Centrum vitamins side effects

Contents

Centrum Silver Adult Complete Multivitamin & Multimineral Supplement Tablet, Age 50 Plus150.0ea

  • Includes 150 tablets of Centrum Silver Adult Multivitamin / Multimineral Supplement, Age 50+
  • Age-adjusted to support the health of adults age 50 and older and to help support the heart, brain and eyes (4)*
  • The most complete multivitamin with Centrum’s highest levels of Vitamin D
  • Verified non-GMO (1) and gluten-free vitamin with a smooth coating that’s easy-to-swallow
  • #1 doctor and pharmacist recommended brand (5) for multivitamins

Centrum Silver Adult Multivitamin and Multimineral Supplement is the most complete multivitamin to help support the health of adults age 50 and older. Featuring a smooth coating, Centrum daily multivitamin tablets are easy-to-swallow. Centrum Silver is formulated with a broad spectrum of key nutrients to help support your heart, brain and eyes (4). Centrum Silver Adult tablets are available in personalized formulas for both men and women and are all verified non-GMO (1) and gluten-free. Multivitamins are part of an overall healthy lifestyle and can help adults get the recommended amount of key vitamins and minerals. Help support your body head-to-toe with Centrum, the #1 doctor and pharmacist recommended brand (5).*

(1) Non-GMO applies to Centrum and Centrum Silver tablets only; learn more at Centrum’s official website.

(2) A combination of Vitamin D and Calcium helps maintain strong bones.*

(3) Vitamins D and B6 help support muscle function.*

(4) Heart: B-Vitamins help promote heart health. Not a replacement for cholesterol-lowering drugs. Brain: Zinc and B-Vitamins help support normal brain function. Eyes: Vitamins A, C, and E and Lutein help support healthy eyes.* This product is not intended to provide daily intake of Lutein. Take with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

(5) Based on IMS Health data (adult multivitamin brands in the US as of March 2017), and 2017 Pharmacy Times Survey of Pharmacists’ OTC Recommendations.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Made in United States

Adults: Take one (1) tablet daily with food. Store at room temperature. Keep bottle tightly closed.

©

Centrum Silver Women Multivitamin Tablet, Age 50 and Older (250 ct.)

Centrum® Silver Women Multivitamin/Multimineral Supplement Tablet, Vitamin D3, Age 50 and Older (250 ct.) is one of the top multivitamins for women’s health. A daily multivitamin is part of a healthy lifestyle along with a balanced diet and exercise. But where food sometimes falls short, Centrum picks up the slack.

With vitamin D and calcium, Centrum Silver helps women build and maintain strong bones. With a range of B vitamins, Centrum Silver Women’s Multivitamin helps support a healthy heart. Centrum Silver women also benefit from vitamin C improving the function of the immune system, and teaming up with vitamins A and E to support healthy eyes.

Why Do You Need A Centrum Silver Women Multivitamin/Multimineral Supplement Tablet, Vitamin D3, Age 50 and Older ?

Even with a healthy lifestyle, complete and well balanced diet and regular exercise, you can fall short in your daily need for vitamins and minerals. Certain foods do not contain the level of vitamins the body needs to continue to function at a high level. Just one quick pill every day ensures that your body stays healthy and allows you to focus on other things, like that never-ending to-do list. Or, even better, spending more time with friends and family.

Are These Vitamins For Women?

Yes. This is the best multivitamin for women because it is the most complete source of all the vitamins and minerals that women need on a daily basis to maintain health as they age. As you get older, it becomes increasingly important to maintain levels of certain vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin D and calcium, to offset the effects of aging. Centrum is the number-one doctor and pharmacist recommended brand of vitamin thanks to over 35 years of clinically proven results.

Is This Multivitamin Easy To Swallow?

Yes, another reason this is one of the best vitamins for women is the ease with which it can be swallowed, thanks to its smooth coating. Say goodbye to those giant, rough and choke-inducing multivitamins and say hello to Centrum® Silver Women Multivitamin/Multimineral Supplement Tablet, Vitamin D3, Age 50 and Older.

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jul 20, 2019.

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Warning

If your product has iron in it:

  • Accidental overdose of drugs that have iron in them is a leading cause of deadly poisoning in children younger than 6 years of age. Keep away from children. If Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)) is taken by accident, call a doctor or poison control center right away.

