Burning sensation while urinating

Why does my urine feel hot?

Share on PinterestThere are many underlying conditions that may cause the temperature of urine to change, or cause a burning sensation during urination.

If a person’s internal body temperature increases — for instance, if they have a fever caused by an infection or if they have just done intense exercise — then their urine may also be warmer than usual.

Below, we provide a list of causes for hot urine or burning urination.

Urinary tract infection (UTIs)

Urinary tract infections are among the most common reasons why urination feels hot or burns when coming out. A UTI occurs when harmful bacteria, often E. coli, get into the urinary tract.

UTIs most commonly affect the bladder. People with UTIs may experience the following symptoms:

  • burning pain when they urinate
  • a frequent need to urinate
  • an intense urge to urinate even immediately after going
  • foul-smelling urine
  • blood in the urine

In most cases, antibiotic treatment quickly cures a UTI. Left untreated, the infection can spread to the kidneys or other areas of the body. UTIs can affect both sexes, but are more common in women than in men.

Other infection

One of the ways that the body fights infection is by heating up. This is why people often develop fevers when they are sick. When the urine is a higher temperature than usual, this could mean that a person has a fever.

A fever could be due to an infection anywhere in the body, so it is important to track symptoms and see a doctor if they do not get better.

When the urine feels physically warm and it burns to urinate, this may mean someone has a UTI or an infection in the kidneys.

Injuries near the urethra

Urine is acidic. This means that when it comes into contact with an injury, even a small one, a person may experience a hot, burning sensation. An injury in or around the urethra can cause the urine to feel hot coming out.

People who shave their genitals may have tiny cuts near the urethra. Friction-related injuries from sexual intercourse, tiny pimples, cuts, and scrapes can all make the urine feel hot.

Small injuries usually go away on their own. If the urethra hurts, a fever occurs, or there is a large wound, a person should see their doctor.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Sexually transmitted infections can cause urinary tract problems. They may also injure the genitals or the area surrounding the urethra, causing pain during urination.

Anyone who is or has been sexually active can get an STI, even if they have previously tested negative. Some STIs are symptom-free for a long time, so a long period without symptoms does not necessarily mean person does not have an STI.

Chlamydia is an STI that commonly causes burning pain when urinating. It can also cause discharge from the vagina or penis, and in men may cause the testicles to swell or hurt.

Interstitial cystitis

Interstitial cystitis is a poorly understood chronic illness that causes symptoms of a UTI, even when a UTI is not present.

This condition is more common in women than in men.

Researchers do not fully understand what causes it, but one potential cause is damage to the tissue of the bladder. People with interstitial cystitis may experience burning when urinating, or other unusual sensations, such as a feeling that the urine is too hot.

Urinary tract infection – causes, symptoms, treatment

If there is a history of recurrent UTIs due to a known underlying cause, a cystoscopy may be performed to see inside the urethra and bladder, and low-dose antibiotics may be given daily for a period of weeks or months to prevent UTIs developing. If kidney infection develops, hospitalisation may be required so that antibiotics can be administered through a drip.

Prevention

The following general steps can help prevent a UTI developing:

  • Drink plenty of water each day to avoid dehydration
  • Pass urine when needed. Do not delay
  • Urinate soon after sexual intercourse
  • After toileting always wipe the bottom from front to back
  • Shower rather than use a bath
  • Do not use perfumed soaps or body wash
  • Do not use sprays, powders, or douches of the genital area
  • Stop smoking
  • See a doctor as soon as possible if symptoms of a UTI are experienced.

