Diabetes type 2 complication

What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

Diabetes may cause a number of health complications if people do not manage it properly. Many of these are chronic, or long-term, but they can become life-threatening. Others need immediate medical attention as soon as they appear.

Emergency complications

Share on PinterestFeeling dizzy and faint may be a symptom of hypoglycemia.

Complications can arise quickly if blood sugar rises or falls too far.

Hypoglycemia

If blood glucose dips below 70 mg/dl, this is hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar.

This can happen if a person who uses insulin takes more than they need for a particular time.

A home blood glucose test can check for hypoglycemia.

It is vital to know the early signs of hypoglycemia, as it can progress quickly, resulting in seizures and a coma. In the early stages, however, it is easy to treat.

Symptoms of hypoglycemia include:

  • confusion
  • dizziness
  • feeling faint
  • heart palpitations
  • rapid heartbeat
  • mood changes
  • loss of consciousness
  • sweating
  • clamminess

If symptoms are mild, a person can often resolve low blood sugar levels by consuming:

  • a few pieces of hard candy
  • a cup of orange juice
  • a teaspoon of honey
  • a glucose tablet

The person should then wait 15 minutes, test their blood sugar, and if it is still low, they should take another glucose tablet or sweet.

When levels return to above 70 mg/dl, the person should eat a meal, to stabilize their glucose levels.

If they remain low for 1 hour or longer, or if symptoms worsen, someone should take the person to the emergency room.

Anyone who has frequent or severe hypoglycemic episodes should speak to their doctor, as they may need to adjust their treatment plan.

Hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

If blood sugar levels rise too far, hyperglycemia can result. If a person notices increased thirst and urination, they should check their blood sugar levels.

It the level is above the target level that their doctor recomends, they take appropriate action.

Without treatment, high a person with hyperglycemia can develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which happens when high levels of ketones collect in the blood, making it too acidic. For this reason, the person should also test their ketone levels.

Ketoacidosis can lead to:

  • difficulty breathing
  • a fruity smell on the breath
  • a dry mouth
  • nausea and vomiting
  • coma

It can be life-threatening. A person with these signs and symptoms should seek immediate medical attention.

People who regularly experience high blood sugar should speak to their doctor about adjusting their treatment plan.

Learn more here about the types of emergencies that can arise and what to do if they happen.

Blood glucose testing kits and ketone testing kits are available for purchase online. People should check with their doctor how often they need to test.

Long-term complications

Keeping blood glucose within target levels can prevent complications that can become life-threatening and disabling over time.

Some possible complications of diabetes are:

  • heart and blood vessel diseases
  • high blood pressure
  • nerve damage (neuropathy)
  • foot damage
  • eye damage and blindness
  • kidney disease
  • hearing problems
  • skin problems

Effective management of blood glucose levels can reduce the risk of complications.

Complications

Complications

Diabetes increases your risk for many serious health problems. The good news? With the correct treatment and recommended lifestyle changes, many people with diabetes are able to prevent or delay the onset of complications.

Skin complications

Stay alert for symptoms of skin infections and other skin disorders common in people with diabetes.

Eye complications

Keep your risk of glaucoma, cataracts and other eye problems low with regular checkups.

Neuropathy

Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy (new-ROP-uh-thee). About half of all people with diabetes have some form of nerve damage.

Foot complications

Learn about neuropathy (which can cause numbness in the feet) as well as other complications.

DKA (ketoacidosis) & ketones

Know the warning signs of DKA and check urine for ketones, especially when you’re sick.

Kidney disease (nephropathy)

Keep your diabetes and blood pressure under control to lower the chance of getting kidney disease.

High blood pressure

High blood pressure—also called hypertension—raises your risk for heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney disease.

Stroke

Maintain target levels for blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol to reduce your risk of stroke.

Symptoms & Causes of Diabetes

In this section:

  • What are the symptoms of diabetes?
  • What causes type 1 diabetes?
  • What causes type 2 diabetes?
  • What causes gestational diabetes?
  • What else can cause diabetes?

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

Symptoms of diabetes include

  • increased thirst and urination
  • increased hunger
  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
  • sores that do not heal
  • unexplained weight loss

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble.

What causes type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease.

What causes type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes.

Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity

You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts.

Insulin resistance

Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin well. As a result, your body needs more insulin to help glucose enter cells. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to keep up with the added demand. Over time, the pancreas can’t make enough insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.

Genes and family history

As in type 1 diabetes, certain genes may make you more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. The disease tends to run in families and occurs more often in these racial/ethnic groups:

  • African Americans
  • Alaska Natives
  • American Indians
  • Asian Americans
  • Hispanics/Latinos
  • Native Hawaiians
  • Pacific Islanders

Genes also can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing a person’s tendency to become overweight or obese.

What causes gestational diabetes?

Scientists believe gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, is caused by the hormonal changes of pregnancy along with genetic and lifestyle factors.

Insulin resistance

Hormones produced by the placenta contribute to insulin resistance, which occurs in all women during late pregnancy. Most pregnant women can produce enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance, but some cannot. Gestational diabetes occurs when the pancreas can’t make enough insulin.

As with type 2 diabetes, extra weight is linked to gestational diabetes. Women who are overweight or obese may already have insulin resistance when they become pregnant. Gaining too much weight during pregnancy may also be a factor.

Hormonal changes, extra weight, and family history can contribute to gestational diabetes.