Uses of Centrum:

  • It is used to help growth and good health.
  • It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.

What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Centrum?

All products:

  • If you have an allergy to Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)) or any part of Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)).
  • If you are allergic to any drugs like this one, any other drugs, foods, or other substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and what signs you had, like rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other signs.

If your product has iron in it:

  • If you have too much iron in your body.

This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)).

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)) with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug without checking with your doctor.

What are some things I need to know or do while I take Centrum?

  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)). This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • This medicine may affect certain lab tests. Tell all of your health care providers and lab workers that you take Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)).
  • If you are allergic to soy, talk with your doctor. Some products have soy.
  • If you are allergic to tartrazine, talk with your doctor. Some products have tartrazine.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan on getting pregnant. You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)) while you are pregnant.
  • Tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding. You will need to talk about any risks to your baby.

How is this medicine (Centrum) best taken?

Use Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)) as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.

All products:

  • Take with or without food. Take with food if it causes an upset stomach.

Long-acting products:

  • Swallow whole. Do not chew, break, or crush.

Liquid:

  • Measure liquid doses carefully. Use the measuring device that comes with Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)). If there is none, ask the pharmacist for a device to measure Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)).

Chewable tablet:

  • Chew well before swallowing.

What do I do if I miss a dose?

  • If you take Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)) on a regular basis, take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.

What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

All products:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

If your product has iron in it:

  • Black, tarry, or bloody stools.
  • Fever.
  • Very upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Very bad belly pain.
  • Throwing up blood or throw up that looks like coffee grounds.
  • Stomach cramps.

What are some other side effects of Centrum?

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

All products:

  • Upset stomach or throwing up.

If your product has iron in it:

  • Constipation.
  • Change in color of stool to green.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Belly pain.

These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also report side effects at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

If OVERDOSE is suspected:

If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

How do I store and/or throw out Centrum?

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.

Consumer information use

  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else’s drugs.
  • Keep a list of all your drugs (prescription, natural products, vitamins, OTC) with you. Give this list to your doctor.
  • Talk with the doctor before starting any new drug, including prescription or OTC, natural products, or vitamins.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. Check with your pharmacist. If you have any questions about Centrum (vitamins (multiple/oral)), please talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was taken, how much, and when it happened.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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Diets like the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension are loaded with essential vitamins and minerals and proven to reduce high blood pressure (BP).
A daily multivitamin can provide low levels of essential vitamins and nutrients. However, little is known about multivitamin use and associated prevention or development of hypertension, especially in women.
An OTC preventive strategy for hypertension would benefit the general population and allow for more opportunity for patient education and counseling. Conversely, some researchers wonder whether vitamins increase BP, which would discourage use in patients with preexisting hypertension.
This topic was the focus of research published in the August 2016 issue of the Journal of Hypertension. The first study of its kind, it examined long-term use of multivitamins in older women and its potential effects on BP.
Essential vitamins and nutrients can potentially alter hypertension risk in multiple ways. Nutrients with antioxidant properties can reduce oxidative stress. Magnesium, potassium, and vitamin D are all part of BP regulation, and low levels of these essential nutrients may elevate risk for high BP.
This prospective cohort study included 28,157 women from the Women’s Health Study who were 45 years or older and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and hypertension; 38% of the participants were taking a multivitamin at the start of the study.
At the end of the study, the researchers determined baseline multivitamin use didn’t elevate risk of hypertension. This was consistent across all potential risk factors for hypertension (eg, age, BMI). There was also no association with incident hypertension even when multivitamin use changed during the study.
However, this study had several limitations. For instance, it only enrolled females who were disease-free at baseline, and most of the study population was highly educated and had better health status than the general population.
Although multivitamins aren’t recommended as a preventive strategy for hypertension in this patient population, further randomized, controlled trials and observational studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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Can multivitamins help me to gain weight?