Kidshealth (2016). Urinary tract infection (UTI) (Web Page). Auckland: Paediatric Society of New Zealand and Starship Foundation. http://www.kidshealth.org.nz/urinary-tract-infection-uti
Mayo Clinic (2019). Urinary tract infection (UTI) (Web Page). Rochester, MN: Mayo Foundation for Education and Research. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urinary-tract-infection/symptoms-causes/syc-20353447
Ministry of Health (2017). Urinary Tract Infection (Web Page). Wellington: Ministry of Health. http://www.health.govt.nz/your-health/conditions-and-treatments/diseases-and-illnesses/urinary-problems/urinary-tract-infection O’Toole, M.T. (Ed.) (2017). Urinary tract infection (UTI). Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions (10th ed.). St Louis, MI: Elsevier.
Weinberg, G. A. (2018). Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children (Web Page). MSD Manual Consumer Version. Kenilworth, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc. https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-nz/home/children-s-health-issues/bacterial-infections-in-infants-and-children/urinary-tract-infection-uti-in-children
Updated – September 2019

What can make urination painful?

Many different conditions can cause painful urination. Most of these causes are highly treatable.

Below are 10 possible causes of painful urination, along with other symptoms that may occur alongside it.

1. Urinary tract infection

Share on PinterestA UTI can make urination painful.

A urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when excess bacteria build up somewhere in the urinary tract. This part of the body runs from the kidneys to the bladder to the urethra, which carries urine toward the outside of the body.

Additional symptoms

A person with a UTI may experience other symptoms, such as:

  • needing to urinate frequently
  • passing cloudy or blood-tinged urine
  • fever
  • foul-smelling urine
  • pain in the side and back

2. Sexually transmitted infection

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes, can all affect the urinary tract and lead to pain when urinating.

Additional symptoms

Symptoms may vary according to the type of STI. For example, herpes typically causes blister-like lesions on the genitals.

3. Prostate infection

A short-term bacterial infection can result in a prostate infection or prostatitis. Chronic inflammation from another condition, such as an STI, can also cause prostatitis.

Additional symptoms

A prostate infection may also cause:

  • difficulty urinating
  • pain in the bladder, testicles, and penis
  • difficulty ejaculating and painful ejaculation
  • needing to urinate frequently, especially at night

4. Kidney stones

Share on PinterestKidney stones can cause painful urination.

Kidney stones are collections of materials, such as calcium or uric acid, that build up and form hardened stones in and around the kidneys.

Sometimes, the kidney stones will lodge themselves near the area where urine enters the bladder. This can cause painful urination.

Additional symptoms

In addition to dysuria, kidney stones can cause the following symptoms:

  • pain in the side and back
  • pink- or brown-tinted urine
  • cloudy urine
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • pain that changes in intensity
  • fever
  • chills
  • urinating only small amounts frequently

5. Ovarian cysts

Much like kidney stones, ovarian cysts are an example of how something outside the bladder can press on it and cause painful urination.

Ovarian cysts can develop on one or both ovaries, which sit on either side of the bladder.

Additional symptoms

People with ovarian cysts may experience:

  • unusual vaginal bleeding
  • pelvic pain
  • difficulty recognizing that the bladder is empty after urinating
  • painful periods
  • breast tenderness
  • a dull ache in the lower back

6. Interstitial cystitis

Also known as bladder pain syndrome, interstitial cystitis is a condition that causes chronic irritation of the bladder lasting 6 weeks or more without an underlying infection.

Additional symptoms

Interstitial cystitis may also cause the symptoms below:

  • pressure in the bladder area
  • pain during intercourse
  • pain in the vulva or vagina
  • pain in the scrotum
  • urinating frequently but producing little urine

7. Chemical sensitivity

Sometimes, chemicals that are external to the body, such as fragrances, can irritate bodily tissues. When a person urinates, this irritation may be more noticeable, and pain may occur.

Products that can cause chemical sensitivity include:

  • douches
  • soaps
  • scented toilet paper
  • vaginal lubricants
  • contraceptive foams

Additional symptoms

People who react to chemical products may notice:

  • swelling
  • redness
  • itching
  • irritation of the skin on or around the genitals

8. Vaginal infection or irritation

Also known as vaginitis or vaginosis, a vaginal infection can occur due to the overgrowth of bacteria or yeast.

An STI called trichomoniasis can also cause a vaginal infection.

Additional symptoms

The following symptoms may occur alongside painful urination:

  • foul-smelling or unusual vaginal discharge
  • vaginal irritation
  • pain during intercourse
  • vaginal bleeding, which is usually mild

9. Medication

Share on PinterestSome medications can inflame the bladder tissues.

