Vitamin A is believed to be harmful to the unborn baby and may result in birth defects.

If you are worried about vitamin A toxicity then it may be best to avoid Cod Liver Oil and take other fish oils which do not contain vitamin A as it is quite easy to exceed the recommended dietary allowance of Vitamin A, particularly if you are taking the fish oil over extended periods of time as Vitamin A can accumulate in the body.

Treating an overdose

If you suspect that you have overdosed on fish oil and/or are experiencing severe side effects then seek medical attention as soon as possible so that you can receive the appropriate treatment. Treatment will generally consist of alleviating or stopping the symptoms that have arisen as a result of the overdose.

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CASE REPORT

The patient is a 55-year-old male employed as a professor in the USA. At Age 42, he consulted his general practitioner for major depressive disorder and was prescribed fluoxetine, eventually titrated to 40 mg. Pharmacotherapy combined with psychotherapy generally relieved the worst episodes of depressive disorder, but occasional relapses occurred for the next 10 years or more. On at least three occasions, the patient discontinued the fluoxetine when the depression was in remission, but symptoms returned within a few months each time and he resumed taking the medication. When he was 46, his general practitioner suggested adding fish oil supplements to his regimen, particularly those that are enriched in EPA, at a dose of 2–3 g/day total lipids. He began taking with morning meals two 1-g softgels per day of fish oil that contained 6 : 1 EPA : DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 500 mg EPA per softgel). The patient reported that the supplements seemed to noticeably relieve his depressive symptoms. He continued taking the same brand of high-EPA fish oil daily for 8 years (Metagenics ‘EPA 500 Concentrate’, formerly named ‘EPA : DHA 6 : 1’) and while the depressive episodes did not completely abate for several more years, they became shorter in duration and more manageable. At Age 54, he had not experienced a significant relapse for over a year so he once again tapered off the fluoxetine. Of note, until this time he had not reported any significant anxiety symptoms. The patient exercises regularly and is in excellent health. Other significant history includes asthma that is well controlled and a cerebral aneurysm successfully treated with endovascular coiling at Age 52. He uses an albuterol inhaler for rare exacerbations of asthma, usually during upper respiratory tract infections, and takes a daily multivitamin. He is medically literate and was cared for by two successive clinicians (including L.B.B.) in the same medical office for more than 20 years.

Six months after stopping the fluoxetine, the patient reported that he had recently begun experiencing gradually worsening insomnia and general anxiety. He often awakened after 2 or 3 h of sound sleep, sometimes with shortness of breath, and was then unable to stop ruminating about possible catastrophic scenarios. On some occasions, he felt so uncomfortable that he was forced to arise to take up reading for an hour or more until he could resume sleep. During the day, he sometimes felt overwhelmed and would experience a flush of alarm, during which his heart rate increased and he began to perspire. On several occasions, exercise-induced dyspnea triggered strong feelings of panic, most acutely when bicycling at high elevations.

The patient mentioned that he had recently run out of his fish oil supplements and seemed to feel better for the few days before he was able to purchase a new bottle. However, he felt that his remission from depression was due in part to these supplements so he continued to take them daily at the same dose. He was prescribed lorazepam for his anxiety. After 6 more months of the anxiety symptoms and insomnia, he stopped taking the fish oil supplements altogether. Within days he felt noticeable relief. He was much more at ease during the day and he could sleep through the night without significant awakenings. He stated that after he had been largely anxiety-free for several weeks, he experimented by resuming the supplements at the same dose as previously for two mornings. On both subsequent nights, and for one additional night, around 2 a.m. he suddenly became fully awake and could not resume sleep for at least an hour. While he did not experience feelings of doom on these awakenings, his thoughts were racing and he was again forced to arise and read for an hour or more. On the following days, he felt agitated and uneasy, which he said was typical when he did not get enough sleep. Two days after the trial ended, he was sleeping well again. At the time of this writing, the patient reports that he remains largely free of anxiety and insomnia. He also reports that he has not experienced significant depressive symptoms either.

Fish oils

Fish body oil

Data from 10 trials from 1985 onwards have been combined in a report to assess the potential therapeutic effect of fish body oil in rheumatoid arthritis. A more recent review article gave an overview of results from 17 RCTs into the same subject.

Report

The quality of the trials included in this report ranged between low and moderate, and results were combined because of the small number of participants.

  • Fish body oil significantly decreased the number of tender joints and shortened the duration of morning stiffness compared to the placebo treatments.
  • It failed to make a significant change in a number of other disease measures (for example grip strength, blood tests for disease activity and the overall disease severity).

Review article

Trials included in this article used daily doses of between 1.6–7.1 g (average 3.5 g) omega-3 fatty acids

The evidence suggests that fish oil supplements were generally well tolerated and significantly reduced the following:

  • joint pain
  • the duration of morning stiffness
  • fatigue time
  • the number of tender or swollen joints
  • the use of painkillers.

Fish liver oil

In this 9-month trial, 97 people with rheumatoid arthritis were randomly selected to receive either 10 capsules of SSMO1, which contain both fish liver oil (1 g per capsule) and fish body oil, or 10 placebo capsules once a day.

  • There was no difference in outcome after 12 weeks of the trial, but participants given SSMO1 had a modest improvement in pain after 24 and 36 weeks compared to the placebo group.
  • 39% of the active treatment group reported a significant reduction in their daily NSAID need compared to just 10% in the placebo group (this was a significant difference).
  • Approximately 65% of participants in the fish liver oil group completed the trial, compared to 54% of the placebo group. Withdrawal from the trial wasn’t put down to side-effects, but it might have been related to the large number of capsules participants were asked to take every day.
  • In those who completed the trial, there was no significant difference in the number or type of side-effects reported, most of which were mild and gastrointestinal in nature.
  • Because we can’t tell whether the results were caused by the fish liver oil, the fish body oil or the combination of the two, we haven’t been able to make a conclusion about the use of fish liver oil to treat rheumatoid arthritis based on this RCT alone.

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