If you are deficient in any of the essential nutrients involved in developing and building muscle the answer is yes. Our recommendation is that everyone, young, old or no matter the fitness goal, should use a daily multivitamin and mineral formula (MVM) just like all the athletes we work with because studies continue to show that no one gets all the necessary nutrients from daily diet. So you should be using a MVM regardless.
There are ~40 essential (must be supplied through diet or supplements) vitamins, minerals and other bio-chemicals, which are responsible for virtually all metabolic and developmental processes that take place in the body, including energy production, cell division, replication, and muscle building. Therefore if you are even marginally short on your overall daily needs for extended periods, some parts of the body will get less than it needs to function optimally including muscle building.
To gain “good weight” (muscle not fat), adults need to participate in some form of resistance exercise and follow a good eating and supplement plan. Our Sharecare Fitness Application under you “Coach” tab has the perfect plan. All you need to do is enter your body statistics and goal and the plan will be created for you. Here is a summary of your weight gain instructions and supplement plan to gain ~1 pound of muscle every 2 weeks: your total daily calorie intake should be moderately above current expenditure. If weight gain does not occur as described, you may add roughly 100 to 250 calories to your daily total (based on body size). If preferred, use your exercise shakes or snacks to supply extra calories. Following the addition of extra calories, if after one week weight gain does not occur, repeat the above process. Supplement plan:
Active multivitamin mineral formula

  • Take 1 daily with breakfast or any other larger meal
  • Use SuperCalcium+ and SuperOmega-3 as necessary — i.e. not getting enough from food
  • Take 2 scoops 10-30 minutes before workout or use favorite dotFIT® bar for convenience
  • Take 2 scoops 20 minutes post workout (if also using AB post workout, take FS 20mins after)
  • Use anytime throughout the day to add calories as necessary to maintain weight gain

First String (pre, post workout and weight gain formula)

Can Your Multivitamin Help You Slim Down?

New science suggests taking a multivitamin may help you lose weight.

There’s still no magic pill for weight loss, but taking a multivitamin might be the secret to a slimmer you.

In a new study of more than 85 obese women in China, those who took a multivitamin (with 29 vitamins and minerals, much like a “one-a-day” you find on store shelves), while continuing to eat their normal diets, lost an average of about three and a half pounds over six months. Those who took a placebo lost nothing.

The findings, reported in February 2010 in the International Journal of Obesity, add to a growing field of research that links vitamins and minerals to weight loss. A study published in 2008 in the British Journal of Nutrition, for example, found that dieting obese men and women who took a multivitamin and mineral supplement lost the same amount of weight as dieters who took a placebo during a 15-week calorie-restricted eating plan. But the female supplement-takers reported feeling less hungry, said lead author Angelo Tremblay, Ph.D., an obesity researcher at Laval University in Quebec City. Being less hungry might make it easier to keep the weight off, says Tremblay.

Scientists don’t yet know exactly which vitamins and minerals have the biggest influence over appetite and weight control. Calcium seems to help: a number of clinical trials have shown that consuming 1,200 milligrams of calcium a day can boost weight loss in dieters by up to 60 percent, possibly by binding to fat in the gastrointestinal tract, which reduces how much fat the body absorbs. The weight-loss benefits of calcium supplements, however, appear to work best for people who aren’t already getting enough of the mineral. But other nutrients seem to be helpful, too: women in the Chinese study who took multivitamins lost more weight than those who took a supplement that contained only calcium-in the same amount provided by the multivitamin.

One plausible theory as to why multivitamins might help promote weight loss, suggests Tremblay, is that when your body is low on vitamins and minerals, your appetite fires up-prompting you to eat more to replenish the nutrients you’re missing. By staying topped off with nutrients, on the other hand, it may be possible to keep a runaway appetite under control.

Nutrition experts say it’s best to get nutrients from food, but when dieters cut back on calories they are more likely to miss the mark on some nutritional requirements. So although a supplement on its own won’t melt the pounds away, it can help ensure that vitamin and mineral deficiencies aren’t contributing to extra weight.

July/August 2010

You’ve probably heard people blame their weight on a slow metabolism, but what does that mean? Is metabolism really the culprit? And if so, is it possible to rev up your metabolism to burn more calories?

While it’s true that metabolism is linked to weight, it may not be in the way you expect. In fact, contrary to common belief, a slow metabolism is rarely the cause of excess weight gain. Although your metabolism influences your body’s basic energy needs, it’s your food and beverage intake and your physical activity that ultimately determine how much you weigh.

Metabolism: Converting food into energy

Metabolism is the process by which your body converts what you eat and drink into energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy your body needs to function. Even when you’re at rest, your body needs energy for all its “hidden” functions, such as breathing, circulating blood, adjusting hormone levels, and growing and repairing cells.