Some medications, including those that doctors prescribe to treat bladder cancer, may irritate and inflame the bladder tissues. This can often cause pain when urinating.

If a person has started a new medication and begins to feel pain when urinating, they should call their doctor and ask if the symptom may be a side effect of the drug. They should not stop taking the medication on their own without asking a doctor first.

Additional symptoms

Additional symptoms vary based on the type of medication.

10. Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer occurs when cancer cells start to develop in the bladder.

Feeling pain when urinating is not typically an early symptom of this condition. Instead, a person usually notices blood in their urine.

Additional symptoms

Other possible symptoms of bladder cancer include:

  • frequent urination
  • having difficulty urinating or passing a weak urine stream
  • lower back pain
  • appetite loss
  • weight loss
  • fatigue
  • foot swelling
  • bone pain

Differences in males and females

Males and females can both experience pain when urinating, and the causes may be anatomy-dependent.

For example, females have shorter urethras than males. As a result, bacteria can often enter the bladder more easily, which can lead to UTIs.

A person can talk to their doctor about their risks for painful urination based on their sex as well as their medical history.

Dysuria (Painful Urination)

What is painful urination (dysuria)?

The term dysuria refers to any pain or discomfort associated with urination (peeing). It does not refer to urinary frequency (how often you go), though disorders of frequency can often be accompanied by dysuria.

Who experiences painful urination (dysuria)?

Men and women of any age can experience painful urination. It is more common in women. It is most commonly associated with urinary tract infections, which more often affect women than men.

Other people at a higher risk of dysuria include:

  • Pregnant women
  • Men and women with diabetes
  • Men and women with any type of disease of the bladder

What are the causes of painful urination (dysuria)?

Painful urination for women can be the result of:

  • Vaginal infection
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Inflammation of the urethra (the tube that connects the bladder and genitals) or vagina that may be related to dietary factors

The inflammation may also be caused by sexual intercourse, douches, soaps, scented toilet paper, contraceptive sponges, or spermicides.

Normal female anatomy

Painful urination for men may be the result of:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Prostate disease
  • Cancer

Normal male anatomy

Painful urination for both genders may be the result of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or the side effect of medications. Chemotherapy cancer drugs or radiation treatments to the pelvic area may inflame the bladder and cause painful urination.

What are the symptoms of painful urination (dysuria)?

Symptoms of painful urination can vary between men and women, but both genders usually experience it as a burning, stinging, or itching feeling. The pain can be at the start of urination or after urination.

Pain at the start of urination is often the symptom of a urinary tract infection. Pain after urination can indicate a problem with the bladder or prostate. For many male patients, pain can persist in the penis before and after urination, too.

Symptoms for female patients can be internal or external. Pain on the outside of the vaginal area may be caused by inflammation or irritation of this sensitive skin. An internal pain can be a symptom of a urinary tract infection.

Share Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Get useful, helpful and relevant health + wellness information enews

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Urination Pain – Female

Is this your child’s symptom?

  • Pain, burning or stinging when passing urine
  • Female
  • Also, suspect pain if your young child starts to cry while passing urine
  • The feeling of “can’t wait” to pass urine may occur. This is called urgency.
  • Passing small amounts of urine (a few drops) at a time may also occur. This is called frequency.
  • Not caused by an injury to the genitals

Causes of Pain Passing Urine

  • Soap Vulvitis. Bubble bath, shampoo or soap in bath water is the main cause in young girls. Can cause the genital area to become red and sore. This is called “soap vulvitis.” It can cause pain when passing urine. Using a soapy washcloth can also be the cause. Vaginal itching or redness can also occur.
  • Bladder or Kidney Infections (urinary tract infections) are possible at any age. It can be diagnosed by checking a urine sample.
  • Labial Fusion. (Also called labial adhesions.) This is when the vaginal lips or folds are stuck together. The vaginal opening looks closed off. Labia that are closed more than half way can collect soap or stool. The main symptom is itching in this area. It can also cause pain when passing urine.