Having a family history of diabetes makes it more likely that a woman will develop gestational diabetes, which suggests that genes play a role. Genes may also explain why the disorder occurs more often in African Americans, American Indians, Asians, and Hispanics/Latinas.

What else can cause diabetes?

Genetic mutations, other diseases, damage to the pancreas, and certain medicines may also cause diabetes.

Genetic mutations

  • Monogenic diabetes is caused by mutations, or changes, in a single gene. These changes are usually passed through families, but sometimes the gene mutation happens on its own. Most of these gene mutations cause diabetes by making the pancreas less able to make insulin. The most common types of monogenic diabetes are neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Neonatal diabetes occurs in the first 6 months of life. Doctors usually diagnose MODY during adolescence or early adulthood, but sometimes the disease is not diagnosed until later in life.
  • Cystic fibrosis produces thick mucus that causes scarring in the pancreas. This scarring can prevent the pancreas from making enough insulin.
  • Hemochromatosis causes the body to store too much iron. If the disease is not treated, iron can build up in and damage the pancreas and other organs.

Hormonal diseases

Some hormonal diseases cause the body to produce too much of certain hormones, which sometimes cause insulin resistance and diabetes.

  • Cushing’s syndrome occurs when the body produces too much cortisol—often called the “stress hormone.”
  • Acromegaly occurs when the body produces too much growth hormone.
  • Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone.

Damage to or removal of the pancreas

Pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and trauma can all harm the beta cells or make them less able to produce insulin, resulting in diabetes. If the damaged pancreas is removed, diabetes will occur due to the loss of the beta cells.

Medicines

Sometimes certain medicines can harm beta cells or disrupt the way insulin works. These include

  • niacin, a type of vitamin B3
  • certain types of diuretics, also called water pills
  • anti-seizure drugs
  • psychiatric drugs
  • drugs to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • pentamidine, a drug used to treat a type of pneumonia
  • glucocorticoids—medicines used to treat inflammatory illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, lupus, and ulcerative colitis
  • anti-rejection medicines, used to help stop the body from rejecting a transplanted organ

Statins, which are medicines to reduce LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels, can slightly increase the chance that you’ll develop diabetes. However, statins help protect you from heart disease and stroke. For this reason, the strong benefits of taking statins outweigh the small chance that you could develop diabetes.

If you take any of these medicines and are concerned about their side effects, talk with your doctor.

9 Surprising Complications of Type 2 Diabetes

Having diabetes isn’t a death sentence. In fact, an article published in September 2017 in the journal BMJ suggests that, with proper management and weight loss, you can effectively reverse symptoms of the disease. But on the flip side, poorly managed type 2 diabetes can lead to certain complications that can altogether result in increased medical costs, more stress, and potentially a reduced life expectancy.

If you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes, you likely know the major complications for which having diabetes may leave you at risk: heart disease, kidney disease, neuropathy (or nerve damage), and amputations. But complications associated with poor blood sugar control can affect other parts of the body as well.

“When we talk about diabetes complications, we talk about it from head to toe,” says Cathy L. Reeder-McIntosh, RN, MPH, a certified diabetes educator at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina. “Even if you don’t have perfectly controlled blood sugar, lowering your A1C level — which measures your average blood sugar level over the past two to three months — even a small amount helps reduce your risk of complications.”

The A1C test is the most common diagnostic tool for type 2 diabetes, but its function doesn’t end there — for managing diabetes, these test results are crucial, too. The Mayo Clinic recommends getting the A1C test twice per year if you have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, don’t use insulin, and your blood sugar is within the goal range that you and your doctor have set.

But if you are on insulin or your blood sugar is poorly controlled, the Mayo Clinic recommends you receive the test four times per year. A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

To help lower your A1C and reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes complications, you can follow tried-and-true diabetes management advice, like adhering to your medication regimen, practicing portion control while eating a diabetes-friendly diet, and exercising regularly.

But even if you’re meeting your blood sugar level and A1C goals, it’s important to be aware of the potential diabetes complications that may affect you should your situation change. That’s because although taking certain steps to manage diabetes well can potentially lead to reversal, for many people, diabetes remains a progressive disease. Knowing how to spot the signs of all diabetes complications, regardless of their commonality, can be crucial for getting the proper treatment.

For one, your age and ethnicity may play a role in your risk for developing these issues, research suggests. According to a study published in September 2016 in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, people diagnosed with diabetes in midlife may be more prone to complications such as vision loss and kidney disease compared with people diagnosed with the disease while they are elderly, as middle-age people have more time to develop these problems than those who are diagnosed later in life.

And a review published in Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research suggested minorities may be at a greater risk for amputations.

Whether it’s signs of neuropathy, heart disease, kidney disease, or other issues, like digestive problems, skin infections, or the like, some people won’t make changes until they see signs of complications caused by years of high blood sugar, Reeder-McIntosh points out. To keep that from happening, you should be aware of all the potential diabetes complications. Following are nine you may not already know.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

What Is It?

Published: December, 2018

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. That’s because it used to start almost always in middle- and late-adulthood. However, more and more children and teens are developing this condition. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes, and is really a different disease. But it shares with type 1 diabetes high blood sugar levels, and the complications of high blood sugar.

During digestion, food is broken down into basic components. Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars, primarily glucose. Glucose is a critically important source of energy for the body’s cells. To provide energy to the cells, glucose needs to leave the blood and get inside the cells.

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