The number of calories your body uses to carry out these basic functions is known as your basal metabolic rate — what you might call metabolism. Several factors determine your individual basal metabolic rate:

  • Your body size and composition. The bodies of people who are larger or have more muscle burn more calories, even at rest.

  • Your sex. Men usually have less body fat and more muscle than do women of the same age and weight, burning more calories.

  • Your age. As you get older, the amount of muscle tends to decrease and fat accounts for more of your weight, slowing down calorie burning.

Energy needs for your body’s basic functions stay fairly consistent and aren’t easily changed. Your basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75 percent of the calories you burn every day.

In addition to your basal metabolic rate, two other factors determine how many calories your body burns each day:

  • Food processing (thermogenesis). Digesting, absorbing, transporting and storing the food you consume also takes calories. This accounts for about 10 percent of the calories used each day. For the most part, your body’s energy requirement to process food stays relatively steady and isn’t easily changed.

  • Physical activity.Physical activity and exercise — such as playing tennis, walking to the store, chasing after the dog and any other movement — account for the rest of the calories your body burns up each day. Physical activity is by far the most variable of the factors that determine how many calories you burn each day.

Metabolism and weight

It may be tempting to blame your metabolism for weight gain. But because metabolism is a natural process, your body generally balances it to meet your individual needs. That’s why if you try so-called starvation diets, your body compensates by slowing down these bodily processes and conserving calories for survival. Only in rare cases do you get excessive weight gain from a medical problem that slows metabolism, such as Cushing’s syndrome or having an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism).

Unfortunately, weight gain is most commonly the result of eating more calories than you burn. To lose weight, then, you need to create an energy deficit by eating fewer calories, increasing the number of calories you burn through physical activity, or both.

A closer look at physical activity and metabolism

While you don’t have much control over the speed of your metabolism, you can control how many calories you burn through your level of physical activity. The more active you are, the more calories you burn. In fact, some people who are said to have a fast metabolism are probably just more active — and maybe more fidgety — than are others.

You can burn more calories with:

  • Regular aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise is the most efficient way to burn calories and includes activities such as walking, bicycling and swimming. As a general goal, include at least 30 minutes of physical activity in your daily routine. If you want to lose weight or meet specific fitness goals, you may need to increase the time you spend on physical activity even more. If you can’t set aside time for a longer workout, try 10-minute chunks of activity throughout the day. Remember, the more active you are, the greater the benefits.

  • Strength training. Strength training exercises, such as weightlifting, are important because they help counteract muscle loss associated with aging. And since muscle tissue burns more calories than fat tissue does, muscle mass is a key factor in weight loss.

  • Lifestyle activities. Any extra movement helps burn calories. Look for ways to walk and move around a few minutes more each day than the day before. Taking the stairs more often and parking farther away at the store are simple ways to burn more calories. Even activities such as gardening, washing your car and housework burn calories and contribute to weight loss.

No magic bullet

Don’t look to dietary supplements for help in burning calories or weight loss. Products that claim to speed up your metabolism are often more hype than help, and some may cause undesirable or even dangerous side effects. Dietary supplement manufacturers aren’t required by the Food and Drug Administration to prove that their products are safe or effective, so view these products with caution and skepticism, and always let your doctors know about any supplements you take.

There’s no magical way to lose weight. It comes down to physical activity and diet. Take in fewer calories than you burn, and you lose weight. But if you’re worried about your metabolism or you can’t seem to lose excess weight despite diet and exercise, talk to your doctor.

Centrum Advance Multivitamin Tablets

  • Product Benefit

  • Ingredients

  • Direction for Use

    • Energy
    • Immunity
    • Healthy Skin
    • Muscle Function

    Energy

    With B group vitamins including folic acid to help support daily energy.

    Immunity

    With key antioxidants such as Vitamins A & E, Betarotene, Selenium, Vitamin C and Zinc to help support immune function.

    Healthy Skin

    Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Biotin to help maintain healthy skin.

    Muscle Function

    Contains Magnesium and Vitamin D to help support muscle health

  • Each tablet contains:

    Vitamin A (as Retinol Acetate)

    300 micrograms R.E.