When to Call for Urination Pain – Female

Call 911 Now

  • Not moving or too weak to stand
  • You think your child has a life-threatening emergency

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Blood in urine
  • Severe pain when passing urine
  • Fever is present
  • Stomach, side or back pain
  • Your child looks or acts very sick
  • You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Call Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Painful to pass urine, but none of the symptoms above. Reason: could be a bladder infection.

Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations

If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.

Care Advice for Pain When Passing Urine

  1. What You Should Know:
    • In young girls, soap is the most common cause of pain with passing urine.
    • To rule out a bladder infection, she needs to have her urine checked.
    • Here is some care advice that should help, until you talk with your doctor.
  2. Baking Soda Baths – Young Girls Only:
    • Soak for 10 minutes to remove germs and to help with healing.
    • Add 2 ounces (60 mL) baking soda per tub of warm water.
    • Reason: Baking soda is better than vinegar for young girls.
    • During soaks, be sure she spreads her legs. This allows the water to cleanse the genitals.
    • Repeat baking soda soaks 2 times per day for 2 days.
  3. Do Not Use Soaps – Young Girls Only:
    • Do not use bubble bath, soap and shampoo in the bath water. They can cause the genitals to be red, sore or itchy. This is the most common cause of pain with passing urine in young girls.
    • Only use warm water to cleanse the genitals.
    • Baby oil can be used to remove any dried body fluids.
    • After puberty, soap can be used.
  4. Vinegar – Warm Water Soaks – Girls After Puberty:
    • Soak the genital area for 10 minutes to remove germs and irritants.
    • Add 2 ounces (60 mL) vinegar per tub of warm water.
    • Reason: After puberty, vinegar water matches the normal acidity of the vagina.
    • During soaks, be sure she spreads her legs. Reason: This allows the water to cleanse the genital area.
    • Repeat vinegar water soaks once per day until seen.
  5. Fluids – Offer More:
    • Give extra fluids to drink.
    • Reason: Dilutes the urine so that it does not sting.
  6. Pain Medicine:
    • For pain when passing urine, give a pain medicine.
    • You can use an acetaminophen product (such as Tylenol).
    • Another choice is an ibuprofen product (such as Advil).
    • Use as needed.
  7. Return to School:
    • Even if your child has a bladder infection, it cannot be spread to others.
    • Your child does not need to miss any school or child care.
  8. What to Expect:
    • If soap is the cause, the pain should go away within 24 hours.
    • Itching or skin redness may last 2 days.
  9. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Pain when passing urine becomes severe
    • Fever occurs
    • You think your child needs to be seen
    • Your child becomes worse

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 02/01/2020

Last Revised: 03/14/2019

Copyright 2000-2019 Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.

7 Reasons It Hurts to Pee—and What to Do About It

The simple act of peeing should be just that: simple. So when urinating comes with burning, stinging, or another kind of pain or discomfort, it’s a pretty blatant sign that something isn’t right.

Unfortunately for us, most women will experience this bathroom-break misery at least once in their life. On any given day at her Greenville, Mississippi medical practice, ob-gyn Lakeisha Richardson, MD, estimates that 30% of her patients come to see her because it hurts to pee.

Technically called dysuria, painful urination could be a sign of a number of different infections, some of which require treatment. Other times, pain when peeing can resolve on its own—but you won’t know that unless you get the correct diagnosis from your ob-gyn ASAP.

Here are a few things she’ll be looking for that could be causing your painful urination, plus how to ease or end it.

RELATED: 7 Things Every Woman Should Know About UTIs ​​​​​​

Urinary tract infection

Anyone can get a UTI, but this infection is notoriously common in women—and notoriously to blame for pain while peeing. “I would say about 80% of the time is a UTI,” Dr. Richardson says.

The infection occurs when bacteria make their way into the urethra (the tube through which urine flows out of your body) and then into your bladder. “The bacterial overgrowth makes urine acidic,” Dr. Richardson explains. “When it’s coming out of the urethra, you’ll get the burning sensation.”