    Betacarotene

    1.8mg

    Vitamin D3 (Colecalciferol)

    15 micrograms

    Lutein

    500 micrograms

    Lycopene

    600 micrograms

    Vitamin K1 (Phytomenadione)

    25 micrograms

    Calcium Pantothenate

    10.8mg

    Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Nitrate)

    2.18mg

    Nicotinamide

    15mg

    Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

    3.2mg

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride)

    6mg

    Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)

    22 micrograms

    Vitamin H (Biotin)

    45 micrograms

    Folic Acid

    400 micrograms

    Vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl Acetate)

    50mg

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

    90mg

    Calcium (as Calcium Carbonate 135.3mg and Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate 64.7mg)

    200mg

    Magnesium (as Magnesium Oxide)

    50mg

    Iron (as Ferrous Fumarate)

    5mg

    Zinc (as Zinc Oxide)

    7.5mg

    Manganese (as Manganese Sulfate Monihydrate)

    3.5mg

    Chromium (as Chromic Chloride Hexahydrate)

    35 micrograms

    Selenium (as Sodium Selenate)

    55 micrograms

    Copper (as Cupric Sulfate)

    500 micrograms

    Iodine (as Potassium Iodide)

    150 micrograms

    Phosphorus (as Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate)

    50mg

    Potassium (as Potassium Sulfate)

    80mg

    #R.E = Retinol equivalents. No added yeast, dairy, egg, milk, tree nuts.

  • Adults: Take one Centrum Advance tablet daily with water. Do not exceed recommended daily dose.

    Warnings and precautions:

    The recommended daily amount of Vitamin A from all sources is 700 micrograms retinol equivalents for women and 900 micrograms retinol equivalents for men. WARNING: When taken in excess of 3,000 micrograms retinol equivalents, Vitamin A can cause birth defects. If you are pregnant or considering becoming pregnant, do not take Vitamin A supplements without consulting your doctor or pharmacist.

    Ask your healthcare professional if you are pregnant, or considering becoming pregnant, or breastfeeding.

    This product contains selenium which is toxic in high doses. Do not exceed a daily dose of 150 micrograms for adults of Selenium from dietary supplements.

    Not for the treatment of iron deficiency conditions.

    Vitamin supplements should not replace a balanced diet.

    Low sodium formula. Contains colourings, sulfite, caramel (from wheat) and tabletting aids.

Description:
Centrum Select 50+ Multivitamin 30 Tablets

Detailed Description:
Centrum® select 50+ a scientifically formulated, age-adjusted dietary supplement for adults aged 50 years and older to help support health and well-being. As we get older, our nutritional needs change. With Centrum® select 50+, you benefit from what science is discovering about how vitamins and minerals help to unlock energy, support immunity and maintain health.Vitamins, minerals and trace elements are involved in many of the metabolic processes in the body and in so doing, contribute to physical and mental wellness. It may be difficult to follow a balanced diet with the required vitamins and minerals at the required levels. Lifestyle choices such as stress, excessive exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking and even taking certain medication, all impact on nutrient levels. The body cannot produce most vitamins, minerals and trace elements, but is dependent on a regular supply in the diet. An adequate supply of these nutrients is important for well-being and good health.Suitable for diabetics. Lactose-free. GMO-free.*No SA NRV established.**According to the nutrient reference values regulations published 1 March 2010.Vitality:Includes the range of B-vitamins and iron to help support daily energy needs.Immune support:Contains antioxidants such as vitamins A and C as well as the minerals iron, selenium and zinc that are important to the normal function of the immune system.Healthy eyes:Contains a balanced blend of vitamin A and lutein for the maintenance of good vision.Healthy heart:Contains lycopene, folic acid, vitamins B6, B12, vitamin C and vitamin E to support a healthy heart.Centrum® select 50+ is a scientifically formulated daily multivitamin for adults 50+ with specially balanced nutrient blends to help support changing health needs. For more health benefits, visit www.centrum.co.za.Tel: 0860 PFIZER (734 937).This leaflet tells you about Centrum select 50+ tablets.Read all of this leaflet carefully because it contains important information for you.Centrum select 50+ is available without a doctor’s prescription, for your use as a health supplement.Nevertheless you still need to use Centrum select 50+ carefully to get the best results from it.What Centrum select 50+ contains:Centrum select 50+ is a scientifically formulated daily multivitamin for adults 50+ with specially balanced nutrient blends to help support changing health needs.What Centrum is used for:Centrum select 50+ a scientifically formulated, age-adjusted dietary supplement for adults aged 50 years and older to help support health and well-being. As we get older, our nutritional needs change. With Centrum select 50+, you benefit from what science is discovering about how vitamins and minerals help to unlock energy, support immunity and maintain health. Vitamins, minerals and trace elements are involved in many of the metabolic processes in the body and in so doing, contribute to physical and mental wellness. It may be difficult to follow a balanced diet with the required vitamins and minerals at the required levels. Lifestyle choices such as stress, excessive exercise, alcohol consumption, smoking and even taking certain medication, all impact on nutrient levels. The body cannot produce most vitamins, minerals and trace elements, but is dependent on a regular supply in the diet. An adequate supply of these nutrients is important for well-being and good health.Daily supplementation with Centrum select 50+ can support the following health benefits:Vitality:Includes the range of B-vitamins and iron to help support daily energy needs.Immune support:Contains antioxidants such as vitamins A and C as well as the minerals iron, selenium and zinc that are important to the normal function of the immune system.Healthy eyes:Contains a balanced blend of vitamin A and lutein for the maintenance of good vision.Healthy heart:Contains lycopene, folic acid, vitamins B6, B12, vitamin C and vitamin E to support a healthy heart.Below is a breakdown of the role of each of the ingredients in Centrum select 50+:Vital ingredient – important for supporting:Vitamin A – maintenance of good vision and healthy skin, nails and hair.Vitamin B1 – required for the release of energy from glucose. Maintains healthy nerve function.Vitamin B2 – for the production of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate. Helps maintain healthy skin.Vitamin B3 – helps the body in protein metabolism and the conversion of fats and carbohydrate into energy.Vitamin B6 – for the production of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate. Helps maintain healthy skin.Folic acid – plays a role in the metabolism of cell division and in the regeneration of blood and cells.Vitamin B12 – contributes to the health of the nervous system and is involved in the manufacture of red blood cells.Biotin – helps the body with the transformation of fats and carbohydrates into energy. Contributes to healthy skin and hair.Pantothenic acid – plays a role in the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose and proteins for energy production. helps maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.Vitamin C – plays a role in maintaining healthy gums, skin and connective tissue. Functions as tissue antioxidant, thereby keeping cells healthy. Helps with the absorption of iron from food.Vitamin D3 – for the maintenance of healthy teeth and bones. Helps the body to utilise calcium.Vitamin E – functions as a tissue antioxidant, thereby keeping cells healthy.Vital ingredients – important for supporting:Vitamin K1 – contributes to the maintenance of good health and normal bones.Lutein – a micronutrient that contributes to eye health.Lycopene – an antioxidant that may play a role in supporting cardiovascular health.Calcium – helps maintain healthy bones and teeth.Chromium – helps the body to metabolise glucose and supports the maintenance of good health.Copper – helps to produce and repair connective tissue and to form red blood cells.Iodine – contributes to the normal production of thyroid hormones and normal thyroid function and is a factor in the maintenance of good health.Iron – helps to maintain healthy red blood cells, which plays a role in oxygen transportation.Magnesium – contributes to the normal functioning of the nervous system and muscle function. A factor in the maintenance of good health.Manganese – helps the body to metabolise carbohydrates, proteins and fat and contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress.Molybdenum – involved in DNA metabolism, sulphite metabolism and the formation of uric acid.Potassium – helps the body to metabolise proteins and in the maintenance of good health.Selenium – an antioxidant for the maintenance of good health.Zinc – assists the body to metabolise carbohydrates, fats and proteins and help to maintain immune function and a healthy skin.Important information about some of the ingredients of Centrum select 50+:Suitable for diabetes. Lactose-free. GMO-free.Presentation of Centrum:Centrum select 50+ is packed in white round HDPE bottles with a white polypropylene child-resistant cap with a desiccant in counts of 30, 60 or 90 tablets in a carton, with an insert.Identification of Centrum select 50+: Centrum select 50+ is an orange, oval shaped, film coated tablet, engraved “c” on one side and “z” on the other side.For more information, visit www.centrum.co.za.

Pack size:
30 tablets

Quantity in pack:
30

Marketing description:
World’s #1 multivitamin.Vitality.Immune support.Healthy eyes.Healthy heart.Complete from A to Zinc®.Centrum®.Select 50+.Multivitamin.30 tablets.

Brand:
Centrum

Package type:
Box

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Most multivitamins and supplements are a ‘waste of money’

“Not only are vitamin and mineral supplements a waste of money, they can in some instances actually harm the body,” reports The Guardian.

A new Canadian review pooled the findings from existing research into the role of vitamin and mineral supplements for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels, such as heart disease and stroke.

The review found that taking the most widely used supplements – multivitamins, vitamin D, vitamin C and calcium – had no significant effect on the risk of heart-related illnesses. And some supplements, such as vitamin B3 (niacin) may do more harm than good.

And while a large Chinese study did find that folic acid reduced the risk of stroke, these results may not apply to the UK population.

Current UK guidelines advise everyone to consider taking a vitamin D supplement during winter. Women who are trying for a baby or are in the first 12 weeks of their pregnancy should take folic acid supplements. And vitamins A, C and D supplements are recommended for children aged 6 months to 5 years.

You should be able to get most of the vitamins and minerals you need from your diet without having to take supplements. Read more about vitamins and minerals.

Where did the story come from?

The study was carried out by researchers from several institutions, including Toronto University and St Michael’s Hospital in Canada, and the Paris Institute of Technology for Life, Food and Environmental Sciences in France.

It was funded by the Canada Research Chair Endorsement, Loblaw Companies Ltd and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Many of the authors reported links with the pharmaceutical and food industry.

The study was published in the peer-reviewed Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Both The Guardian and the Daily Mirror singled out the finding that some multivitamins and supplements may actually increase the risk of death. However, this finding did not reach the threshold for statistical significance so may have been the result of chance.

What kind of research was this?

This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) looking at the role of vitamin and mineral supplements for the prevention and treatment of heart-related illnesses (cardiovascular disease).

Multivitamins are consumed by a significant proportion of the general population, who believe they have beneficial effects. However, there is not much expert consensus on whether taking supplements of vitamins and minerals is beneficial for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Systematic reviews are one of the best ways of analysing high-quality research to investigate a link between exposure and outcome. However, it’s important to bear in mind that the strength of this review is dependent on the quality of the studies it included.

What did the research involve?

The researchers searched several databases to identify studies published between 2012 and 2017 that investigated the role of dietary supplements on cardiovascular outcomes and death.

The authors identified 179 individual RCT studies. After pooling the results, the researchers looked at the effect of specific vitamins and minerals separately. The following vitamins and minerals were assessed:

  • vitamin A, as well as beta-carotene (a pigment found in food that the body converts into vitamin A)
  • vitamin B1
  • vitamin B2
  • vitamin B3 (niacin)
  • vitamin B6
  • vitamin B9 (folic acid)
  • vitamin C
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin E
  • calcium
  • iron
  • zinc
  • magnesium
  • selenium

They also looked at supplements that combined vitamins or minerals, such as:

  • multivitamins (including some minerals)
  • B-complex vitamins (2 or more of the B group of vitamins)
  • antioxidants (2 or more of vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, selenium or zinc)

They assessed whether the supplements affected the following outcomes:

  • death from any cause
  • death due to cardiovascular disease
  • risk of cardiovascular disease, such as a heart attack or stroke

The evidence was graded, and the researchers focused on the outcomes from studies that were graded as moderate- to high-quality evidence.

What were the basic results?

The study found that none of the most commonly used supplements had any significant effect on the risk of cardiovascular outcomes or death from any cause.

However, there were mixed results for folic acid. Pooling the results from 7 RCTs indicated that folic acid reduced the risk of stroke by 20% (relative risk 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 0.93). It also reduced the risk of any cardiovascular disease by 17% (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.93). However, both these results were mainly based on a single large Chinese study.

How did the researchers interpret the results?

The researchers wrote: “In general, the data on the popular supplements (multivitamins, vitamin D, calcium and vitamin C) show no consistent benefit for the prevention of CVD, MI , or stroke, nor was there a benefit for all-cause mortality to support their continued use.

“At the same time, folic acid alone and B-vitamins with folic acid, B6, and B12 reduced stroke, whereas niacin and antioxidants were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.”

Conclusion

This review broadly found that vitamin and mineral supplements did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease or death. The one exception was folic acid: a large study in China found that it may reduce the risk of stroke.

This review was well designed, focusing only on RCTs, which are considered a source of high-quality evidence.

However, while the RCTs all had decent sample sizes, the number that could be pooled for each specific supplement and subsequent health outcome was not always high – in some cases, only 1 or 2 RCTs had investigated the link.

Although the results of this review do not support taking supplements to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, some supplements have other benefits and are recommended if people have deficiencies.

In general, you should be able to get all the vitamins and minerals you need through your diet. However, supplements that are recommended in the UK include:

  • vitamin D supplements, especially during autumn and winter
  • folic acid during pregnancy
  • vitamins A, C and D for children aged 6 months to 5 years

Analysis by Bazian
Edited by NHS Website

Links to the headlines

Vitamins and antioxidants: some supplements linked to increased risk of death

The Guardian, 28 May 2018

Vitamin pills ‘don’t make you healthier’ – and there’s only one supplement worth taking

Daily Mirror, 29 May 2018

Links to the science

Jenkins DJA, Spence JD, Giovannuci EL, et al.

Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for CVD Prevention and Treatment

Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Published online May 28 2018

How Do Vitamins Work?

Whether it’s being able to see at night2 or nourish our skin,3 they assist us with the biological processes that make life possible. Think of them as a 24/7 construction or maintenance crew that helps us to work, grow, and develop properly. While vitamins might not take the spotlight as the crew chief, the various jobs our bodies need to do would not be possible without their help.

Ideally, we get the vitamins we need from the foods we eat.4 In the body, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats combine chemically with other substances to provide energy and build body tissue. Enzymes produced from specific vitamins, initiate or accelerate these chemical reactions.5, 6 For example, the B vitamins help with the formation of active enzymes that help transfer energy from the food we ingest to the body.7

All vitamins have different jobs to do. While vitamins can have very specific tasks, they often work as a team regulating the various biological processes within our bodies.8, 9

How vitamins are actually used and processed by the body depends on their chemical makeup. Vitamins are either water-soluble (such as vitamin C and the B vitamins) or fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K). Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed by the intestine and carried by our blood to specific body tissues where they are needed. Water soluble vitamins such as B2, are easily lost through sweat and urine. Consequently, they must be replenished more often. Fat soluble vitamins on the other hand, can take quite a while to break down and remain in the body longer.
Vitamins, like A and D, get stored in the liver while vitamin E is stored in body fat.10, 11, 12

There are 13 essential vitamins we all need to grow and function on a daily basis. Here is a brief summary for some of the tasks these “essentials” are responsible for within our body.10, 11, 12

Vitamin A helps form and maintains healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucous membranes, and skin.10, 11, 12

Vitamin B6 helps break down proteins, helps maintain normal nerve function and form red blood cells.10, 11, 12

Vitamin B12 is essential for metabolism. It also helps form red blood cells and maintains the central nervous system.10, 11, 12

Vitamin C promotes the health of teeth and gums as well as wound healing.10, 11, 12

Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium, which is important for healthy teeth and bones. It also helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.10, 11, 12

Vitamin E is an antioxidant that plays a role in the formation of red blood cells.10, 11, 12

Vitamin K is required for normal coagulation of the blood. Some studies suggest that it helps maintain bone health in the elderly.10, 11, 12

Biotin is essential for the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, and in the production of hormones and cholesterol.10, 11, 12

Niacin helps maintain healthy skin and nerves. It also helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels10, 11, 12

Folate works with vitamin B12 to help form red blood cells. It is also necessary for the production of DNA which controls tissue growth and cell function.10, 11, 12

Pantothenic acid is essential for the metabolism of food. It is also plays a role in the production of hormones and cholesterol.10, 11, 12

Riboflavin (B2) works with the other B vitamins. It is important for body growth and the production of red blood cells.10, 11, 12

Thiamine (B1) helps the body’s cells change carbohydrates into energy. It is also essential for heart function and healthy nerve cells.10, 11, 12

If you’re not sure whether you’re getting all the essential vitamins you need every day from your diet, consult with a nutritionist or your doctor, and consider the added benefits of taking a daily multivitamin.

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