In additional to painful peeing, a UTI can also cause symptoms such as a frequent and strong urge to pee (despite the fact that you’re only producing a small amount of urine at a time), cloudy urine, or pee that’s particularly foul-smelling.

Antibiotics are the standard treatment for UTIs, but if your symptoms are mild, you may be able to get away with drinking lots of extra fluids, popping an OTC painkiller, and waiting it out.

In case you’re wondering if your pee pain means you have a yeast infection instead, Dr. Richardson says an overgrowth of yeast in the vagina typically causes more of a consistent burning sensation all the time versus pain just during urination.

RELATED: 9 Home Remedies for Prevention and Treating UTIs

Sexually transmitted infections

When it hurts to pee and it’s not a UTI, it’s usually an STI, Dr. Richardson says. “Most women always assume it’s a UTI and won’t consider that it could be an STI,” she says. It’s a common but risky assumption to make, because you don’t want to delay STI treatment—or urinary pain relief, for that matter.

Chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and genital herpes can all make it hurt to pee. Other signs you might have an STI include itchiness, changes to your usual vaginal discharge, and, in the case of herpes, blisters or sores on your vagina and/or vulva.

In-office or at-home STI tests can help identify the cause of your symptoms. Treatment depends on the specific infection, but your doctor will guide you toward the right option, which might include antibiotics or antiviral medications.

Cystitis

Technically the name for inflammation of the bladder, cystitis can trigger a wide range of causes itself. In many cases, cystitis is caused by a a bacterial infection—aka, a UTI—but not always.

Many irritants can upset the bladder lining and lead to inflammation, and ultimately pain while peeing. These can include some medications and treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer patients. But something as simple as a bubble bath, body wash, spermicide, or feminine hygiene spray can also irritate and inflame the bladder, according to the Mayo Clinic.

If a product is the source of your bladder inflammation and painful urination, the fix is simple: Steer clear of the offending irritant. If cystitis is the result of medical treatment you’re undergoing, you’ll need to discuss options to manage this side effect with your doctor.

In some women, bladder inflammation is long-lasting and hard to treat. This is called interstitial cystitis—also known, disconcertingly, as painful bladder syndrome. It can hurt for people with interstitial cystitis simply for the bladder to fill with urine (which means peeing usually provides relief), but many women with the condition also often have chronic pelvic pain and pain during sex. A variety of treatments, including medication, physical therapy, and nerve stimulation, may also be needed to ease symptoms.

To get our top stories delivered to your inbox, sign up for the Healthy Living newsletter

Kidney infection

If it hurts when you pee and you’ve got blood in your urine and back pain, a UTI may have taken a turn for the worse and moved into the kidneys, Dr. Richardson says. Kidney infections—technically called pyelonephritis—occur when a UTI travels to either or both of these filtering organs. “That’s more serious,” she says. Other symptoms of a kidney infection include fever, chills, and abdominal pain.

If left untreated, a kidney infection can land you in the hospital, she warns. “They can spread to the bloodstream, which is quite dangerous.”

Your doctor will likely need a urine sample to diagnose you with a kidney infection. Antibiotics are the first line of treatment, and symptoms usually start to improve after a few days on the meds.

Kidney or bladder stones

When minerals in urine stick together and crystallize, the resulting bits are called stones—and they can settle in the kidneys or the bladder. In either case, it’s possible for stones to cause no symptoms and pass unnoticed when you pee. But if a bladder stone irritates the bladder lining or a kidney stone lodges in the wrong place, urine flow can be blocked and pain can get pretty intense, both while peeing and otherwise.

If your doctor determines you have kidney or bladder stones, he or she will likely recommend drinking lots of water to help flush out the stones. However, larger symptomatic stones may need to be removed by your doctor.

RELATED: 7 Signs You Could Have Kidney Stones–and When to See a Doctor

Bacterial vaginosis

It’s the most common vaginal infection in women between the ages of 15 and 44, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but no one knows exactly how or why some women get BV. The infection is more common in sexually active women than those who have never had vaginal sex, and it has to do with an imbalance between the healthy and harmful bacteria that naturally reside in the vagina.

According to the CDC, having sex with a new partner or with multiple partners seems to increase a woman’s chances of developing BV, as does douching. If you have BV, it can hurt to pee, your vulva and vagina might itch, and your discharge may appear thin and white or grayish. Some women with BV also notice a strong below-the-belt odor, particularly after sex.

Bacterial vaginosis can increase your risk of contracting certain STIs, so it’s worth getting diagnosed and treated (usually with antibiotics), even if your symptoms are on the milder side.

RELATED: 10 Ways to Deal With Painful Sex

Vaginal tears

If you’re not quite lubricated enough when having penetrative sex, you might suffer small abrasions during the deed that leave you peeing through pain instead of blissfully reminiscing over your latest session between the sheets.

You’re more likely to deal with small tears and painful peeing if you’ve passed that midlife milestone known as menopause. Hormonal changes brought on by menopause can thin the vaginal walls and the skin of your vulva, which on its own can make it hurt to pee—not to mention leave you more likely to develop small lacerations during sex.

In the future, a good lube can help you avoid this kind of burning while urinating. If this is the cause of your discomfort, you’ll have to wait a bit before having intercourse again, Dr. Richardson says. “You may have pain with urination until that area heals.”

Painful Urination

Painful urination (dysuria) is when you feel pain, discomfort, or burning when you urinate. The discomfort may be felt where urine passes out of the body. It may also be felt inside the body. This could include pain in the bladder, prostate, or behind the pubic bone. Sometimes it can be a sign of an infection or other health problem.

Path to improved health

There are several conditions that can cause painful urination. The most common is a urinary tract infection (UTI). The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of the body. Bacteria can build in the tract when waste isn’t removed or the bladder isn’t emptied correctly. This causes an infection. Swelling and irritation from the infection can make urination uncomfortable.

Sometimes painful urination can occur even if you don’t have a UTI. Other causes include:

  • Medicines. Certain medicines, like some used in cancer chemotherapy, may inflame the bladder.
  • Something pressing against the bladder. This could be an ovarian cyst or a kidney stone stuck near the entrance to the bladder.
  • Vaginal infection or irritation.
  • Sensitivity to chemicals in products. Douches, vaginal lubricants, soaps, scented toilet paper, or contraceptive foams or sponges may contain chemicals that cause irritation.
  • Sexually transmitted infections. Gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes can cause urination to be painful for some people.
  • Prostate infection.

Things to consider

Sometimes painful urination comes and goes on its own. Other times it is the sign of a problem. If you have any of the following symptoms along with painful urination, call your doctor:

  • Drainage or discharge from your penis or vagina.
  • Blood in the urine.
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine.
  • Fever.
  • Pain that lasts more than 1 day.
  • Pain in your back or side (flank pain).

Also call your doctor if you are pregnant and are experiencing painful urination.

Painful urination can be a symptom of a more serious problem. Be sure to tell your doctor:

  • About your symptoms and how long you’ve had them.
  • About any medical conditions you have, such as diabetes mellitus or AIDS. These conditions could affect your body’s response to infection.
  • About any known abnormality in your urinary tract.
  • If you are or might be pregnant.
  • If you’ve had any procedures or surgeries on your urinary tract.
  • If you were recently hospitalized (less than 1 month ago) or stayed in a nursing home.

If your doctor thinks you have a UTI, he or she will do a urinalysis. This tests your urine to look for infection. He or she may also order an ultrasound of your kidneys or bladder. This can help find sources of pain, including kidney stones.

Your doctor might think your pain is from vaginal inflammation. If so, he or she may wipe the lining of your vagina with a swab to collect mucus. The mucus will be looked at under a microscope. This will test for yeast or other organisms. Your doctor might think your pain is from an infection in your urethra. He or she may swab it to test for bacteria. If an infection can’t be found, they may suggest other tests.

Questions to ask your doctor

  • What is causing my discomfort?
  • Is it a UTI or other infection?
  • What is the treatment?
  • Are there any side effects to the treatment?
  • How soon will my symptoms get better?

About the author

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *